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FROM THK LIBRARY OF 

professor Karl fjeinrid? Hau 

or THK Univbrsity or Hkidklbero 

PRESENTED TO THE 
UNIVERSITY OF Mi C H I Q A N 

BY 

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or Dbtroit 

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AGRICULTURE 



OP 



THE UNITED STATES 



IX 



I860: 




COMPILED FROM THE ORIGINAL RETURNS 



OP 



THE EIGHTH CENSUS, 



UNDER THE 



DIRECTION OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR, 



By JOSEPH C. G. KENNEDY, 

STIPiSRINTBNDEVT OF CENSUS. 



WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 

1864. 



r » 



PREFACE. 






The importance of agriculture as a recourse for wealth, and as supplying the means of sub- 
sistence to all classes of community, is so well understood, and its relation to manufactures, so many 
of the products whereof it consumes, and which it supplies with so many of its most important 
elements, is so generally appreciated, as to render superfluous any argument to prove its value. It is 
an interest which, better than any other, may be expected to flourish as manufactures and the arts 
prosper, and it is of more importance to those interested in its advancement to understand its progress 
from time to time than to secure any special legislative acts with the view to stimulate its productions. 
Agriculture will prosper in proportion to the progress of population, and its employment in other 
productive pursuits. In the early history of all countries prior to the period when manufactures 
flourish, and the arts are cherished, foreign demand is relied on for the surplus products of the earth, 
and the ease with which they are supplied enables the producer to incur the cost of their transportation 
to market to procure certain necessaries and luxuries in exchange; but as a country becomes peopled, 
the relation of the producer to a foreign market insensibly becomes less, until at last it ceases, except 
upon peculiar emergency, or for articles restricted to climate With an intelligent people, where land 
is abundant, the direct application of laws is of but little consequence in invigorating a pursuit which 
will be prosecuted with greater activity only with the ratio of increased home consumption, as foreign 
demand, vnth the exception of that for strictly climatic productions, is too precarious to justify any 
great expenditure of labor and means solely with a view to exportation; and that country of any great 
extent which never fails to produce a full supply of the necessaries of life for the wants of its own 
population, will be sure of ability to spare whatever may be necessary to fill any casual extraordinary 
demand abroad. Many persons are impressed with the belief that it is in the power of the govern- 
ment to promote the interests of the farmer, and that great and direct efforts should be put forth by 
the state to advance the science of husbandry. In our opinion, however, the surest way in which the 
power of the government can effectually promote agriculture, is by a steady and consistent policy 
adapted to encourage the arts and give confidence to the stability of our manufactures ; population will 
then rapidly increase, commerce be promoted, internal improvements multiply, and the power of the 
state will augment as a natural consequence. Political laws will not modify climate, change the 
nature of plants, nor fertilize land ; they may occasion the distribution of cotton-seeds north and west, 
but cannot insure the growth of cotton north of thirty-eight degrees, while private enterprise produces 
8,000,000 pounds of tobacco in Connecticut, and will produce it wherever the conditions are favorable. 
The enlightened vnsdom of the world, if applied directly to the improvement of agriculture, would 
not be productive of any sensible increase of crops, while any contingency tending to a greater con- 
sumption of the earth's products would be certain to stimulate the efforts of the husbandman, and 
insure enlarged production. That which renders the pursuit of agriculture honorable and remunerative, 



J 



iv PREFACE. 

and therefore attractive and popular, is a certain home market; and wherever such exists there prevails 
a better system of culture, a more refined population, higher energy, a better moralitj', and in all things 
a happier condition both for the permanent welfare of the people and good of the state. It is under 
such circumstances that the merit and adaptation of every new plant deemed useful for food, or in the 
arts, will not only be cheerfully and intelligently tested, but its value will be made available. Under 
such circumstances the crops seldom fail, nor do the lands grow poor; the people are not addicted to 
efforts in short roads to fortune by impositions of marvellous productions at fabulous prices, and it is 
but seldom they are the victims of such. They never find abundant crops ruinous, nor realize the 
fertility of their fields only with chagrin. Home demand for many products stimulates variety in 
cultivation, and increases the capacity of the soil, and as in this country scarcity seldom attends more 
than one staple production in a season, and then only to a limited extent, the nation is protected from 
all danger of want or famine so paralyzing to every interest, and so much feared in countries of more 
dense population, and of smaller area. The state or kingdom, therefore, which pursues a policy best 
adapted to consume as food, or in manufactures, the products of the soil, confers the greatest possible 
benefit, not only on that portion of its people engaged in agriculture, but upon all classes of population; 
and the most enlightened farmers only desire that the general government abstain from all legislation 
tending to make precarious a sure remunerative demand for its products, and observation proves that 
those who depend much for direct aid from government are not of that numerous class in our country 
who by their industry, energy, and success, present noble examples for imitation, and elevate and 
distinguish the pursuit of husbandry. There is not anything but confidence in certain adequate 
remuneration that will insure heavy crops of grain and grass, choice breeds of live-stock, produce good 
fruits, good wine, and develop an improved agricultural literature, and without such inducement we 
would no sooner expect the farmer to raise supplies of either, if the government should devote all its 
revenues to the free distribution of seeds and plants, than we would expect the mechanic arts to 
flourish without a demand for their products, should the government distribute gratuitously the tools of 
trade ; and there rests no more obligation upon the state to legislate specially for the one interest 
than for the other. By the anomalous policy at present pursued to promote agriculture, the govern- 
ment is sure to incur a large outlay of funds, often resulting in loss of time and disappointment to 
individuals, and it is an inevitable consequence of failure to equal cherished expectations, to perceive 
recourse to some novel fallacious expedients to blunt the edge of disappointment, or raise new hopes — 
at the same time charging iniquity or folly upon former administrators, rather than admit the impracti- 
cability of the resort and confess its failure. It was a remark of BuflTon, that in "agriculture, as in all 
other arts, the model which performs best in small, oftentimes will not execute in great;" but our 
people have been too much tempted by highly colored representations, to build hopes on something 
new, which, although procured at much outlay, has not so much as been previously tested as to its 
adaption to our climate or soil by the most limited trial. 

That we might advantageously imitate the example of other countries in maintaining public 
parks and gardens, where all the known useful and ornamental plants of the world should be cultivated 
under proper direction^ coupled with facilities for instruction, no intelligent man will question; but that 
would be quite different from a system encouraged and practised to the prejudice of that enterprise, 
which would effectually promote the public interests by supplying everything demanded by the spirit 
of improvement, both useful and ornamental. One half the amount heretofore fruitlessly expended for 
the promotion of agriculture could be made to support an institution embracing the practical, orna- 



PREFACE. V 

mental, and instructive, which through succeeding time would promote the interests of the agricultural 
community, improve the tastes, and enlarge the knowledge of all. The useful and ornamental 
character of trees and plants once illustrated by example,' the enterprise of our own farmers, gardeners, 
and seedsmen will make avail of their advantages, as those interested in the mechanic arts do from 
useful mechanical inventions, and do so at their own charge. With such an organization a serial 
publication might be advantageously connected, to give the results of its experience, and make record 
of the current inventions and improvements in agricultural implements and machinery, at home and 
abroad, which should be conducted with sufficient ability to command respect, and integrity to inspire 
confidence in its representations. It may appear very easy to pursue a practice involving in its 
administration no demand for enlarged views, or scientific attainments, but time will demonstrate that 
the utility of such a procedure will not be found commensurate with its expense. If any differ from 
us in these opinions, we are inclined to believe they realize but little of the disappointed hopes and 
misapplied labor of thousands, and form their conclusions from results which should naturally follow 
the vast expenditures so lavishly made by our government in behalf of agriculture, and the cheering 
promises which have induced them, rather than from clearly ascertained beneficial results in any 
degree comparable with their cost. It is obligatory upon the state, and beneficial to all, to present 
periodical exhibits of our various productions, because this can only be done by the state, and this is 
especially necessary in a country where there exists such a boundless expanse of unoccupied territory 
adapted to agriculture, mining, and manufactures, which may be made available in increasing our power 
and wealth as rapidly as may be consistent with healthy progress. When we shall have more nearly 
attained to the conditions of some older nations, where production and consumption are so nicely 
balanced that the slightest failure in any one staple crop would endanger the security and happiness of 
the people, or stability of the state, the direct active co-operation of the government with the people 
may become judicious; but happily for us, such a contingency is far distant, as, apart from the general 
spirit of inquiry and enterprise of our people, it will be long before population becomes redundant, 
and the conditions of our climate are such that what may produce failure in one crop promotes the 
growth of others. 

With us but few of the prejudices have to be overcome which in older countries attach to the use 
of improved agricultural implements, and to a system of culture obsolete where intelligence prevails. 
Here we have no dull, lethargic confidence in the perfection of anything connected with agriculture, 
because we cannot move without realizing the rapid, ever-varying improvement, such as must convince 
even a man blind from his youth that nearly all the operations of the farm are conducted in a manner 
different from what they were formerly. 

It has become the wise policy of the general government to take a periodical account of the 
productions of agriculture, as well for the instruction of the people as for the information of the state, 
and it is upon this "account" that all estimates of the productions of subsequent years are based, so 
that really all we know of our annual productions from one decade to another, is deduced from the 
decennial returns of the census. While such investigations are not of recent origin, it is believed that 
we have entered into more general details than have other nations, of whom comparatively few have 
found it practicable to obtain the results, while lamenting their want. The object of the present volume 
is to represent the agricultural productions of our country for the year ending on the 1st of June, 1860, 
and the live stock on the day mentioned. In presenting these results, we shall at the same time repre- 
sent the growth and progress of some interests, and the proper method of culture as to others, in the 



>Hi PREFACE. 

hope of being able to render the volume more useful and instructive to the agricultural community, and 
interesting to the general reader. It is our intention to be historical and practical, rather than theoretical, 
and while those partial to startling and visionary suggestions may deem the commentary wanting in 
interest, the intelligent farmer will, we trust, acquire instruction from the perusal of the text, as well as 
derive advantage in the study of the figures. To be enabled to perform our duty more acceptably, we 
have availed ourselves of the opinions and agricultural experience of others, whose opinions have been 
verified by the success with which their professions have been attended. Our thanks are due to B. P. 
Johnson, of Albany, for counsel cheerfully accorded when a sense of incompetence created doubts of 
our correctness; to Joseph Halris, of Rochester, New York, and to Edward D. Mansfield, of Ohio, for 
much general information on the subject of agriculture and the eifects of internal improvements; and 
to j^. F. Ballantyne , of Chicago, for information relative to that prodigious interest of the country, the 
grain trade. For the article on the vine and wine-making, we are indebted to Robert Buchanan, of 
Cincinnati, Ohio, a gentleman not more distinguished for his successful cultivation of the grape than 
for his investigating mind and general attainments. To William Renick, of Pickaway county, in the 
same State, we are under obligations for the facts connected with the past history of the cattle trade 
of the west with the east, and the driving system, formerly of such vast importance to the intermediate 
regions, but which will soon be forgotten, the railways now supplying a more easy and profitable 
means of transfer. As our country confers no honors for distinguished services in the peaceful walks 
of life, as well for history as from a sense of justice, we make frequent allusions to individuals in the 
body of these volumes, and take pleasure in associating with their beneficent works the names of men 
who have proved useful to the country, as a duty to them, and an incentive to others. Charlatans enjoy 
and outlive their honors, while the reputation of real benefactors continues a rich inheritance for their 
children. Regretting our inability to present a more complete commentary on the figures, we believe 
the volume will prove useful as a statistical compilation, and more generally interesting to the agricul- 
turist than have any of its predecessors. The duties of the Census Bureau involve so wide a range of 
practical and scientific inquiry as to preclude claim to anything approximating perfection in the illus- 
tration of its multifarious details, and we only ask the concession of having performed a laborious duty 
with an earnest intent to develop impartially the material interests of the country. 



INTRODUCTION. 



TABLE No. 1. 
Anrc9 of land in Jarms, and cash value. 



STATES. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Connecticut 

"Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

liowsiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

New Hampshire. 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina...! 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Total States 

TERRITORIES. 

District of Columbia 

Dakota 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Mexico 

Utah 

Washington 

• 

Total Territories 

Aggregate 



IMPROVED. 



Acres, 

6, 385, 724 
1, 983, 313 
2, 4G8, 034 
1,830,807 

637,065 

654,213 

8, 062, 758 

13, 096, 374 

8,242,183 

3, 792, 792 

405,468 
7,644,208 
2, 707, 108 
2,704,133 
3, 002, 267 
2, 155. 512 
3, 476, 296 

556,250 
5, 005, 755 
6, 246, 871 
2, 367, 034 
1,944,441 
14, 358, 403 
6,517,284 
12, 625, 394 

896, 414 
10,463,296 

335,128 
4, 572, 060 
6, 795, 337 
2, 650, 781 
2,823,157 
11,437,821 
3, 746, 107 



162, 649, 848 



17, 474 

2,115 

118,789 

14,132 
149, 274 

77, 219 

81,869 



460,872 



163,110,720 



UNIMPROVED. 



Acres. 

12, 718, 821 

7, 590, 393 

6, 262, 000 

673,457 

367,230 

2,266,015 

18, 587, 732 
7, 815, 615 
8, 146, 109 
6,277,115 
1,372,932 

11,519,053 
6,591,468 
3,023,538 
1,833,304 
1,183,212 
3,554,538 
2, 155, 718 

10, 773, 929 

13, 737, 939 
1, 377, 501 
1,039,084 
6, 616, 555 

17, 245, 685 

7,846,747 

1,164,125 

6, 548, 844 

186,096 

11,623,859 

13, 873, 828 

22, 693, 247 
1,451,257 

19, 679, 215 
4, 147, 420 



241,943,671 



16,789 

24,333 
512, 425 

41,986 
1,265,635 

12,692 
284,287 



2, 158, 147 



244,101,818 



CASH VALUE. 



(175, 824 

91,649 

48, 726 

90,830 

31, 426 

16,435 

157, 072 

408, 944 

356,712 

119,899 

12,258 

291,496 

204,789 

78,688 

145, 973 

123, 255 

160,836 

27,505 

190, 760 

230,632 

69,689 

180,250 

803,343 

143, 301 

678, 132 

15,200 

662,050 

19,550 

139, 652 

271,358 

88,101 

94,289 

371,761 

131,117 



622 

773 

804 

005 

357 

727 

803 

033 

175 

547 

239 

955 

662 

525 

677 

948 

495 

922 

367 

126 

761 

338 

593 

065. 

991 

593 

707 

553 

508 

985 

320 

045 

661 

1(54 



6,631,520,046 



2,989,267 
96,445 
3, 878, 326 
302,340 
2, 707, 386 
1,333,355 
2, 217, 842 



13,524,961 



6,645,045,007 



I 



viii - INTRODUCTION. 



AGRICULTURE IN THE UNITED STATES. 

By the foregoing table it will be perceived that, in 1860, the agricultural area of the country 
embraced 163,110,720 acres of Improved Land, and 244,101,818 acres of Land Unimproved. In 
other words, for every two acres of improved land there are three acres of land connected therewith 
not yet under cultivation; while the gross aggregate of uncultivated territory, fertile and waste, 
swells to 1,466,969,862 acres. 

This fact gives color to the agriculture of the country. Land is abundant and cheap, while 
labor is scarce and dear. Even in the older-settled States there is much land that can be purchased 
at extremely low rates ; and, by a recent act of Congress known as the Free Homestead law, every 
citizen of the United States, or any foreigner who shall declare his intention of becoming a citizen, 
can have a farm of 160 acres without charge. As good land as any in the world is offered to actual 
settlers on these easy terms. 

Under such circumstances it is evident that the intensive system of agriculture which is practiced 
in some older and more densely populated countries, where labor is abundant and the land mostly 
under cultivation, cannot, as a general rule, be profitably adopted at present in this country. It has 
been said that American agriculture is half a century behind that of Great Britain. In one sense this 
is, perhaps, true. Our land is not as thoroughly under-drained, manured, and cultivated as that of 
England, Scotland, or Belgium ; but we can, and do now, produce a bushel of wheat at much less cost 
than the most scientific farmer of England can by the best approved method of cultivation, even if he 
paid nothing for the use of his land. 

We do not contend for a superficial system of agriculture. All that we ask is, that those who 
censure our farmers for not cultivating and enriching their land more thoroughly, should take into 
consideration the circumstances which have surrounded us. High farming involves high prices. The 
system of cultivation and manuring which is profitable in Great Britain would not be remunerative in 
the State of New York, because labor is higher and produce lower ; and the system which is profit- 
able in New York might not be advantageous in Iowa. An artificial manure that could be profitably 
used on wheat which brings $2 per bushel, might prove a very unprofitable application where wheat 
is worth only $1 50 or $1 per bushel. In the State of New York, where land is comparatively high 
and prices good, there are many instances where $20 to $30 per acre have been expended in under- 
draining, with great profit. But it does not follow that the same expenditure would be advisable in a 
section where the best of land can be purchased in fee simple for $10 per acre. The same is true of 
all other improved processes of agriculture. Their adoption is simply a question of profit and loss. 
Where land is cheap and rich, it will not pay to expend much labor and money in making or in 
purchasing manure. 

But, it may be asked, " Will not the practice of raising crops without manure impoverish the 
land ?" Certainly it will ; but our hardy pioneers, having enjoyed the cream of the soil as a reward 
of their enterprise, go into a yet newer country, cut down the original forests, clear up the land, and 
raise all the grain they can. The money thus obtained is expended in the construction of roads, 
houses, barns, schoolhouses, churches, and colleges. Smiling villages and populous cities spring up, 
and in a few years the comforts, convenience, and even luxury of civilization are enjoyed — all the 
result of wealth which has been dug from the soil. Admitting that after all this is effected, the land 
is not so rich as when first cleared, and that more labor has to be expended in its cultivation, never- 
theless much good has been accomplished. The fact is, this question of impoverishing the soil is not 
clearly understood. Much has been written on this subject, both in Europe and America; and a 
leading Enghsh agricultural journal, the Mark Lane Express, says : " It has long been our opinion that 
the grain-exporting power of the United States was likely rather to diminish than to increase under the 



INTRODUCTION. 



IS 



ordinary circumstances of the country. This opinion was derived from the statistical notices of the 
census and of the Patent Office, and confirmed by the statements of Jay, Wells, and other American 
writers on the subject. These authorities have warned the agriculturists that if an alteration did not 
take place in the mode of cultivation, the United States would, in a few years, require a large importa- 
tion of wheat, instead of being able to export to Europe." 

This was written in 18G1. Since then we have exported more grain to Europe than during any 
former period. The reason assigned for the opinion thus expressed, that the United States would 
soon become a wheat-importing instead of a wheat-exporting country, is " Ihe scourging and exhaustive 
system of husbandry now practiced." Tliere is some truth in these remarks. Our system of cultiva- 
tion has been, and is now to some extent, a scourging and an exhaustive one. // takes more from the 
soil than it returns ; and the time will come, as it already has in some sections, when wheat cannot be 
as easily or as cheaply raised as it was when the country iwas new. But it does not at all follow from 
this that the United States will cease to grow all the wheat it requires. We will have to manure our 
land and cultivate it better ; but this is nothing more than has been experienced in other countries. 
We shall farm better as soon as such improvement is perceived to be profitable and necessary. 

But what are we to understand by an "exhausted soil?" No phrace is more common in agricul- 
tural literature, and none more vague and indefinite. John Bennett Lawes, than whom there is no 
higher authority, speaking of his field on which his celebrated wheat experiments were made, says, it 
was purposely " exhausted'* before the commencement of the experiments, and in another of his able 
papers in the Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society y he says: "All the experimental fields were 
selected when they were in a state of agricultural exhaustion." And he tells us what he understands 
by the term. He says : " The wheat-field after having been manured in the usual way for turnips at 
the commencement of the previous rotation, had then grown barley, peas, wheat, and oats, without 
any further manuring, so that when taken for experiment in 1844, it was, as a grain- producer, con- 
siderably more exhausted than would ordinarily be the case." 

Here we have the highest English agricultural authority speaking of land as "exhausted" after 
having grown four crops without manure, the previous crop having been manured ; and if this is all 
that is meant by exhaustion of the soil, we must admit that much of the cultivated land in the older 
parts of the United States has been exhausted. But one plat in Mr. Lawes's wheat-field has produced 
a crop of wheat every year since 1844, averaging about fifteen bushels per acre, and this without one 
particle of manure. It is clear, therefore, that the land itself was not exhausted, and in speaking of 
this as an agriculturally exhausted soil, Mr. Lawes simply intended to say that the manure which had 
previously been used was exhausted. 

In this sense our farmers are rapidly exhausting their soil. The English farmer manures his 
land, grows three or four grain crops, and .then considers his land exhausted. The American farmer 
cuts down the forest, burns more or less of the timber on the land, and scatters the ashes on the 
surface, then turns up the soil as best he may among the stumps, sows his grain and gets good crops. 
Why \ Because the land has been Jieavily manured by nature. The trees and underwood have through 
their deep roots been drawing up mineral matter frorti the earth, and the leaves absorb carbonic acid 
and ammonia from the atmosphere. 

Shall he avail himself of this manure, or shall he let it lie dormant \ What would be said of the 
farmer who should give his land a heavy coat of manure and then neglect to raise crops? If it will 
produce good wheat and other cereals that command the ready cash, is he to be accused of adopting a 
'•scourging and exhaustive system of agriculture" for growing these crops? And yet this is what the 
American farmer has done. His land was rich, but he was poor and raised those crops which afforded 
the most immediate profit. We would not be understood as advocating the continued growth of grain 
crops without manure; our only object is to show the erroneous conclusions to which a misuse of 
statistical facts may lead, and to vindicate the American farmers from the charge so frequently pre-, 
ferred against them, of recldessly exhausting their soil. We think they have simply exhausted the 
manure which nature has spread upon their recently cleared fields, and that in doing so to a prudent 
degree, they were not unwise. 

2 



X INTRODUCTION. 

But when this natural manure begins to fail, we must manure the land and vary our system of 
agriculture. That any of our so-called exhausted land can be speedily restored to its original fertility, 
we have abundant evidence. All that is necessary, is to cultivate the soil more thoroughly, under-drain 
where it is wet, sow less grain and more clover and grass, keep more stock, and make more and richer 
manure, and the farmer is wise who makes the transition from natural to artificial fertility easy and 
gradual, so as to avoid all sterility. 

American agriculture is in a transition state. In the older-settled sections of the country there is 
much land that has been exhausted of its original fertility. Here the old system of farming, which 
was simply to raise all the grain that the land would produce, is no longer profitable. But yet some 
farmers, with that aversion to change for which they are everywhere proverbial, are slow to adopt an 
intelligent system of rotation and manuring, and cling to their old ways. 

One of the ablest agricultural writers of England remarked some time since, that his only hope 
of seeing any great improvement in agriculture lay in the rising generation. This remark is quite as 
applicable to American as to English agriculture. We must look to the intelligent young men of our 
country for any great improvement in its agriculture, and it is a matter on which we may well con- 
gratulate ourselves, that even during the present terrible struggle, agricultural education is not neglected. 
We have two agricultural colleges in active operation, and others in process of organization. Our 
young men are beginning to realize that agriculture is worthy their highest ambition, and that in no 
other pursuit will intelligent labor meet with a surer reward. 



Farming itnpleTnefUs and machinery in use, value of. 



STATES. 


i8Ga 


STATES. 


186a 


Alabama ....^ 


t7, 433, 178 
4,175,326 
2,558,506 
2, 339, 481 
817,883 
900,669 
6,844,387 

17,235,472 

10,457,897 

5, 327, 033 

727,094 

7, 474, 573 

18,648,225 
3,296,327 
4,010,529 
3,894,998 
5, 819, 832 
1, 018, 183 
8,826,512 
8,711,508 
2, 683, 012 
5,746,567 

29,166,695 
5,873,942 

17,538,832 
952,313 

22,442,842 


Rhode Island 


$586,791 


Arkansas 


Sonth Cnrolina 


6, 151, 657 
8,465,792 
6, 259, 452 
3,665,955 
9,392,296 
5,758,847 


California ..--. 


Tennessee. . .................. 


Connecticut 


Texas 


Delaware ..................... 


Vermont ....... ...... 


Florida 


Virii'inia ............... _^ 


G^riria....... 


Wisconsin .-_.- . .. 


Illinois 


T*Afo1 flinfAM 


Tn^iAnn. 




XXlUittUo ....... .... .... .... .... 

Iowa 


245,205,206 




TEBBTTOBIES. 

District of Columbia 


I^ATitnrlrv 




Tionisiana ^ ,,,. .... 




Maine 




TM^RTvl A.nd 


54,408 


1kf AAB A/*flTI fl A^ftfl 


Dakota 


15, 574 


IfichiffAn 


Nebraska 


205,664 


Itf inncMiAtA 


Nevada 


11,061 


IM^iMioAi nni 


New Mexico 


192, 917 


JMX lOOloPiyy 1 ...... ...... ..a. .... 


Utah 


242,889 


JIUBoOliri ...... ...... ...... .... 

Yfivnr TTftmnAliink 


Washinffton 


190,402 


New Jersey 


Total Territories 




New York 




North Carolina 


912,935 


Ohio. 


Amnecrate ............... 








Oroffon ..... .................. 




■V*» V|^«r>a ..... a. ....... .....a... 

P^nnMjlyania 


$246, 118, 141 




**|io*''B ....••• .... .... 



INTRODUCTION. 



X4 



Statistics of agricultural implements produced in the United States during the year ending June 1, 1860. 





No. of estah- 
lishments. 


Capital 
employed. 


Raw material, 
value of. 


Nnmber of hands. 


Cost of labor. 


Value of pro- 
duct. 


Value of pro- 




Male. 


Female. 


duct m 1650. 


Ko w Tlnorland States. ••«••• •••••• 


213 
678 
840 
241 
10 


$1,021,800 

3,972,116 

5,807,358 

664,265 

11,700 


$749,530 

2,026,233 

2,526,578 

310,569 

12, 259 


1,577 
5,113 
7,006 
1,095 
19 


1 

1 


$534,837 

1,634,496 

2,529,809 

356,232 

15,300 


$1,934,924 

5,791,224 

8,707,194 

1,018,913 

35,705 


$1, 662, 426 


Middle States 


2,471,806 


\Vn«(l>m StfliAM . ...... 


1,923,927 


f>U)iithem States ...... .......... 


2 


784,452 


P#u«ific» StAt^ . ......... 










Total...., 


1,982 


11,477,239 


5, 625, 169 


14, 810 


4 


5, 070, 674 


17, 437, 960 


6,842,611 


Rovthes •. 


22 
53 
57 


667,025 
961,000 
758,825 


214, 037 
865,068 

287,488 


474 

1,183 

614 




174, 948 
413,540 
266,168 


552,753 
1,635,676 
1,152,315 




DVJr liUVB •.... .... .... .... ...... 

Shovels, spades, hoes, and forks*. 


1 
2 






• 




Total 


132 


2, 386, 850 


1,366,593 


2,271 


3 


854,656 


3,340,744 








Agirrftgaifl- ...... ..... 


2,114 


13,864,069 


6,991,762 


17,081 


7 


5,925,330 


20,828,704 




*H5o"^^^ ........ 


1 






* Value of, not lepiweoted in 1850. 









AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 



Pbobablt no exhibition of our national statistics is more important or satisfactory, than the fore- 
going tables showing the great increase and present extent of the construction and employment of 
agricultural implements and machinery. 

The high price of labor has stimulated mechanical invention. In no other country are there so 
many cheap and efficient implements and machines for facilitating the labors of the farm. In older 
and richer countries we find more expensive machinery, but, as a general rule, it is too complicated and 
cumbersome for our use. W9 have been thrown on our own resources, and have no reason to regret it. 

Whatever augments the productive capacities of the soil, or increases the profits of labor and 
capital employed on so large a scale, either in the first production or the subsequent handling of crops, 
becomes a practical element in the general prosperity. The vast power resident in machinery, even 
the more simple applications of the mechanical powers, with their modern perfection of detail, gives 
this creative force, which may be increased almost beyond computation by the use of steam as a prime 
mover. Thus, every machine or tool which enables one fiirm-hand to do the work of two, cheapens 
the product of his labor to every consumer, and relieves one in every two of the population from the 
duty of providing subsistence, enabling him to engage in other pursuits, either laborious, literary, pro- 
fessional or scientific, practically duplicating at the same time the active capital or the purchasing 
power of the producer, thus enhancing the comfort of all and stimulating the common enterprise. 

When the utility of labor-saving appliances in agriculture shall come to be fully apprehended, and 
made generally available in the clearing, draining, and tilling of the soil ; in the planting, irrigating, 
cultivating and harvesting of crops, and in their speedy preparation for market, we may regard the 
occurrence of famine, either from deficiency of labor, as in time of war, or from the contingencies of 
soil and climate, as practically impossible. Already has the use of improved implements, aided by 
scientific and practical knowledge in all the processes of the farm, resulted — like the use of machinery 
in other departments of industry — in such a diversification and increase of the forms of labor, and 
such a cheapening of its products under ordinary circumstances, that we rarely hear of the unreasoning 
and jealous violence of farm laborers, who in England, a generation since, wantonly destrojied all the 
agricultural machinery of a neighborhood, even to the common drills, in the mistaken opinion that its 



xii INTRODUCTION. 

us« was an infringement of their rights to labor. Its palpable advantages has disarmed the traditionary 
prejudice of the husbandman himself, who is fast becoming as progressive as his neighbor. It has 
lifted much of the drudgery from the shoulders of the country-bred youth, who no longer loses his 
clastic step and suppleness of limb in the moil of the farm, which he once instinctively shunned as 
degrading, while he sought the lighter and more or less intellectual pursuits of the city. It has thus 
tended to elevate the pursuit of agriculture to its proper position in the social scale, as one of dignity 
and independence, and not one of mere physical toil, to be shared in common with the brute. 

It is in the United States especially, where vast areas of improvable and fertile lands invite the 
labor of a sparse population, that agricultural machinery is capable of effecting its greatest triumphs. 
Far back in our colonial days the stream of emigration bore the young and adventurous of the Atlantic 
settlements toward the richer bottoms and prairies of the west. A gradual deterioration of the fertility 
of the soil of the older States from constant cropping, and the consequent increased labor required 
with the imperfect implements formerly in use, were sufficient to maintain the yearly exodus. Columns 
of hardy laborers from Europe have annually sought our shores, and for the most part have as promptly 
filed off in the same direction in quest of cheap farms, or in the more alluring search for the precious 
metals. As a consequence, civilization smiles upon the shores of cither ocean, and looks down from 
the mountain summits which separate them. A prosperous and expanding agriculture, with most of 
the arts which it demands and fosters, has been rapidly extended over a territory of enormous breadth 
and fertility, which lacks only the labor of adequate cultivation to develope its vast resources in a wealth 
of cereal production as yet scarcely imagined. The very causes, however, which have opened up this 
territory to agriculture and the arts have produced and maintained a continued scarcity of labor, and 
kept its wages at a permanently high price. It is this enormous area of farm lands, and this great 
dearth of manual labor throughout the Union, that our inventors and mechanics have from an early 
period been invited to supply with labor-saving contrivances. 

Fortunately the people of this country have not been slow to adopt the most efficient substitutes 
for animal power, and the inventive talent of the nation has found an ample and remunerating field for 
its exercise in originating and perfecting instruments adapted to all the wants of the farmer and planter. 
The great staple products of cotton, grain, and hay, have especially demanded the substitution of 
mechanical for muscular labor, and some of the happiest products of American skill have been the 
result. 

Scarcely less valuable in the aggregate, however, are the numerous minor inventions whereby the 
labors of the farm and the household have been saved. Implements of this kind make up a large 
portion of the stock in trade of the makers and venders of agricultural wares. This successful 
application of the mechanics of agriculture has happily supplemented the rapid displacement of a 
large amount of rural labor called off by the war, manufactures, and the mines, and has itself in turn 
been stimulated by the high prices of produce consequent upon increased demand both for home and 
foreign consumption. 

Evidence that this scarcity of labor in the United States has been a principal incitement to the 
invention and manufacture of agricultural itnplements is found in a late report of the Commissioner of 
Patents, who states that " the most striking fact connected with this class is the rapid incr^^ose of 
applications filed. Notwithstanding half a million of our agriculturists have been withdrawn from the 
farm to engage in military service, still the number of applications for patents on agricultural imple- 
ments, (exclusive of reapers, bee-hives, horse hay-forks, and horse hay-rakes,) has increased from three 
hundred and fifty in 18G1, to five hundred and two in 18G3."* The number of patented inventions 
belonging to the class of agriculture, previous to 1848, was 2,043, since which time the number has 
been vastly augmented. In the United States, as in Europe, the principal improvements in agricul- 
tural and horticultural implements have been made within the present century. As a branch of 
manufacture, this class of machinery has been wonderfully extended within the last ten or fifteen 

* Introductory report of CommlsBioDcr of Patents for 1863, page 21. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Xlll 



years, having received a great impetus from the exhibition in London in 1851 — where our own pro- 
gress in this respect created so much surprise among foreigners — and the several international fairs 
which have taken place since that time. Throughout Europe and America, until a comparatively recent 
date, the implements of the farm remained extremely rude, primitive, and inefficient in form. Atten- 
tion appears to have been first strongly awakened to the value of mechanical aids in farming about the 
period of the first introduction of agricultural societies. 

The Royal Society, established in England in 1660, encouraged improvements in agriculture. 
But in the transactions of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce, 
instituted in London in 1753, we trace a still more liberal promotion, and a general interest in agricul- 
tural progress. These societies prepared the way for the establishment of purely agricultural associa- 
tions. The first associated effort made in England to encourage agriculture by specific rewards was 
in the premiums annually offered by the Society of Arts after the year 1758, for experiments in hus- 
bandry, and for improved implements of the farm. The first agricultural society in Great Britain, the 
Society of Improvers in Scotland, established in 1723, encouraged improvements in tillage, and in 
farm implements, with such effect that ** more corn was grown yearly where corn never grew before 
than a sixth of all that the kingdom used to produce at any previous time."* About the same time 
Jethro Tull introduced — along with his system of deep tillage and thorough pulverization of the soil — 
the use of the horse-hoe, the drill, and other improved utensils, and became the greatest practical 
improver of agriculture in the last century. He even attempted an automatic threshing-machine, and 
incurred the usual charge of being a visionary innovator. The profit of drill husbandry was also 
demonstrated by John Wynn Baker, of Kildare. in Ireland, who in 1766 commenced a series of 
experiments with a view of systematizing agricultural knowledge by establishing fixed principles of 
rural economy, and showed by actual experiment that the saving effected by the drill and horse-hoe 
amounted in fifteen years to the fee-simple of all the tillage lands of the kingdom. He established as 
a part of his project a manufactory of farm implements, and issued a catalogue of seventy different 
machines and tools, all new to the agriculturist at that time. Agricultural machines were thenceforth 
made with more regard to scientific principles. 

The earliest agricultural associations in the United States were established in 1785, in South 
Carolina and Pennsylvania In the first- mentioned State, indeed, nearly a century before, the assembly 
passed " an act for the better encouragement of the making of engines for the propagating the staples 
of the colony," which was followed by legislative encouragement to various individuals who improved 
the machines for pounding and cleaning rice. In 1784 the assembly enacted a regular patent and 
copyright law, giving to the authors of books and the inventors of useful machinery the exclusive 
benefit of their productions for fourteen years. The Philadelphia Society for Promoting Agriculture, 
established in March, 1785, and after a period of inaction revived and incorporated in 1809, through 
the exertions of the Hon. Richard Peters, awakened much attention to the subject of improved imple- 
ments and machinery, by means of a judicious system of premiums, and of practical essays. In July, 
1809, Mr. Peters proposed to the society "a plan for establishing a manufactory of agricultural instru- 
ments, and a warehouse and repository for receiving and vending them." In that paper he states that 
no manufactory of agricultural implements in general existed in the United States, although the demand 
was prodigiously great. The proposed manufactory was to produce, under the patronage of the 
society, every implement of husbandry, both common and extraordinary, in use at home or abroad, if 
approved on trial ; none to be sold without inspection and the stamp of the society's agent. His plan 
also embraced a collection of models in the manner of the Conservatory of Arts and Trades, established 
at Paris a few years before. The Massachusetts Society for Promoting Agriculture, incorporated in 
1792, labored successfully to promote like improvements. The first statistics of the national industry 
collected in the following year embraced one small manufactory of hand-rakes, in Berkshire county, 
Massachusetts, which made annually 1,100 rakes, valued at $1,870. The census of 1820 gave very 

o Philpd' History of Prog reus io Great BritAin. 



xiv INTRODUCTION. 

meagre information respecting this branch of production. Several small manufactories of ploughs, 
scythes, axes, shovels, hoes, &c., existed in different States, and one of patent steel pitchforks, in New 
Haven, Connecticut, turned out about $5,000 worth annually. During the next thirty years the busi- 
ness increased more rapidly, the traditionary prejudices of farmers gradually giving way before the 
established utility of labor-saving appliances in the cultivation of the vast domain of our national 
agriculture. The form and finish of ordinary farm tools were much improved, and a few grand inven- 
tions were brought forward. In 1833 rice was successfully threshed out in the southern States by 
animal and steam power. The harvesting of grain by machinery, which had been several times essayed 
at an earlier period, was the same year attempted at Cincinnati, where the late Obed Hussey cradled 
wheat as fast as eight persons could bind it. 

State and county agricultural societies were, during the same time, organized in nearly every section 
of the Union where they did not already exist. The system of annual fairs and exhibitions of farm 
products and machinery instituted by them, and encouraged by public awards of premiums, powerfully 
stimulated invention, and made our farmers familiar with the best forms of agricultural implements in 
use at home or abroad. Of like influence, but wider scope, was the American Institute in New York, 
which has made its influence felt in every department of industry. 

The exhibition of the industry of all nations held in London in the year 1851 exerted a vast 
influence upon the progress of ideas on the subject of mechanical agriculture, as it did upon all other 
branches of art. The contrasts there presented between the highest results of modern skill and 
ingenuity exercised upon the implements of husbandry, and the rude models of the plough and other 
tools to be seen in the Indian department, little improved since the days of the Hebrew prophets, 
forcibly illustrated the agency of the mechanic and the engineer in the art of subduing nature to the 
will and fiervice of mankind. 

Although the number of implements of each kind exhibited by the United States on that occasion 
was small, the variety shown was considerable. The general excellence of American ploughs, reapers, 
churns, scythes, axes, forks and other implements, was acknowledged by the public admission of 
disinterested judges from all parts of the world, and the particular merits of many by the medals 
awarded, and by the number of orders received at the time by the manufacturers. The triumph of 
the American reapers marked a new era in agriculture, and gave a strong impulse to the inventive 
genius of Europe and America. The emulation awakened among manufacturers by the London 
exhibition was still further stimulated by the Crystal Palace exhibition, which took place in New York 
in 1853-4, when more than one hundred American manufacturers competed for honorable distinction 
in this department of mechanics. 

The influence of these exhibitions of the collective ingenuity of the world upon our own country- 
men, in furnishing our mechanics with a standard of comparison by which to measure their own 
contributions to the world's progress with the most improved implements of the civilized world, and 
our agriculturists — already familiar with American instruments through our State and local fairs — with 
a view of the appliances of agriculture in other lands, can scarcely be overrated. 

Some of the results are to be seen in the tables before us. 

Credit is also due to the United States Agricultural Society for instituting a great national field 
trial of reapers, mowers, and other implements, held at Syracuse, New York, in 1857, for the purpose 
of testing practically the relative merits of difierent machines and rewarding special excellence. 

The magnitude of the interests involved in the successful production of a new labor-saving imple- 
ment for husbandry should alone prove a suflScient spur to inventors and manufacturers. A slight 
improvement in straw-cutters has enabled its inventor in a western tour of eight i months with a model 
to realize forty thousand dollars. Another has been known to sell a machine to thresh and clean grain, 
after fifteen mouths use, for sixty thousand dollars. The McCormick reaper is believed to have yielded 
its inventor annually a princely income. A single manufacturer has paid the legal representatives of a 



INTRODUCTION. . xv 

patentee $117,000 in a single year for the use of a patent-right on an agricultural machine which others 
were making at the same time by contract with the owner. 

, From an article upon agricultural implements, published in the annual report of the Department 
of Agriculture, by the Hon. M. L. Dunlap, of Illinois, we are pleased to see that invention in this 
branch has not been stationary during the war. Among the principal competitors for public favor in 
prairie farming, to which his remarl^s chiefly relate, are the rotary spader with horse-power, which 
promises to be more effective than the steam-plough with traction engines, the latter having thus far 
proved a failure in moist or cultivated soils; the steel-clipper plough, with polished cast-steel mold-board; 
the two-horse cultivator or plough ; the iron roller ; the hand sowing-machine ; reaping and mowing- 
machines, separate or uncombined ; the sulky, wire-tooth horse hay-rake ; the horse hay-fork or patent 
pitchfork ; the horse-power thresher with straw-carrier and bagging apparatus attached ; the drain- 
plough; the portable farm mill and the sorghum • mill. But the statistics of the eighth census will 
measure the public appreciation of these and other new productions of American skill, and their 
influence upon the rural economy of the nation. 

The cash value of farms under actual cultivation in the United States in 1850 was $3,271,575,426. 
Their value had risen in 1860 to $6,645,045,007, ah increase of 103 per cent, in ten years. The 
amount of capital invested in implements and machinery for their cultivation in 1860 was $246,118,141, 
having in t^n years increased $94,530,503, or more than sixty-three per cent. Thus, the fixed capital 
of the agriculturists in farms, and in farm tools and machinery, both increased in a ratio much more 
accelerated than that of the population, which during the same time augmented at the rate of only 
thirty-five and one half per centum. If we suppose the rural population to have increased in the same 
proportion with the whole, and the productiveness of the soil to have remained unchanged, we shall 
perceive that an immense increment of productive force accrued to the nation within ten years in the 
mechanical appliances of agriculture alone. Taking the aggregate number of acres of improved lands 
in the United States to be, in round numbers, one hundred and sixty-three millions, as shown by the 
returns, it would thus appear that the average value of farm implements and machinery for each farm 
of one hundred acres is only about $150, which is probably less than one third the sum that could be 
so invested with profit, at least in the older settled States. The greatest deficiency in this respect is 
found in New England, where it is only $1 34 per acre, probably due to the ruggedness of the country. 
In the middle States the value of machinery employed is $2 07 per acre ; in the western States $1 56, 
and in the southern $1 48 per acre. Notwithstanding the evidence, therefore, of an improvement in 
the quantity and quality of implements, and inferentially of a better system of farming, there is mani- 
festly room for further improvements in this respect, and ample encouragement to our agricultural 
machinists to supply the growing demand. 

The production of labor-saving machinery, as will be shown by the tables of manufactures, was 
still going on to the amount of $17,487,960 in 1860, which was likewise an increase of nearly 166 
per cent, over the value made in 1850, when it reached the sum of $6,842,611. This was exclusive 
of all articles made on the farm, which was formerly considerable, but is yearly decreasing as regular 
manufactories and depots for the sale of farm implements are multiplied, and their cost diminished. It 
also excludes cotton-gins, scythes, hoes, shovels, spades, forks, and some other articles of hardware, 
wagons, carts, and wheelbarrows, the value of which amounted to $11,796,941, and might appropriately 
be added to the above table. 

Of the total product in 1860, nearly two millions in value was made in New England, being an 
increase of about sixteen per cent, upon the returns of 1850. i 

The middle States increased their production from less than two and a quarter to upward of five 
and tnree-quarter millions, or 134.2 per cent. The great States of New York and Pennsylvania 
returned, the one 333, and the other 260 establishments devoted to this branch of manufacture, and 
the increase in their product was 172.7 and 85.5 per cent., respectively, over the business of 1860. 



xvi INTRODUCTION. 

In the western States the increase was most extraordinary, the value having augmented from 
$1,923,927 to $8,707,194, or 352.5 per cent. Their total production was nearly one-half that of the 
whc'le Union. Its increase alone was nearly thirty-nine per cent, of the whole, and nearly equalled 
the total manufacture of the United States in 1850. The States of Ohio and Illinois, together, manu- 
factured to a greater amount than any other two States in the Union, the value amounting in the former 
to §2,820,626, and in the latter to 82,379,302, and the increase to 405.5 and 212.2 per cent, respect- 
ively. Iowa increased its manufacture 1,208.6 and Kentucky 755.4 per cent, over the product of 1850. 

In the southern States the aggregate was but little over one million, and the rate of increase 
nearly thirty per cent. Virginia was the largest manufacturer, but in several there was a fulling off 
from the product of 1850, after excluding cotton-gins, &c., as before mentioned. 

The largest amount manufactured in any one county in 1860 was in Stark county, Ohio, in which 
fifteen establishments produced $900,480, the larger part of which consisted of mowers and reapers, 
and of threshing-machines and separators, in each of which three factories were employed. The next 
largest county production in this branch was in Cook county, Illinois, which made to the value of 
$529,000, chiefly in the city of Chicago. Of that sum, 8414,000 was the value of 4,131 reapers and 
mowers made by a single establishment, the largest in the country. Rensselaer and Cayuga counties* 
in New York, each produced upward of $400,000 worth of agricultural implements, and a single firm 
in Canton, Stark county, Ohio, made reapers, mowers, and threshers to the value of $399,000. 

From the New England States there is a considerable exportation of agricultural implements to 
the British provinces, the southern States, and other parts of the world. 

That the large rates of increase in this branch indicated by the foregoing figures are not due 
simply to the increase of population, is shown by the fact that in Illinois, whose rate of increase with 
so large a population is without a parallel, the increase in value of agricultural implements manu- 
factured in 1860, as compared with 1850, was 212 per cent., while the increase of population during 
the same period was only 101 per cent. In Ohio the population increased only 18.14 per cent, while 
its production of agricultural implements was augmented 417.6 per cent. 

We subjoin a summary of the progress of invention in relation to a few of the more important 
instruments of this class, having given in the preliminary report an account of the progress in 
threshing implements. 

The plough. — Could the history of this machine, the type and pioneer of all other implements of 
husbandry, be traced from its origin, it would probably be found that few agricultural utensils have 
undergone greater modifications, or been more slowly improved than the plough. Originally, nothing 
more than the rude branch of a tree, with its cleft and curved end sharpened to scratch a furrow for 
the seed, possibly, as suggested by the ingenious TuU, in imitation of the tillage effected by swine, the 
instrument ai)pears at this time to have been brought as nearly to perfection as it is possible to attain. 
The primitive plough, a " mere wedge with a short beam and crooked handle," became in time fitted 
with a movable share of wood, stone, copper, or iron, wrought to suitable shape, as we find it in the 
hands of our Saxon ancestors. To this a rude wooden mould-board to turn the furrow was afterward 
added, and with various improvements in shape, continued in use until near the present time. 

What was its form or efficiency in the days when Elisha was summoned from ploughing with 
twelve yoke of oxen, to assume the mantle and functions of the Hebrew prophet, may not be quite 
apparent, but the plough was certainly hundreds of years in reaching the imperfect state above described, 
and was several hundred more in approximating its present improved condition. In the middle of the 
last century the ploughs of southern Europe had been little improved, and were still destitute of a 
coulter, as in the old Uoman plough of the days of Virgil and Cclumella. It has received few modifica- 
tions there down to this time. Even in England, at that period, the plough was an exceedingly rude 
and cumbersome affiiir compared with the best now in use. It was no uncommon thing in parts of the 
island thirty years ago to see from three to five horses in light soils, and in heavy ones sometimes, as 
many as seven attached to a plough, which turned about three-quarters of an acre per diem. The old 



INTRODUCTION. xvii 

Scotch plough was still worse, and in Scotland, where- agricultural machinery is now most perfect, no 
instance was known of ploughing with less than four horses. The usual number was six horses, or 
four horses and two oxen, and sometimes as many as ten or twelve were yoked to it, each requiring a 
driver. WilHam Dawson, soon after 1760, introduced the custom of ploughing with two horses abreast 
with lines.* 

Although the swing-plough is believed to have been the earliest used in Great Britain, one and 
two wheel ploughs — long used on the continent — ^were most in favor. Turn-wrest ploughs, drill, drain, 
and trenching ploughs, and others adapted to different uses, were employed in considerable variety. 

A capital improvement in the plough was the invention of the iron mould-board and landside. An 
approach to this was made by Joseph Foljambre, of Rotherham, England, who ia 1720 took out the 
first patent of the kind recorded. It was for a mould-board and landside of wood sheathed with iron 
plates, the share and coulter being made of wrought iron with steel edges. One of these patent or 
Rotherham ploughs — as all similar ones were called for many years — was imported and used for some 
time with much satisfaction by General Washington, but, becoming worn, our ploughwrights were 
unable to repair it. The ploughs used in New England early in this century, and more recently in the 
south, were of similar construction About the year 1740 James Small, of Berwickshire, in Scotland, 
first introduced the cast-iron mould-board, still using wrought-iron shares. During fifty years he con- 
tinued to manufacture and improve the Scotch swing-plough, which, since made wholly of iron, has long 
been regarded as the best in use in England. In 1785 Robert Ransome, of Ipswich, introduced cast- 
iron shares, and about 1803 made improvements still in use, by making* the cutting edges of chilled 
iron harder than steel, by casting them in moulds upon bars of cold iron. The making of the first iron 
plough has been attributed to William Allan, a farmer of Lanarkshire, in Scotland, in 1804, but an iron 
plough was presented to the Society of Arts in London as early as 1773, by a Mr. Brand. The cast-iron 
plough was introduced soon after. Like most other improvements in rustic machinery, the iron ploughs, 
though doing much superior work at less than half the expense of the clumsy wooden plough of that 
date, came tardily into use. It is said that Sir Robert Peel, in 1835, having presented a farmers' club 
with two iron ploughs of the best construction, found on his next visit the old ploughs with wooden 
mould-boards again at work ; "Sir," said a member, "we tried the iron, and be all of one mind, that they 
made the weeds grow!'\ A similar prejudice opposed the introduction of the first cast-iron plough in 
America, patented in 1797 by Charles Newbold, of New Jersey, who, after spending, as he alleges, 
$30,000 in trying to get it into use, abandoned the attempt, the farmers declaring that iron ploughs - 
poisoned the soil and prevented the growth of crops. 

The plough has received many improvements at the hands of Americans, and has become an article 
of frequent exportation, while even in Grreat Britain the ploughs now used are generally made after 
American models. The year 1617 is mentioned by an early annalist as the " remarkable period of the 
first introduction of the labor of the plough" in Virginia. In 1625 we find the Dutch colony on the 
Hudson supplied with "all sorts of seeds, ploughs, and agricultural implements," to which in 1662 was 
added a first-class wheel-plough, with its pulleys, &c., at a cost of sixty florins. In 1637 the colony of 
Massachusetts contained but thirty ploughs, and Connecticut probably less than one-third the number. 
Nevertheless, the same year a resident of Salem was promised an addition of twenty acres to his 
original grant if he would " set up ploughing." We involuntarily think of the steam-plough when we 
read that another citizen of that town in the following year was allowed more land because he had 
" not sufficient ground to maintain a plough" on his farm of 300 acres. Owing to the scarcity of 
mechanical labor, most of the ploughs and other farm utensils were for a long time made on the liinn, 
\vith the aid of the nearest smith. The casting of plough-irons was done at nearly every small foundry. 
Their make was, of course, clumsy and inefficient Among the kinds still renieinbered by many was 
the Gary plough, with clumsy wrought-iron share, wooden landside and standard, ai}4 wpoden mould-board 

*^^ — ■ * ■ ■ ^ — '■ - ^ ■ ■■ ■ ■ ■ ■■ ■ ■ I I ■ I , „ , ^ , —■■ h I I »■■ I m i. I I ■ M .— I I ■ ■ ■ ■ » » —— .11 ■■■■■■■■ ■■ ■ ■ ■ I ■ ■ ■ ■ I — ■ I ■ ^ ^»a^»^— — ^a^— ^— ^^^^ 

^ McCaUoch's Statintics of BritUh Empii o. 
3 f Philpa' History of Progress in Great BritAifi. 



XVIII introductio:n. 

plated over with sheet-iron or tin, and with short upright handles, requiring a strong man to guide it 
The bar-share plough was another form still remembered by many for its rudely fitted wooden mould- 
board and coulter, and immense friction from the rough iron bar which formed the landside. The 
Bull-plough was similar in form, but without a coulter. Even the shovel-plough, not unlike the rude 
instrument still used by the Chinese, may be remembered by some, and was in common use in the 
cotton States a few years since. As early as 17G5 the London Society of Arts awarded a gold medal 
to Benjamin Gale, of Killingworth, Connecticut, for a drill-plough, the invention of which was claimed 
by Benoni Hilliard, of the same place. The first patent taken out after the organization of the United 
States Patent Office was in June, 1797, by Charles Newbold, of Burlington, New Jersey, for the cast- 
iron plough already mentioned, which combined the mould-board, share and landside, all in one casting. 
He afterwards substituted wrought-iron shares, objections having been made to the cast iron probably 
because not chill-hardened. He did not succeed in getting them into permanent favor, although cast- 
iron ploughs were advertised for sale in New York in the year 1800, by Peter J. Curtenius, a large iron 
founder of the city. Newbold was paid one thousand dollars by David Peacock, a fellow-townsman, 
who, in April, 1807, patented a modification of the iron plough, having the mould-board and landside 
cast separate, with a wrought-iron steel-edged share attached. 

As early as 1798 Mr. Jefferson also exercised his mechanical tastes in improving the mould-board 
of ploughs, which he afterwards adapted to an improved plough sent him by the Agricultural Society of 
the Department of the Seine, in France. His son-in-law, Mr. Randolph, whom Mr. Jefferson thought 
probably the best farmer in Virginia, invented a side-hill plough, adapted for the hilly regions of that 
State, and designed to turn horizontally, in the same direction, the sides of steep hills, which, in northern 
Europe, was effected by a shifting mould-board, constituting the variety called turn-wrest ploughs. 
Colonel Randolph's plough was made with two wings welded to the same bar, with their planes at right 
angles to each other, so that by turning the bar, adjusted as an axis, either wing could be laid flat on 
the ground, while the other, standing vertically, served as a mould-board. Mr. Jefferson advocated an 
adherence to scientific principles in the construction of the plough. Perhaps the first attempt to carry 
out these suggestions was made by Robert Smith, of Pennsylvania, who, in May, 1800, took out the 
first patent for the mould-board alone of a plough. It was of cast iron, and of improved form, the prin- 
ciples of which were published by him. In July, 1814, Jethro Wood, of Scipio, New York, was granted 
a patent for a cast-iron plough having the mould-plate, share, and landside cast in three parts. The 
mould-plate combined the mechanical principles of the wedge and screw in raising and inverting the 
furrow-slice. It became the foundation of many patented improvements of later date, and of a hand- 
some competence to the inventor, who, in 1819, received a second patent, which was renewed by act of 
Congress in 1832. 

A series of improvements in the cast-iron ploughs was commenced about 1810 by Josiah Ducher, 
of New York, which were patented in 1822. Some of them are still retained in use. Two improve- 
ments in the cast-iron plough, designed to make it easier of draught, were covered by letters patent 
issued in April, 1821, to A L. & £. A. Stevens, of Hoboken, New Jersey. One of these was for 
hardening the cutting-edges and parts exposed to wear by cold-chilling them. Four other patents 
on the cast-iron plough were granted the same year. Much credit is also due to Joel Nourse, of Massa- 
chusetts, and his partners, for improving and perfecting the cast-iron plough, which was comparatively a 
rude instrument, in limited demand, as late as 1836, when they commenced the manufacture of agricul- 
tural implements at Worcester. The sale of twenty thousand ploughs in a single year by this firm, 
within twenty years after they commenced business, indicated the increased demand for ploughs, which 
they were able to supply, of one hundred and fifty different forms and sizes. Among these were 
subsoil ploughs adapted to teams of from one to six horses, the first implement of that kind in the United 
States having been imported by them in 1840 from Scotland^ and subsequently improved by making it 
more simple, light, and cheap in construction. American hiil-side ploughs are now exported to Great 
Britain. The number of patents granted for ploughs previous to 1830 was 124, and up to 1848 had 
reached between three and four hundred. 



INTRODUCTION. xix 

A distinctive feature in American ploughs is their great simplicity, lightness of draught., neatness, 
and cheapness, which is often in striking contrast with those of foreign make. This economy of power 
attracted attention to two ploughs sent,.in 1815, to Robert Barclay, of Bury Hill, near Dorking, in Eng- 
land, by Judge Peters, president of the Philadelphia Society of Agriculture, the seal of which society, by 
the way, bears as a device a representation of the plough of the date of 1785. The ploughs referred to 
were made by order of Mr. Peters, to combine the best principles and forms of American ploughs, and 
when tested in August of that year against the best English ploughs, were found to do the work quite 
as well and as easily with two horses as the other did with four. American ploughs obtained favor 
with English farmers for substantially the same characteristics, namely, "extraordinary cheapness 
and lightness of draughty" at the trial of ploughs at Hounslow during the great exhibition in 1851'. 

In the early part of this century the manufactories of ploughs in the United States were few and 
small in size. It has since become an important branch of the agricultural implement business. 
Ploughs were made and exported in considerable quantity at Enfield, Connecticut, previous to 1819. 
One of the largest establishments in this or any country, devoted chiefly to plough-making, was estab- 
lished in Pittsburgh Pennsylvania, in 1829. In 1836 it made by steam-power one hundred ploughs daily, 
of patterns adapted largely for the lower Mississippi, and cotton and prairie lands of the south and west. 
The iron-centre plough, and hill-side revolving beam-plough, were among the valuable modifications 
originated by the concern which now makes also the steel-ploughs so valued in prairie farming. Another 
steam-plough factory in Pittsburg made in 1836 about 4,000 ploughs annually, including wood and cast- 
iron ploughs,, and a gr&t variety of other kinds. These two factories, together, made 34,000 ploughs 
yearly, of the value of $174,000. There arc several other extensive and numerous fianallcr manufactories 
throughout the country, particularly in the western States, in which plough-making is carried on as a 
specialty. It forms, however, a branch of the general manufiicture of agricultural implements. In 
the best conducted of these, machinery is extensively employed, and such a division df labor as to 
secure great speed and perfection of workmanship, as well as a great reduction of the cost. For each 
size and pattern of plough, the several parts subject to wear are made all alike, so as to fit any plough of 
that class, and allow it to be readily replaced without the aid of the plough-right. Sulky- ploughs, with a 
seat for the driver, and gang-ploughs, cutting several furrows at a time, have been introduced, but have 
not proved generally satisfactory. Rolling or wheel coulters have, in many cases, taken the place of the 
old standing coulter. Many ploughs now have a hook attached for turning the weeds under the furrow, 
an important improvement for prairie farms, where weeds, like other vegetation, are luxuriant. 

Several attempts were made in 1858, and the following years to introduce steam-ploughs, for which 
the Illinois Central Railroad Company offered a premium of $3,000. They have been employed with 
success for several years in Great Britain. English steam-ploughs are operated by stationary engines 
placed at one side of the field, and draw the plough from one side to the other by means of wire-chains. 
At other seasons the engines are used in driving threshing-machines and performing other farm labor. 
Our inventors have employed traction engines of several tons weight, which on hard ground worked 
satisfactorily, but on cultivated or moist soil were found to bury themselves inextricably in the ground. 
They appear to have been abandoned for the present. 

A more recent machine, which promises to be a valuable one, is the rotary-spader, which, with 
the power of four horses, spades the ground eight inches de.ep and three feet wide, at the rate of five 
or six acres a day. It is rather too costly for small farms, but on large ones may prove valuable, and 
in time may be adapted to steam-power. 

Many improvements have been made in implements for cultivating com and other hoed crops, 
among which the horse-hoe or cultivator is exceedingly popular, and in corn-growing districts has 
nearly supplied the loss of manual labor by the war. The importance of frequently stirring the soil 
is becoming better understood, and in our dry climate the effects of severe drought may be almost 
entirely obviated by the use of the cultivator on rich, well-prepared lands. 



^ INTRODUCTION. 



MOWERS AND REAPERS. 



These implements, making so large an item in the manufacture, deserve a brief notice. The 
great breadth of land devoted to grain in the western country has rendered mechanical appliances 
for gathering the crop altogether indispensable to the farmer. But contrivances for that purpose have 
long been in use. Pliny the elder, in the first century of our era, gives us the earliest description of 
such an instrument in use among the Gauls. It was a large van, or cart, driven through the standing 
corn by an ox yoked with his head to the machine, which was fitted with projecting teeth upon its 
edge for tearing off the heads, which dropped into the van. It is supposed to have been in use fi>r 
several centuries. 

The earliest proposal in Great Britain for an implement for harvesting grain was made by the 
Society of Arts in 1780, when it offered its gold medal for a machine to answer the purpose of mow- 
ing or reaping grain, simplicity and cheapness in the construction to be considered as the principal part 
of its merit. The premium was continued for several years. William Pitt, of Pendeford, soon after 
invented a reaping-machine, suggested by the description of Pliny and Palladius, and described in 
Young s Annals of Agriculture for 1787. A second attempt was made in Lincolnshire, in 1793, by 
another person, whose name does not appear. In November of that year, two men named Cartwright, 
each invented a machine for mowing and reaping. In 1799 the first English patent was taken out by 
Joseph Boyce for a reaping-machine, acting on the principle of the common scythe. In the following 
year, Eobert Means, of Somersetshire, was granted a patent for a reaping-machine propelled on wheels, 
but worked l)y hand. In June, 1805, Tliomas J. Plucknett, of Kent, received a patent for a reaper 
having the cutting apparatus suspended beneath and in front of the axle, and the power behind. He * 
took but a second patent in 1807. Mr. Gladstone, of Castle Douglas, in 1806 invented a machine mth 
horizontal gathering-wheel, and the next year Mr. Salmon, in Bedfordshire, brought forward a plan for 
raking the corn off a platform by means of a vertically-working rake driven by a large crank in the 
rear of the machine. Messrs. Kerr, of Edinburgh, in 1811 introduced the "conical drum," and in 1815 
Mr. Scott employed rakes with a cylindrical drum, and projecting teeth, &c. In 1822, Mr. Ogle, of 
Alnwich, invented the large reel or rake for lashing the uncut grain towards the knife, as is now done 
in some English and American reapers Some others were brought forward previous to 1826, in 
which year the Rev. Patrick Bell, of Scotland, produced the oldest machine now known to be in use, 
having a revolving apron or endless web for gathering, accompanied by Ogle's reel in front, which 
attracted little attention, however, until after the London exhibition in 1851, when he adopted 
McCormick's cutting apparatus; since which it has been used to some extent. From the closing 
of the fair in 1851, to the end of 1852, no less than twenty -eight patents were registered in 
England for inventions relating wholly or in part to reaping and mowing machines. Patents 
had been previously granted for this class of machines in Russia in 1831, in Austria in 1839, 
and in Australia in 1845. The last mentioned, introduced at Adelaide, South Australia, by Mr. Ridley, 
reaped, threshed, and winnowed all at the same time, at the rate of an acre per hour ; but its descrip- 
tion conforms very neariy to one patented by D. A. Church, of Friendship, New York, in 1841. 
Whether from intricacy of construction, or other inherent defect, or, as seems more probable, from 
indifference on the part of the public, none of these instruments came into permanent use, although 
they provoked the opposition of agricultural laborers. 

The first American patent for cutting grain was issued in May, 1803, to Richard French and J. 
T. Hawkins, of New Jersey. Their machine was propelled on three wheels, one of which extended 
into the grain. Samuel Adams, of the same State, followed in 1805; J. Comfort, of Bucks county, 
Pennsylvania, and William P. Claiborne, of King William county, Virginia, in 1811; Peter Gaillard, of 
Lancaster, Pennsylvania, in 1812, and Peter Baker, of Long Island, New York, in 1814. The next 
was the machine of Jen Bailey, of Chester county, Pennsylvania, patented in February, 1822, which 
was a rotary mowing-machine, having six scythes attached to a shaft. Four other patents were regis- 



\ 



INTRODUCTION. xxi 

tercel previous to 1828, when Samael Lane, of Hallowell, Maine, patented a machine for cutting, 
gathering, and threshing grain all at one operation. It does not appear, however, to have been 
sttccessfiil. Only one other machine, that of William Manning, of Plain field, New Jersey, registered 
in 1831, and having several points of resemblance to some now in use, was patented previous to that 
of Obed Hussey, of Cincinnati, Ohio, in December, 1833. The first public trial with this instrument 
was made before the Hamilton County Agricultural Society, nqar Carthage, July 2, of that year. 
During the next it was introduced into Illinois and New York; in 1835 into Missouri; in 1837 into 
Pennsylvania; and in 1838 the inventor established his manufactory at Baltimore. In June, 1834, 
Cyrus H. McCormick, of Rockbridge county, Virginia, received his first patent for cutting grain of all 
kinds, by machinery, which was worked in 1831, improved since, proving a source of large profit to the 
proprietor, as well as a great boon to this country and foreign lands. From that time to the present 
nearly every year has produced one or more modifications of harvesting-machinery, among which may 
be mentioned that of Moore & Haskell, of Michigan, patented in June, 1836, which cuts, threshes, and 
winnows grain at the same time. From the date of this patent to the issue of McCormick's seeond 
patent, in 1845, fifteen other machines were registered, including that of W. F. Ketchum, of New 
York, in 1844, which has since obtained a high reputation. Since 1851, the new machines brought 
forward have been numerous. In June, 1852, twelve different reaping-machines and several mowers 
were entered for trial before the Ohio State Board as contestants for the premium, all of them — 
including McCormickIs and Hussey's — possessing nearly equal merits. 

The United States Agricultural Society, in 1857, instituted an elaborate trial of reapers, mowers, 
and implements, which took place at Syracuse, New York, in July of that year, when fifteen mowing- 
machines, nine reapers, and fourteen combined mowing and reaping machines were entered. Medals 
and diplomas were awarded to several. Among those entered were Pell's, Manny's, Haines's (Illinois 
Harvester,) W. A. Woods's, (J. H. Manny's improved,) Seymour & Morgan's, Burrall's, Warder, Brokaw & 
Childs's, Atkins's, (automaton self-raker,) Moore & Patch's, and C. H. McCormick's, for reaping alone. 
Mowing-macliines were entered by several of the same inventors, and also by Heath, Ketchum, Ball, 
Aultman & Miller, Hallenbeck, Kirby, Hovey, Allen, and Newcomb, and combined machines by some 
of the same parties, and by A. H. Caryl, Obed Hussey, J. H. Wright, and Dietz and Dunham. 

The whole number of harvesting-machines produced in England and the United States up to that 
time amounted to 160 different kinds, about ,100 of which were American; and in October, 1854, it 
had reached about 200. 

The progress of ideas, or the different channels in which they have run in regard to the mode of 
action of the cutters of reaping-machines, has been shown by Bennett Woodcroft, esq., of England, in 
a patent office publication containing illustrations of sixty-nine examples of reapers, including nine 
American machines. In thirty-one of the number the motion of the knives was rectilinear, and i 
thirty-three it was circular, while in five the knives were moved by hand. Previous to the introdu4 
tion of American reapers, the tendency in England was toward a circular action of the cutters; sin< 
that time reciprocating motion has been more employed. * Although reciprocating and rectilinej 
motion was used by Salmon, in 1807, only two of the English machines introduced previous to 186 
viz: Ogle's and Bell's, were examples of that kind of motion, and three American, namely, Manning 
Hussey 's, and McCormick's, while there were twenty-one of the other kind. Of later examples the> 
were seventeen with reciprocating motion, to eleven wiih circular. 

Diversities have also existed as to the mode of gearing the horse. Pitt's, Boyce's, Plucknett 
and Gladstone's machines were drawn behind the horses; Salmon's, Kerr's, Ilarke's, and other early 
English machines, were pushed before the horses, after the manner of the Romans and Gauls. In 
America both plans have been used, but since 1833 they have usually been placed behind the horses. 
By recently proposed improvements, horse-power harvesting-machines with four horses will cut twenty 
acres of grain in a day, at a net cost — ^including eight dollars for the use of the machine, a driver, two 
binders, and two hands to shock up — of ninety cents an acre, which harvested by hand would cost 




xxii INTRODUCTION- 

SI 90 per acre. The binding is now done with wire on the large grain-tields of the west, and 
a machine has lately been invented for performing that part of the labor. Tliere can be little doubt 
that vre shall soon have machines that will cut, gather, and bind up the ^rain at one operation. 
American reaping and mowing machines have now been introduced into every x^ivilized country. Their 
usefulness has been universally acknowledged. In our own land, where labor is so high, and the season 
so short, they are indispensable. In many sections the labors of sowing and planting the spring crops 
are quickly followed by haying and harvesting. Com, beans, potatoes, and other crops require the use 
of the hoe and cultivator. Summer fallows, for wheat claim attention at this time; and no sooner is 
the labor of harvesting over, than the American farmer is under the necessity of sowing his winter 
wheat, which in the northern and western States is sown from one to two months earlier than in 
England. 

The nature of our climate, the character of our crops, the scarcity of labor, and the extent of our 
agricultural operations, all conspire to increase the introduction and use of these and all other imple- 
ments and machines that will expedite the labors of the farm. 

It is difficult to conceive that American agriculture could have attained its present condition had the 
invention of reaping and mowing machines been delayed thirty years. The extent to which they 
are already used is enormous. 

The editor of the Genesee Farmer, Rochester, N. Y., has collected directly from the manufac- 
turers the following statistics of the number of reaping and mowing machines made by a few of the 
leading firms engaged in this important branch subsequent to the returns of the census in 1860. 

C. Aultman & Co., Canton, Ohio, made last year (1863) 3,100 " Buckeye " mowing and reaping 
machines, and this year (1864) 6,000 of the same machines. 

Bomberger, Wight & Co., of Dayton, Ohio, have made 1,250 "Ohio Chief" reapers; and Rufus 
Dutton, who formerly manufactured the same machine, has made 3,156, making 4,306 in all. 

Of the "Manny" reaping and mowing machine there have been manufiictured in the State of Illi- 
nois, up to 1863, about forty thousand. In 1864 there have been made of the same machines in 
Rockford, Illinois, 10,500. 

Messrs. Adriance, Piatt & Co., of Poughkeepsie, New York, have also made 2,500 "Manny" 
machines for the New England States. The same parties have also manufactured 1,100 "Buckeye " 
miu^hines for the New England States, New Jersey, &c. 

S. M. Osborne & Co., of Auburn, New York, have made 15,000 of "Kirby's" mower and reaper. 

The Buffalo Agricultural Machine Works have also made 7,000, and other parlies have made 5,000, 

making 27,000 of these machines that have been manufactured in the United States. 

_ .Messrs. Seymour, Morgan & Allen, of Brockport, New York, have made 7,200 of their " New 

Worker" and other machines. Messrs. Warder & Childs, of Springfield, Ohio, also manufacture the 

%me machine, and have made about 9,000. 

] The Messrs. McCormick Brothers have manufactured at their establishment in Chicago over 
5,000 of their celebrated reaper — 6000 in 1864. 

^ The establishment of Mr. R. L. Howard, of Buffalo, New York, has manufactured 20,000 of the 
'iKetchum " mowing-machines, and 5,000 reapers and mowers combined, and 3,500 of the " Howard 
j^rvesters." 

^ Mr. Walter A. Wood, of Hoosick Falls, New York, has made over 30,000 reaping and mowing 
hines. In 1858 Mr. Wood sent an agent to England with fifty; the next year he sent two hun- 
Tfsd and fifty machines, and since then his sales in great Britain and on the continent of Europe have 
averaged over 1,000 per annum. 

It thus appears that the manufacturers we have named have made two hundred and fourteen 
thousand and ninety -four mowers and reapers. 

We present these facts, obtained directly from the manufacturers, that our readers may form some 
idea of the magnitude of the reaper and mower business. There are other machines manufactured of 



\ 



INTRODUCTION. xxiii 

which we have iwt ascertained the number, but we may safely conclude that there have been two hun- 
dred and fifty thousand reaping and mowing machines manufactured and in use in the United States ; 
the importance of which may be estimated, when it is considered that a common reaper will cut from 
ten to twelve acres in a day of twelve hours, and a mower eight to ten acres in the same time. 

Another valuable implement for facilitating harvesting operations is the hay-unloading fork, with 
which, by the aid of a horse, a load of hay can be elevated to the stack or mow in a few minutes. 
Several varieties of these useful little machines are manu&ctured, and tens of thousands are already in 
successful use. 

The wooden revolving hay-rake, (invented by Moses Pennock, of Pennsylvania, in 1824, and nov^r 
well known in all parts of the country,) also greatly lessens the labor of haying. Fine steel-toothed 
rakes leave less hay on the ground, but for general use on American farms this wooden revolving hay- 
rake is one of the most simple, useful, and efficient machines yet invented. On large farms, the sulky 
wire-tooth rake is fast superseding all others. They throw the windrow into heaps or bundles of 
eighty or one hundred pounds each, ready for cocking or loading. A boy and horse can thus rake and 
bunch twenty acres a day. The hay-fork, or patent pitch-fork, is another recent improvement of value. 

For THRESHING AND CLEANINO GRAIN, we have machines which are confessedly unsurpassed. In 
our preliminary report we gave an outline of the progress of invention in this class of implements. 

Nearly all threshing-machines now in use have an apparatus for separating the grain from the 
straw and chaff, and carrying the straw up on to the stack. This simple apparatus is now so common 
that it attracts no notice, except from the English or continental visitor, to whom it is a novelty. Many 
machines have also an apparatus for bagging the grain when clean. 

The English threshing-machines, especially those drawn by steam, have a much more finished 
appearance, but for simplicity and efficiency they are in. no way superior to those of American manu- 
facture. In fact, wherever the American threshing-machines have come into direct competition with 
those of British and Earopean construction, the American machines have proved superior. 

SCYTHES. 

Although the genius of modem improvement promises ere long to rob haymaking of one element 
of the picturesque, it has not yet wholly succeeded in banishing the hand-scythe and mower from 
modem scenery. Tedious and laborious as its use appears, compared with that of the mowing-machine, 
it is wonderfully effective in comparison with the rude practice of the Mexican of our day, who cuts 
his grain and hay by handfulls with a common knife. It may not be generally known that the most 
valuable improvement made upon this implement for centuries was by one of the first iron-workers of 
Massachusetts, more than two hundred years ago, in the very infancy of the colony. In the year 1646 
the general assembly of that province granted to Joseph Jenckes, of Lynn, a native of Hammersmith^ 
in England, and connected with the first iron-works in that colony, the exclusive privilege for fourteen 
years "to make experience of his abillityes and inventions for making," among other things, of "mills 
for the making of sithes.end other edge-tooles." His patent "for ye more speedy cutting of grasse" 
was renewed for seven years in May, 1655. The improvement consisted in making the blade longer 
and thinner, and in strengthening it at the same time, by welding a square bar of iron to the back, as 
in the modern scythe, thus materially improving upon the old English scythe then in use, which was 
short, thick, and heavy, like a bush-scythe.* 

The introduction of the scythe and axe manufacture into Massachusetts,* Connecticut, and Rhode 
Island, is to be in a great measure ascribed to Hugh Orr, a Scotchman by birth, who came to Massa- 
chusetts about 1737, and a year or two after erected at Bridgewater the first trip-hammer probably in 
the colony. He engaged in the manufacture of scythes and other edge-tools, in which he acquired a 

wide reputation. His son, Robert Orr, by successful experiments, established the improved manufac- 

■' ■ * ' - - - . - --„,„, ,^^^_^^^^^___^^^ .^^.^^.^_^_^^^_^^_^.^^_ 

o Bishop's History of American Manufiictares, Tol. I, pp. 476, 477. 



xxiv INTRODUCTION. 

ture of scythes by the trip-hammer, and also introduced the iron shovel manufacture into the State. 
As early as 1766, samples of home-made scythes, shovels, spades, hoes, &c., were laid before the 
Society of Arts, in New York, and approved. They were probably from the manufactory of Keen & 
Payson, of that neighborhood, whose improved scythes, often called Salem scythes, then claimed to be 
superior in quality and form to any others. The non-importation and non-intercourse of the revolu- 
tionary period, and during the last war with England, encouraged the domestic manufacture of scythes 
and other articles of hardware, which, before the end of the last century, were made in different parts 
of New England in considerable quantity. Scythes were made in Plymouth county, Massachusetts, 
and to the number of two or three hundred dozens annually, at Canton, in Norfolk county, and also at 
Sutton, in Worcester county, which town had in 1793 seven trip-hammers and five scythe and axe 
factories. In 1810 there were nine factories in Sutton, and two in Oxford, and in 1814 seven others 
had been erected in the county, some of which could make 1,000 dozens annually. Scythes were at 
the same time made in Boston, and in 1803 the manufacture was commenced at Orange, by Levi 
Thurston, who employed in it the first tilt-hammer in the town. A few years later there were two 
scythe factories at Colebrook, in Litchfield county, Connecticut, which county in 1820 returned the 
largest manufacture of scythes of any in the Union. At Southfield, Rhode Island, large numbers of 
scythes were made at that time for exportation. As early as 1812, the scythe factory of S. & A. 
Waters, at Amsterdam, in Montgomery county, New York, turned out about 6,000 scythes annually. 
They were made at many small establishments throughout the Union, along with axes, sickles, and 
other edge-tools and cutlery, shovels, &c., by the aid of the trip-hammer, and were in good demand. 
The price in 1820 ranged from twelve dollars to eighteen dollars per dozen. 

About the latter date was commenced, at West Fitchburg, Massachusetts, one of the oldest scythe 
factories now in the country, then owned by F. T. Farwell & Co., which in the hands of its original 
and later proprietors has originated many improvements in the manufacture, and given reputation to 
its well-known brand. At a later period, Harris's scythes, extensively manufactured at Pine Plains, in 
Dutchess county, New York, obtained a high repute, and are said to have been counterfeited in Eng- 
land. The mammoth scythe factory of R. B. Dunn, at North Wayne, in Maine, was a* few years 
ago considered the largest in the world. In 1849 it turned out 12,000 dozens, requiring 450,000 
pounds of iron, 75,000 pounds of steel, 1,200 tons of hard coal, 10,000 bushels of charcoal, 100 tons 
of grindstones, and half a ton of borax. About the same time, the scythe and cast-steel fork manu- 
factory of D. G. Millard, near the village of Clayville, New York, made about 13,000 dozens of scythes 
and forks annually, by water-power. In 1860 Massachusetts was the largest producer of scythes, 
returning §168,550 as the aggregate value of the product often establishments. Maine ranked second 
in the value of its scythe manufacture — S129,363 by three factories. In New York, four establish- 
ments turned out scythes worth S117,440, and one factory in Rhode Island employed 100 hands, 
producing to the value of §100,000. The total value of scythes made in 1860 was §552,753, which 
was the product of twenty-two factories and 474 hands. 

SHOVELS, SPADES, HOES, AND FORKS. 

These articles, intimately but not all so directly connected as the foregoing with agriculture, in 
1860 gave employment, in five States, to forty-three establishments, the value of whose manufacture 
was §1,452,226. The hands engaged in them numbered 1,015. Upward of one-half the whole value 
was made in eleven factories in Massachusetts, which, together, employed 578 workmen, and produced 
an annual value of §777,048, being relatively much the largest concerns in the country. In New 
York there were twenty-three manufactories, whose product was §307,428, and the number of hands 
employed 233. Six factories in Pennsylvania employed 177 men, and produced wares to the value of 
§312,450. 



^ 



INTRODUCTION. xxv 

The manufacture of these articles has long been on established industry in Massachusetts and 
some other States, having been commenced before the Revolution. The shovel manufacture was suc- 
cessfully introduced at an early period at Easton and Bridgewater, in Massachusetts, where the Messrs. 
Orr, before mentioned, were instrumental in establishing it by the use of the tilt-hammer. In 1788 
the iron-plate shovels made at Bridgewater were deemed superior in workmanship to the foreign article 
which they undersold. The Easton shove! manufactory — commenced on a small scale nearly sixty 
years ago by the late Oliver Ames — made in 1822 about 2,500 dozen annually. The proprietor in 
1827 took out a patent for improvements in the manufacture, which contributed to give his wares a 
high reputation, and greatly to extend and perfect the business of his establishment. In 1835, Oliver 
Ames & Sons had large manufactories at Easton, Braintree, and West Bridgewater, which employed 
nine tilt-hammers, and were capable of making forty dozen spades and shovels per diem, each shovel 
passing through the hands of twenty different workmen. They now run twenty-six tilt-hammers, 
and produce two hundred and fifty dozen per diem In 1822 three factories in Plymouth county, 
Massachusetts, made from one to two thousand dozens each per annum. In 1831, it was estimated 
that about 5,000 dozens of shovels, worth $35,000, were made in New York State annually. It was 
computed that LitchGeld county, Connecticut, at the same date made shovels and spades to the value 
of 86,500, hoes worth $7,150, pitchforks to the value of 820,000, and scythes valued at $56,000. A 
steel shovel and spade factory in Philadelphia consumed annually about. fifly tons of American steel. 
The sheet-iron shovel was patented in 1819, and cast-steel shovels in 1828. The first American 
patent for improvement in hoes was registered in 1819, and for cast-steel hoes in 1827, by C. Bulkley, 
of Colchester, Connecticut. But cast-steel hoes were made in Philadelphia by at least two manufac- 
turers in 1823. In Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, where scythes, sickles, hoes, shovels, and other hardware 
was made in considerable amount previous to 1803, Messrs. Foster & Murray carried on the manufacture 
by steam-power in 1813. On account of the fall in the price of iron and steel, superior steel hoes were 
made in Pittsburg in 1831 for about $4 50 per dozen, or one-half the price of iron hoes ten years 
before. Socket-shovels were made at nearly the same price, which was about one-third their former 
price. Two large establishments in that place in 1836 made annually about 1,600 dozen steel hoes, 
8000, dozen of shovels and spades, 950 dozen steel and other hay and manure forks, and 600 dozen saws, 
four establishments in 1857, in addition to nearly half a million dollars' worth of axes, made 32,000 
dozen of hoes, worth S208,000, and 11,000 dozen of planters' hoes, worth $94,000, besides picks, mattocks, 
vices, saws, &c. The Globe Sickle Factory, in the same place, produced a supeiior article of sickles to 
a greater value than all the other factories in the United States. The Steel spring pitchfork was intro- 
duced by the late Charles Goodyear, by whom it was patented in September, 1831, at which time, and 
for several years previous, he was engaged with his father, Amasa Goodyear, in the manufacture and sale 
of hay and manure forks, and other hardware. Their store in Philadelphia is believed to have been 
the first in the United States for the sale of American hardware exclusively ; but the failure of the busi- 
ness during the commercial troubles of that period led the junior Goodyear to abandon it for the new 
manufacture oflndia-rubber goods, with which his name will be ever associated in the annals of industry. 

A firm in Philadelphia now manufactures eyeless or sohd axes, hoes, picks, shovels, &c. The 
instrument is made solid, while the handle with which it is to be worked has upon the end an iron socket 
through which the pick, &c., is put, and kept in its place by an iron wedge. The handle does not 
become loose, and will answer for any number of tools of tlie same size, and the blow is rendered more 
effectual. Many of these tools have been exported to California, where they are prized by the miners. 

There can be no doubt that our agricultural tools, such as hoes, forks, rakes, &c., are in most 
respects superior to those in common use in Europe. An English gentleman, who has spent some 
time in this country, says: "For lightness and finish, combined with strength and durability, American 
forks and hues are superior to all others." 

Dr. Hoyt, alluding to the great international exhibition in London, in 1861, says: "Among the 
minor implements of agriculture, we were both surprised and gratified to find a collection of American 



xxvi INTRODUCTION. 

forks and hoes. The exhibitor was a sensible English dealer, who, discovering the superiority of this 
class of American implements as compared with articles of the same description manufactured in his own 
country, has for years been importing and selling them to his customers. On being asked why English 
manufacturers did not make them, he replied: 'We can't do it; have been trying ever since the great 
exhibition of 1851, but somehow don't succeed. It is a mortifying admission to make, but it is 
nevertheless true, that you Yankees have a knack of doing some things which we have not the skill to 
imitate.' " 

COTTON-GINS. 

Although cotton-gins are made by a few establishments in the northern States, their manufacture 
is principally a southern one, and amounted in 1860 to the value of $1,077,315, which was the product 
of fifty-five establishments, all but three of them southern. Alabama is the largest manufacturer of 
machinery for cleaning cotton, having sixteen factories, employing 178 hands, and producing gins to the 
value of §434,805. Georgia ranks next, having twelve establishments, whose product exceeded a 
quarter of a miUion. The manufactories of cotton-gins in Mississippi are relatively the largest, three 
factories employing seventy hands, and returning an aggregate product of $131,900. In Texas, where 
the first cotton-gin was erected about 1823, there are four manufactories of gins. Many of these 
machines are made in northern machine-shops, along with other cotton machinery, from which they 
are inseparable in the general estimate of value. 

The history of the cotton-gin furnishes one of the most remarkable examples on record of the 
power of a single labor-saving machine to influence the social and industrial interests, not merely of a 
single nation, but in a great measure of the civilized world. The simple mochanism of the saw-gin 
invented by Whitney enabled one farm-hand to separate the seed from 300 pounds of cotton fibre in a 
day, instead of one pound, as he had been able to do by hand. Its introduction at the particular period 
when the completion of the brilliant series of inventions for carding, spinning, and weaving cotton had 
created a demand for the raw material, at once directed into a new and profitable channel the agricul- 
ture of the south, and at the same time furnished the manufacturing industry of Europe and America 
with one of the most valuable staples, and the shipping and commercial interests of the world with an 
enormous trade in its raw and manufactured products. The increase in the growth and exportation of 
raw cotton which followed has no parallel in the annals of industry, save in the wonderful develop- 
ment of its manufacture in England and the United States. The effects of this growth of the 
husbandry and manufacture of cotton in increasing national wealth, in furnishing employment to labor 
and capital, and in increasing the comfort of all classes, can scarcely be conceived in all its magnitude. 

In 1792, the year preceding the introduction of the saw-gin, the amount of cotton exported from 
the United States was only 138,328 pounds, and the total domestic consumption was about five and a 
half millions of pounds. During the next year there were exported nearly half a million pounds ; in 
1794, 1,601,700 pounds; in 1795, 5,276,300 pounds; and in 1800, 17,789,803 pounds.* In 1860 the 
production of ginned cotton in the southern States amounted to 5,198,077 bales of 400 pounds each, 
or 2,079,230,800 pounds, which was more than seven-eighths of the totaLproduction of cotton through- 
out the world. The quantity exported in that year was 1,765,115,735 pounds, equivalent to 4,412,789 
bales of 400 pounds each. To prepare this large amount of cotton for market by the primitive methods 
would have been utterly impracticable. Not only is the labor of the planter facilitated and cheapened 
by the use of the machine, but the cotton is much better cleaned than by the old methods, which left 
it unsuitable for the finer fabrics. 

Although the earliest mode of separating cotton from the seed, and the one chiefly practiced in the 
cotton States previous to the invention of the saw-gin, was to separate'the seed witli^thc fingers; yet 
mechanical contrivances for that purpose have been long in use, having been chiefly borrowed from 

^"^ ■ ■ ^ij ■ ___M^ JT _ ■ I ■ ■ ■ ■ ■— rw-^M II !■ ■ _ __ ■ II _iu n L ■ -_■ ■■ I II 1M.M_ !_■■■■ ^ ' — -• - 

• Woodbary's Treasury Report, 1835-36. 



INTRODUCTION. xxvii 

India, the cradle of the cottoa culture and manufacture. In that country the practice of beating out 
the seed was long in use. A more effectual modification of the same method, employed for centuries 
in eastern countries, and very early introduced into Georgia, which took the lead in cotton husbandry, 
was the bow-string operation. It consisted in the employment of a long bow fitted with a multitude 
of strings, which being vibrated by the blows of a wooden mallet while in contact with a bunch of 
cotton, shook the seed and dust from the mass. Hence upland or short staple cotton became known 
in commerce as " bowed cotton." A form of the roller-gin appears also to have been used in India in 
early times, as mentioned by Nearchus, and consisted of two rollers of teak- wood fluted longitudinally, 
and revolving nearly in contact. In 1728 we find mention of "little machines, which being played by 
the motion of a wheel, the cotton falls on one side, and the seed on the other, and thus they are 
separated." 

About the year 1742, M. Dubreuil, a wealthy planter of New Orleans, invented a cotton-gin which 
was so far successful as to give quite an impulse to the cotton culture in Louisiana, but nearly forty 
years later the colonial authorities in Paris recommended the importation of machinery from India for 
cleaning the seed. 

Early in the Revolution, Kinzey Borden, of St. Paul's Parish, South Carolina, constructed a roller- 
gin, believed to have been the first ever used in that State for cleaning the long staple and silky cotton, 
of which he was one of the first cultivators. It consisted of pieces of burnished iron gun-barrels 
secured by screws to wooden rollers turned by wooden cranks, like a steel corn-mill. A Mr. Bisset, of 
Georgia, in 1788, contrived a gin having two roljers revolving in opposite directions, operated by a boy 
or girl at each, by which five pounds of cleaned cotton was made per diem. Nothing but hand-gins, 
resembling the cotton hand-mills of India, were yet known in the south, although foot or treadle gins 
appear to have been in use at this date in Philadelphia and vicinity, some cotton being then raised in New 
Jersey, Maryland, and Delaware. A great improvement in the treadle gin was made about the year 
1790, by Joseph Eve, of Providence, Rhode Island, then residing in the Bahamas, and was patented by 
him in 1803. It was a double gin, with two pairs of rollers placed obliquely one above the other, and 
by adding iron teeth and pulleys, was made by a little assistance to feed itself. It could be worked 
cither by horse or water power. Mr. Pottle, of Georgia, substituted two single rollers for the double 
ones, and produced a gin very popular in that State for some time. The present form of foot or treadle 
gin was first introduced into Georgia from the Bahamas, in 1796. It was improved in 1820 by Mr. 
Harvie, of Bcrbicc, who obtained a patent, and afterwards by another person, who obtained a patent in the 
United States for making the rollers hollow, to prevent them from becoming hot while revolving. Other 
improvements on the roller-gin were patented in 1823, and subsequent years by Eleazer Carver, of 
Bridgewater, Massachusetts, who in 1807 commenced the manufacture of saw and roller gins in Missis- 
sippi and Louisiana, then a new country without saw-mills — of which he erected one of the first in 
these territories— or any machinery for manufacturing the several parts. The Whittemores, of West 
Cambridge, also secured patents for improvements on the roller-gin, which was in some respects 
superior to all others, but was found to injure the staple, and was abandoned. Other modifications of 
these machines were introduced by Blrney, Simpson, Nicholson, Farris, Logan, Stevens, McCarthy, and 
others, several of which were popular in their day, and preferred in certain sections of the cotton 
States. The machines of Farris and Logan were improvements upon Eve's mechanism, and at a 
recent period were still used to some extent with steam-power. Jesse Reed, of Massachusetts, 
inventor of the tack-machino, patented cotton-gins in 1826 and 1827, the latter for cleaning Sea Island 
cotton, and the eminent American inventors, Jacob Perkins and Isaiah Jennings, each labored in this 
field. The roller-gin is especially adapted for cleaning the long staple or Sea Island cotton, the long, 
silky, delicate fibre of which is injured by the saw-gin. In the original machines, a pair of rollers 
worked by one hand would make about twenty-five pounds of clean cotton in a day. A recent improve- 
ment by Mr. Chichester, of New York, consisting of a fluted roller of poUshed steel, and one of 
vulcanized rubber, &c., is said to clean 300 pounds per diem, without crushing a seed. The Parkhurst 



xxviii INTRODUCTION. 

roller-gin, though costly, is deemed a superior machine in Alabama and other cotton districts. The 
Louisiana cylinder-gin for short staple cotton, made by Jenks, of Bridesburg, Philadelphia, is also much 
esteemed for completely removing all extraneous matters without injury to the fibre. But as the Upland 
short staple, or black-seed cotton, was the first variety cultivated in the south, a means of removing the 
seed from its tenacious envelope was early sought, and happily supplied by the genius of Eli Whitney, 
a native of Worcester county, Massachusetts, under the patronage of the widow of General Greene, of 
Georgia, and her husband, Mr. Miller. Whitney's saw-gin, patented in March, 1794, was the first 
cotton-cleaning machine recorded in the United States Patent Office. Its appearance produced intense 
excitement, and numerous infringements of his patent rights, which involved him in expensive and vexa- 
tious lawsuits, and finally drove him into other enterprises, in which his ingenuity achieved reputation 
and success. In 1796 Whitney and partner had thirty machines in operation in Georgia by animal or 
water power, and in December, 1801, the legislature of South Carolina purchased the right for that 
State at a cost of $50,000, and threw it open to the public. One of the early invasions of the patent 
was by Hogden Holmes, of Georgia, who also patented a saw-gin in 1796. Two other Georgians the 
same year took out patents for saw-gins, and in 1803 another was taken for a saw-gin by G. F. Salton- 
stall, of North Carolina. Among other improvements on gins made by Mr. Carver, before mentioned, 
who had long experience in their manufacture, was the grate patented by him in 1823, which being 
placed where the seed is arrested and the fibre taken from it by the saw, prevented clogging, and the 
delay of cleaning the saw, &c. In 1837 he patented an improvement in ribs for saw-gins. Mr. 
McCarthy in 1840 connected a vibrating saw to the roller-gin, adapting it for cleaning both green and 
black seed cotton. This machine it was thought would supersede Whitney's, the fibre cleaned by it 
having brought three cents per pound more in the Mobile market than that cleaned by the latter. 

The manufacture of cotton-gins has long formed a branch of business in the machine-shops of the 
northern and middle States, and an independent business in several southern cities. One of the earliest 
and most extensive of these concerns was that of Samuel Griswold, at Clinton, Georgia. In 1833 the 
business was commenced in Autauga county, Alabama, by Daniel Pratt, a native of New Hampshire, 
who had learned the business with Mr. Griswold. He there manufactured cotton-gins of superior 
quality for the neighboring southwestern States, including many for Texas, and even New Mexico, and 
acquired reputation and fortune in supplying the great demand, which required a branch house in New 
Orleans. His large accumulations were employed in erecting saw and planing mills, one of the first 
flouring-mills in Alabama, grist-mills, large cotton and* cotton-gin factories, and other factories and tene- 
ments, forming the flourishing village of Prattville, where in 1851 he employed 200 hands, and made 
annually about 600 gins. He had manufactured since 1833 upwards of 8.000 cotton-gins. In 1846 he 
received from the University of Alabama the honorary degree of master in the mechanic arts, for the 
intelligent and benevolent exercise of his mechanical ingenuity and ample means. 

We have thus very briefly, as compared with the importance of the subject, given a sketch of the 
rise and progress of the manufacture and introduction of some of the most important implements 
connected with husbandry. To some it might seem a subject better discussed in the volume on manu- 
factures ; but believing it to be one of special interest to agriculturists, we have not hesitated respecting 
the propriety of incoq)orating the facts in a volume prepared especially for the farmers of the country^ 
with whose tastes and progress we feel a deep interest, and whose advantages in late years we can 
appreciate from experience. We hope we may be pardoned for referring in a public work to our 
personal experience in stating that, as recently as 1849, when we relieved ourselves of the cultivation 
of a farm in Pennsylvania to take charge of the census, nearly all the operations of agriculture, except 
that of threshing the grain, were performed by manual labor; and the number of workmen to be pro- 
vided for, especially during the period of harvest, rendered several months of the year a season of 
family solicitude and drudgery. On the same farm the crops of the past year were sown and gathered 
in a much shorter time, in better condition, with one-fourth the number of laborers — the grain being 
cut by machinery, and the grass mown, loaded on the wagon, and transferred therefrom to mow by 



INTRODUCTION. 



XXIX 



means of mechanical appliances. The effects of such changes upon the character of the rural popula 
tion of our country will soon manifest themselves by their elevating influences. 



WHEAT. 



Btuhds of wJheat produced in 1860. 



STATES. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky ^ 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 



BUSHELS. 



1,218,444 
957, 601 

5, 928, 470 

52, 401 

912, 941 

2,808 

2,544,913 

23, 837, 023 

16, 848, 267 

8, 449, 403 

194, 173 

7, 394, 809 

32, 208 
233, 876 

6, 103, 480 
119, 783 

8, 336, 368 
2, 186, 993 

587, 925 
4, 227, 586 

238, 965 
1, 763, 218 

8, 681, 105 
4, 743, 706 

15,119,047 



STATES. 



Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Ehode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Total, States 

TERRITORIES. 

District of Columbia 

Dakota 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Mexico 

Utah : 

Washington 

Total, Territories 

Aggregate 



BUSHELS. 



826, 776 
13, 042, 165 

1, ISL^rr 

1, 285, 031 

5, 459, 268 

1, 478, 345 

437, 037 

13, 130, 977 

15, 657, 458 



172, 034, 301 



12, 760 

945 

147, 867 

3,631 

^34, 309 

384, 892 

86, 219 



1, 070, 623 



173, 104, 924 



^. 



STATES m THE OEDEE OF THEIR WHEAT PRODUCT IN 1850 AND IN 1860. 

The census of 1850 showed that Pennsylvania produced more wheat in 1849 than any other 
State in the Union, 15,367,691 bushels. Ohio ranked second, producing 14,487,351 ; New York stood 
third on the list, 13,121,498; Virginia came next, 11,212,616; Illinois stood fifth, 9,414,575; Indiana, 
sixth, 6,214,458; Michigan, seventh, 4,925,889; Maryland, eighth, 4,494,680; Wisconsin, ninth, 4,286,131; 
Missouri, tenth, 2,981,652; Kentucky, eleventh, 2,142,822 ; North Carolina, twelfth, 2,130,102; Ten- 
nessee, thirteenth, 1,619,386 ; New Jersey, fourteenth, 1,601,190 ; Iowa, fifteenth, 1,530,581 ; Georgia, 
sixteenth, 1,088,534; South Carolina, seventeenth, 1,066,277; Vermont, eighteenth, 535,955 ; Delaware, 
nineteenth, 482,511; Maine, twentieth, 296,259; Alabama, twenty-first, 294,044; Oregon, twenty- 
second, 211,943 ; Arkansas, twenty-third, 199,639; New Hampshire, twenty-fourth, 185,658; Missis- 
sippi, twenty-fifth, 137,990; Connecticut, twenty-sixth, 41,762 ; Texas, twenty-seventh, 41,729; Massa- 
chusetts, twenty-eighth, 31,211; California, twenty-ninth, 17,228; Minnesota, thirtieth, 1,401; Florida, 
thirty-first, 1,027 ; Louisiana, thirty-second, 41 7 ; Rhode Island, thirty -third, 49 bushels; Kansas, no report. 

The census of 1860 (crop of 1859) placed Illinois, which was fifth in 1850, at the head of the 
list in 1860—23,837,023 bushels. 



XXX INTRODUCTION. 

Indiana, which was sixth in 1860, was second in 1860 — 16,848,267. 

Wisconsin, which was ninth in 1850, was third in 1860 — 15,657,458. 

Ohio, which was second in 1850, drops to fourth in 1860 — 15,119,047, though showing an actual 
increase of 631,696 bushels. 

Virginia shows an increase in the last decade of 1,918,361 bushels, but nevertheless stands fifth 
in 1860, instead of fourth, as inxl850. 

Pennsylvania, which stood first in 1850, is now sixth, with an actual decrease of 2,325,526 bushels 
and 10,794,858 less than Illinois. 

New York stands seventh — 8,681,105 bushels. In 1850 she stood third, producing 13,121,498, 
showing a decrease in ten years of 4,440,393 bushels. 

Iowa, whi^h was fifteenth in 1850, now stands eighth, producing 8,449,403 bushels, against 
1,530,581 in 1850, showing an increase of 6,918,822. 

Michigan, which was seventh, is now ninth, though the produce of wheat has nearly doubled. In 
1850 it was 4,925,889 bushels; in 1860—8,336,368. 

Kentucky, which was eleventh in 1850, is now tenth — 7,394,809 bushels — showing an increase of 
5,251,987. 

Maryland, which was eighth in 1850, falls to the eleventh in 1860 — 6,103,480 bushels — though 
showing an increase of 1,608,800. 

California, which was twenty-ninth in 1850, is now the twelfth wheat-producing State in the 
Union. In 1850 she produced but 17,228, while in 1860 she produced 5,928,470 bushels, being nearly 
as much as Indiana (which stood sixth) produced in 1850. 

Tennessee, again, as in 1850, stands thirteenth, producing, however, 5,459,268, against 1,619,386 
bushels in 1850. 

North Carolina, which was twelfth in 1850, now ranks only as fourteenth, producing, however, 
4,743,706 bushels, being an increase of 2,613,604. 

Missouri, which was tenth in 1850, is now fifteenth, producing 4,227,586 bushels, showing an 
increase, however, of 1,245,934. 

Georgia, in 1860, stands sixteenth, as in 1850, in order, producing 2,544,913, against 1,088,534 
bushels in 1850. 

Minnesota, which was thirtieth in 1850, now occupies the seventeenth rank, having increased the 
produce of wheat from 1,401 bushels in 1850 to 2,186,993 in 1860. 

New Jersey, which was fourteenth in 1850, is now eighteenth, with a product of 1,763,218 bushels, 
showing an increase of only 162,028 in ten years. 

Texas, which was twenty-seventh in 1850, is now nineteenth, producing 1,478,345, against 41,729 
bushels in 1850. 

South Carolina, which was seventeenth in 1850, is now twentieth, producing 1,285,631 bushels in 
1860, against 1,066,277 in 1850. 

Alabama is again twenty-first, as in 1850, producing 1,218,444 bushels in 1860, or 921,400 more 
than in 1850. 

Arkansas is now, as in 1850, twenty-second, producing 957,601 bushels, being an increase of 
757,962 in ten years. 

Delaware, which in 1850 was nineteenth, stands now twenty-third, producing 912,941 bushels, 
against 482,511 in 1850. 

Oregon, which stood twenty-second in 1850, is now twenty-fourth, producing 826,776 bushels in 
1860, against 211,943 in 1850. 

Mississippi is again twenty-fifth, as in 1850, producing 587,925 bushels, against 137,990 in 1850. 

Vermont, which was eighteenth in 1850, is now twenty-sixth, producing only 437,037 bushels, 
against 535,955 in 1850, or a decrease of 98,918 bushels in ten years. 



INTRODUCTION. xixi 

New Hampshire, which was twenty-fourth in 1850, is now twenty-seventh, producing 238,965 
bushels in 1860, against 185,658 in 1850, or an increase of 53,307 bushels in ten years. 

Maine, which was twentieth in 1850, is now twenty-eighth, producing 233,876 bushels in 1860, 
against 2i)6,259 in 1850, or a decrease of 62,383 bushels. 

Kansas, which was unreported in 1850, now stands twenty-ninth, producing 194,173 bushels, 
taking the same relative rank occupied by California in 1850, but which stands twelfth in 1860. 

Massachusetts, which was twenty-eighth in 1850, is now thirtieth, producing 119,783 bushels, 
against 31,211 in 1850, showing an increase of 88,572. 

Connecticut, which was twenty-sixth in 1850, is now thirty-first, producing 52,401 bushels, 
against 41,762 in 1850, showing an increase of 10,639. 

Louisiana continues thirty-second, as in 1850, though producing 32,208 bushels, against 417 in 1850. 

Florida, which was thirty-first in 1850, is now thirty-third, producing 2,808 bushels in 1860, 
against 1,027 in 1850. 

Rhode Island, which was thirty-third, is now thirty-fourth, producing 1,131 bushels in 1860, 
against 49 in 1850. 

PRODUCTION OP WHEAT IN PROPOETION TO POPULATION. 

In 1850, the United States and Territories, with a population of 23,191,876, exclusive of Indian 
tribes, produced 100,485,944 bushels of wheat, or 4.33 bushels to each inhabitant. 

In 18li0, with a population, exclusive of Indian tribes, of 31,443,322, there were 173,104,924 
bushels of wheat produced, or 5.50 bushels to each inhabitant, showing an increase of one bushel and 
one sixth to each inhabitant, or an increase in proportion to population of over twenty-five per cent. 

The New England States, with a population of 2,728,116 in 1850, produced 1,090,894 bushels, 
or only thirteen quarts to each inhabitant. In 1860, with a population of 3,135,283, the New England 
States produced 1,083,193 bushels, or about eleven quarts and a half to each inhabitant. 

The middle States, (New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, and Delaware,) in 1850, 
with a population of 6,573,301, produced 35,066,570 bushels, or five and one-third bushels to each 
inhabitant. The same States in 1860, with a population of 8,258,150, produced 30,502,909 bushels, or 
about three and two-thirds to each inhabitant. 

The western Stai^ (Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Minnesota, Kentucky, 
Indiana, and Kansas,) in 1850, with a population of 6,379,723, produced 46,076,318 bushels, or seven 
and a quarter to each inhabitant. The same States in 1860, with a population of 10,218,722, pro- 
duced 102,251,127 bushels, or ten to each inhabitant. 

The southern States, (Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, 
South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and Texas,) in 1850, with a population of 7,349,472, produced 
17,795,761 bushels, or nearly two and a half to each inhabitant. The same States in 1860, with a 
population of 9,103,332, produced 31,441,826 bushels, or three and a half to each inhabitant. 

The fifteen slaveholding States, in 1850, with a population of 9,698,487, produced 27,897,426 
bushels, nearly three to each inhabitant. The same States in 1860, with a population of 12,112,683, 
produced 50,080,642 bushels of wheat, or a little over four to each inhabitant. 

The non-slaveho!ding States and Territories, in 1850, with a population of 14,492,389, produced 
72,588,518 bushels, or five to each inhabitant. 

The same States and Territories in 1860, with a population of 19,330,639, produced 123,024,282 
bushels of wheat, or about six and one-third bushels to each inhabitant. 

To recapitulate : The production of wheat in the whole United States and Territories was four 
and one-third bushels in 1850 to each inhabitant, and in 1860 five and a half bushels to each inhabitant 

In the New England States the production of wheat in 1850 was thirteen quarts to each inhab- 
itant» and in 1860 only eleven quarts. 



xx«ii INTRODUCTION. 

In the middle States the production of wheat in 1850 was five and one-third bushels to each 
inhabitant, and in 1860 three and three-fourths bushels. 

In the western States the production of wheat in 1850 was seven and a quarter bushels, and in 
1860 nine and three-fourths bushels, to each inhabitant. 

In the southern States the production of wheat in 1850 was two and a half bushels, and in 1860 
three and a half bushels, to each inhabitant. 

In the entire slaveholding States the production of wheat in 1850 was three bushels, and in 1860 
four bushels, to each inhabitant. 

In the free States and Territories the production of wheat in 1850 was five bushels, and in 1860 
six and a quarter bushels, to each inhabitant. 

Taking the country as a whole, therefore, there has been a gratifying increase in the production 
of wheat as compared with population ; an increase of one bushel to each inhabitant, or about twenty- 
five per cent. 

In the western States the increase in proportion to population has been, as was to be expected, 
much larger than in any other section — an increase of two and a half bushels to each inhabitant, or an 
actual increase of over thirty-three per cent. 

In the slaveholding States, taken as a whole, the increase was one bushel to each inhabitant, against 
one and a quarter bushels increase in the free States. The increase per cent, however, is greater in 
the slave States than in the free States, being thirty-three per cent, in the former, against twenty-five 
per cent, in the latter. The production of wheat ip proportion to the population was much lower in 
1850 in the slaveholding than in the free States. 

In New England the production of wheat, little as it was in 1850, is even less in 1860. It was 
only thirteen quarts to each inhabitant in 1850, and in 1860 about eleven and a half quarts. 

New England is almost entirely dependent upon the western States for breadstuff's. That wheat 
can be grown in the New England States there is abundant evidence. Wheat forms the principal 
bread-food of a large portion of all civilized nations, and has a wider range of habitat than any other 
cereal. There is scarcely a soil in which it cannot be grown, at least occasionally. We have seen as 
good wheat produced in, Connecticut as in western New York or in Ohio. 

It has been said that the reason why New England produces so little wheat is on account of the 
exhaustion of the soil. We believe the soil proper is as rich to-day in New !Higland as it ever was, 
and that it can be made highly productive has been proved in repeated instances. The soil of New 
England, however, never was well adapted to the production of wheat. John Adams, of Quincy, Mas- 
sachusetts, in a letter written to Elkanah Watson, in 1812, says : " Full fifty-five years have I observed, 
inquired, read, and tried experiments to raise wheat in New England. Ttte result is total despair" 

In another letter to the same gentleman, written about the same time, he alludes to the experi- 
ments of Josiah Quincy with Siberian wheat as follows : 

" He (Mr. Quincy) succeeded very well; had a fine crop, which suffered nothing from the Hessian 
fly, mildew, blasting, or weevil. Enthusiasm was excited in the neighborhood ; all the seed he could 
spare was purchased at a high price for sowing. My wife purchased some bushels ; others more. 
Quincy himself sowed the greatest part of all he had. Expectations were high that it would become 
the staple of New England. The next year we all failed; every plant of it blasted, and seed, labor, and 
all were totally lost." 

" Notwithstanding all this," he further says, " I have no doubt wheat may be raised in Massachu- 
setts as well as anywhere else ; but the land must be under proper cultivation, particularly manured 
abundantly, the seed sown so early that it may be forward and vigorous enough to bear the winter, and 
start early enough in the spring to shoot the grain and ear forward before the season of insects. But 
this process, which / know has succeeded, and will succeed, is expensive, and the wheat will not procure 
a price equal to the labor." 



INTRODUCTION. xxxiii 

There is here nothing to indicate that the soil of New England was ever very well adapted to 
the production of wheat, and that it has been exhausted by tillage. The reason so little wheat is raised 
in those States is simply, as Mr. Adams says, "it will not procure a price equal to the labor." Other 

crops pay better. 

In the middle States the production of wheat is also less in 1860 than in 1850 by some four and 
a half millions of bushels, while during the same period the population increased over one and a half 
million. 

There are several causes which conspire to produce this result. Competition with the west, and 
consequent low prices, is one cause ; want of capital to admit of a higher system of farming generally, 
another. 

Agriculture in the middle States is in a transition state. We have abstracted from the soil nearly 
all the accumulated organic matter derived from natural sources, and have not yet fully realized the 
necessity of enriching the soil by the application of manure. Farmers have been proverbially slow to 
adopt new ideas and practices. Many continue to grow wheat in the same manner, and with as little 
preparation, as when the country was new, and the soil abounded in available plant-food. They fail to 
get as good crops as formerly; but too many persevere in the old way, hoping for better success, and of 
course are disappointed. 

In the middle States we must make more manure, and cultivate our land better, before we can 
reasonably expect to grow good crops of wheat. There are many farmers who understand this, and are 
doing their utmost to enrich their land, but the majority put in their wheat without any manure what- 
ever, and obtain small crops in consequence. Others, discouraged with their failures to obtain remu- 
nerative crops, have abandoned wheat culture altogether, or greatly reduced the number of acres sown. 

The advent of the midge is another reason for the falling off in the production of wheat in the 
middle States. This insect, according to the late Dr. Thaddeus W. Harris, first made its appearance 
in the United States in the northern portion of Vermont, and on the borders of Lower Canada, about 
the year 1828, though he adds in a foot-note that Mr. Jewitt states that "its first appearance in west- 
ern Vermont occurred in 1820." From these places its ravages have gradually extended in various 
directions from year to year. In 1834 it appeared in Maine, which State it traversed in an easterly 
course at the rate of twenty or thirty miles a year. Dr. Fitch, the able entomologist to the New York 
State Agricultural Society, in his sixth report on the "noxious and other insects of the State of New 
York," gives a most interesting and instructive account of the habits and ravages of this the greatest 
of all the pests which has infested the wheat-crop. He thinks that this insect was originally brought 
from Great Britain to Quebec when lying in its larvae state in some unthrashed wheat, and that it 
extended itself from thence along the St. Lawrence and Chambly (Sorel) rivers, and thus reached 
Vermont. All accounts agree in representing it as having overspread the surrounding country from the 
northwestern portion of Vermont. 

In Washington county. New York, the larvae, or little yellow worms of this insect, were found in 
the wheat in 1830, and in 1832 they had so multiplied as to completely destroy the crop in many fields. 
Previous to the arrival of this insect a considerable quantity of wheat was annually sent to market from 
that county, but at no time since (1860) has it been able to grow more than a small fraction of the 
amount needed for its own consumption. 

Two years later the midge was progressing pn its way south, through the adjoining counties of 
Rensselaer and Saratoga, devastating the wheat-fields in the same manner as in Washington county. 

In 1^534, the midge having advanced eastward across Vermont and New Hampshire, began to 
show itself in the State of Maine; and in the opposite direction it had become so numerous around 
Montreal as to seriously injure the crop. 

In 1835 and 1836, over all the territory tobwhich it had extended, and where wheat continued to be 
sown, it was so extremely destructive that further attempts to cultivate this grain were abandoned. 

5 



xxxiv INTRODUCTION. 

In 1849 and 1850, the midge having advanced up the St. Lawrence river to Lake Ontario, made 
its appearance in the counties along the north side of the lake, in Canada, travelling westward, it is 
said, at the rate of about nine miles each year. At the same time it was making similar progress on 
the opposite side of the lake, into the great grain-growing district of western New York, which it 
seems also to have approached at the same time from the Mohawk valley and central New York. It 
was quite injurious on the borders of Seneca lake in 1849 and 1850. 

The late General James S. Wadsworth, of Genesee, New York, states that the midge was seen 
in the Genesee valley in 1854, more in 1855, and in 1856 it destroyed from one-half to two-thirds 
of the crop on the uplands, and nearly all on the flats. In 1857 it was still worse, taking over two- 
thirds of the crop. 

The secretary of the New York State Agricultural Society, from statistics gathered for the year 
1854, concluded that at the lowest estimate the injury done the wheat-crop in that year in the State of 
New York exceeded fifteen millions of dollars ; or, if estimated at the price to which wheat afterwards 
advanced, to over twenty millions of dollars. 

In Pennsylvania the midge seems to have attracted the attention of wheat-growers earlier than in 
western New York. In the Patent Office report for 1852, James Thornton, jr., of Byberry, Philadel- 
phia county, Pennsylvania, says: "Mediterranean wheat is universally sown, its early maturity being 
proof against the grain-worm, (a very destructive insect that feeds upon the grain whilst in a milky 
state.") And in the Patent Office report for 1853, Mr. F. J. Cope, of Hemphill, Westmoreland county- 
Pennsylvania, under date of November 8, 1852, says: "The wheat crop of this section was materially 
injured the past season by an insect not inaptly called the * milk weevil,' from the fact that its depre- 
dations are committed on the growing crop while the grain is in the milky state. The injury has been 
almost entirely confined to the * white' varieties, the Mediterranean escaping altogether. The grub 
(frequently four and five to each grain) is of an orange color, about one-eighth of an inch long. My 
entire crop was destroyed by it. There seems to be no remedy for it ; and we must avoid risks by 
abandoning, at least for a while, those varieties which seem to be its special favorites." 

There can be no doubt whatever that the insect alluded to is the midge. Since that time it has 
been but too well known to the wheat-growers of Pennsylvania. 

The injury done the wheat-crop by this insect, is of itself sufficient to account for the diminution 
in the yield. The damage was greater in New York than in Pennsylvania, and the falling off* in the 
crop from 1850 to 1860 is also greater in the former State than in the latter. In Pennsylvania the 
amount of wheat in 1850 was 15,367,691 bushels, and in 1860, 13,045,231 bushels, or a decrease of 
about fifteen per cent.; while in New York, in the same period, the decrease was from 13,121,498 
bushels in 1850, to 8,681,100 in 1860, a decrease of about forty-four per cent. 

In the other middle States, New Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland, the production of wheat was 
greater in 1860 than in 1850. 

In these States the midge has done very little injury, owing, it is thought, to the warmer climate. 
The great deficiency in the production of wheat in the middle States lies wholly with New York and 
Pennsylvania, and is due principally to the advent of the wheat-midge since the census of 1850 was 
taken. It is believed that the midge is not now as destructive as it was in 1859, to the production of 
which year the census returns apply. The wheat crop of the following year (1860) was compara- 
tively uninjured by the midge, and had the census been taken in that year, the deficiency would not 
have appeared as great as it now stands. When the midge appears among the wheat in a given section, 
it does comparatively small damage the first year, and consequently attracts little attention The second 
year it spreads rapidly, and the third and fourth years, if the season is favorable to its operations, it 
destroys a large portion of the crop ; wheat-growers become alarmed, and after a few futile attempts 
to raise wheat, are so discDuraged as to abandon, in a gpod degree, all efforts to grow it. This was 
especially the case in western New York. In the county of Monroe, which in 1845 raised more wheat 
than any other county in the State, and more than all the New England States, the midge proved so 



INTRODUCTION. xxxv 

destructiTe in 1855 and 1856, that the members of agricultural societies held meetings to discuss the 
j)ropriety of abandoning wheat culture. Spring crops and winter barley took the place of wheat, and 
many farmers who formerly produced a large quantity of wheat, raised little more than enough for their 
own consumption. There can be no doubt that farmers in this justly celebrated wheat section had 
been in the habit of sowing too much of their land to this grain. It was not uncommon to grow wheat 
every other year on the same land. The result was, as might have been foreseen, the land soon lost 
its primitive fertility, and became comparatively impoverished. Large crops of clover were grown by 
the aid of gypsum, (sulphate of lime,) and ploughed under as a manure for the wheat crop, and this in 
a measure restored the fertility of the soil. There can be little doubt, however, that ploughing under 
such large crops of clover for so many years increased to a deleterious degree the amount of carbo- 
naceous matter in the soil, and this, as is well known, has a tendency to retard the ripening of the crop, 
as well as to increase to an injurious extent the growth of straw. 

When the midge made its appearance, it found everything in the most favorable condition for its 
rapid propagation. The wheat-growers were entirely unprepared for such an enemy, and it swept 
through the country like an epidemic. 

No wonder there was a wide-spread conviction that wheat culture must be abandoned. They 
knew little of the habits of this minute insect, and were unable to oifer it any resistance. 

The midge was, however, no new thing. It had been knovra in England for a century, and had 
at different periods proved very destructive. Farmers there, however, did not abandon wheat culture^ 
neither will they do so in this country. They can, with proper care, raise wheat even in seasons when 
the midge would otherwise prove most destructive. 

How are the ravages of the midge to he avoided? The means necessary to avoid the ravages of 
the wheat-midge are in themselves very simple, and yet they embrace every process of our agriculture. 

Wheat is the most profitable of all our ordinary crops, provided the land and climate are suitable, 
and the yield good. 

It should be the aim of the wheat-grower so to conduct all his operations that they shall tend to 
enrich and prepare his land for the production of the crop. His system of rotation, of feeding stocli, 
and manuring, should have primary reference to this grain. The great error in American agriculture 
has been the seeding of too much land in wheat, the result of which practice is seen in small and 
diminishing crops. The time has come when we can no longer sow wheat on the same land every 
other year with success. 

The wheat-grower will appreciate the necessity of introducing other crops for the purpose of 
preparing and enriching his land, and on fewer acres, to obtain a greater product. 

The two substances most likely to be deficient in the majority of soils for the growth of wheat 
are ammonia and phosphoric acid. 

From the fact that about one-half of the ash of wheat, barley, oats, rye, and Indian corn consists of 
phosphoric acid, it is usual to speak of the cereals as particularly exhaustive of the phosphoric acid in 
the soil; and it is undoubtedly true that the growth and exportation of cereals from the farm tend very 
materially to impoverish the soil of phosphoric acid. But it does not follow from this, that when a 
soU falls off in its capacity to produce the cereals, it is owing, necessarili/, to a deficiency of phosphoric 
acid. We believe, in fact, that, with the exception, perhaps, of some portions of the grain-growing 
districts of the south, this is seldom the case. It has been clearly proved that a soil requires more 
available phosphoric acid to produce an average crop of turnips than to produce an average crop of 
wheat. The same, it is believed, is true of clover, beans, peas, vetches, and probably other leguminous 
plants So that it follows, that so long as a soil produces good crops of clover, or peas, or beans, there 
is no deficiency of phosphoric acid in the soil, so far, at least, as the production of the cereals is concerned. 

When by a continued course of cropping with the cereals the phosphoric acid becomes deficient — 
not exhausted — the crops of clover and other leguminous plants will first fall off; and if the farmer, 
after this, goes on impoverishing his soil by sowing the cereals, he must be content to do it with very 



XXXVI 



INTRODUCTION. 



poor results. Nature protects herself, and the farmer's capital will be exhausted long before he has so 
exhausted the soil of phosphoric acid, that a good farmer might not render the same soil highly pro- 
ductive, and that, too, without the application of a single atom of phosphoric acid. 

It is true that it is often the cheaper metjiod of renovating such soils by the direct purchase of 
bones, guanos, or other manures which contain large quantities of phosphoric acid ; or, what is somer 
times cheaper still, by the purchase and consumption of oil-cake, cotton-seed cake, &c. Js long as we 
can obtain good crops of clover, we need not apprehend uny deficiency of phosphoric add. Under such 
circumstances there is little hope that an application of phosphoric acid to any of the cereals would be 
attended with any great benefit. 

Now, all agree that phosphoric acid is more likely to be deficient than any other ash-constituent of 
plants ; and if the above argument is correct — and it is sustained by many well-known facts — it follows 
that, in the majority of cases, there is no necessity for the direct application of mineral manures to the 
cereals. But the cereals need manure of some kind, the average yield being not half what it should be. 
We have shown that so long as we can grow good crops of clover, the soil contains in an available 
condition a sufficient quantity of mineral plant-food for the production of the largest crops of wheat. 
We do not, therefore, need a direct application of mineral manures. But we need manure of some kind. 
We must, therefore, look among the organic manures for the particular ingredient which is required. 
Organic manures are divided into two classes, carbonaceous and nitrogenous. It must therefore 
be a carbonaceous or a nitrogenous manure, or both, that we need to enrich our land for wheat and other 
cereals. 

It might easily be shown that we do not need carbonaceous matter for the growth of wheat. On 
soils, as we shall presently show, where we have beei^ in the habit of ploughing in clover, there can be 
little doubt that carbonaceous matter is in excess; and on all soils, if it was carbonaceous matter that 
was needed, nothing would be easier than to supply it in abundance, and at a cheap rate. If it is not 
carbonaceous matter that we need, it must he nitrogenous matter. 

Organized nitrogen in decaying ultimately forms ammonia, and it is in this state, or as nitric acid, 
that it is generally taken up by plants. In speaking of nitrogenous matter, therefore, it will be more 
convenient to speak of it as ammonia. In enriching the soil for wheat and other cereals, the main 
object should be to get ammonia. 

We know of no system of culture, or of manuring for the cereals, which experience proves bene- 
ficial, that does not, either directly or indirectly, furnish ammonia to the soil, either by eliminating it 
from the organic matter in the soil, or by increasing the capacity of the soil for abstracting it from the 
air, or dews, or rain, or by growing those plants which have this power, or by the direct application of 
ammonia in manure. We cannot increase the growth of the cereals without increasing in some way 
the supply of ammonia. We are well aware that neither the cereals nor other plants will grow unless 
the soil contains all their ash-constituents in sufficient quantity and in available condition. But there 
is no practicable and economical method of supplying the requisite quantity of ammonia which does 
not, at the sama time, furnish these ash-constituents in quantity fully equal to the demand of the 
increased growth of the cereals caused by the application of the ammonia. 

This assertion is based on the experiments of Messrs. Lawes and Gilbert, confirmed as they are 
by the experience of practical farmers. 

Mr. Lawes has devoted a large part of his home-farm at Rothamsted, England, for the last twenty- 
two years to experimental purposes. One field of fifteen acres has been devoted to experiments of 
different fertilizing substances on wheat — wheat having been annually sown on the same land for over 
twenty years. Another field has been devoted in the same way to experiments on turnips ; another 
to experiments on peas, beans, and tares ; another to experiments on clover, and another to experiments 
on barley alone, and in rotation with other crops. On the wheat-field it was found that none of the 
manures used increased the yield of wheat to any material extent, unless they contained ammonia. 
Potash, soda, superphosphate of lime, magnesia, the ash of fifteen tons of barn-yard manure, the ash of 



INTRODUCTION. xxxvii 

wheat-straw, alkaline silicates — in short, none of the ash-constituents of plants had any effect. But 
wherever ammonia was used there was obtained an increased yield, and, within certain limits, the 
increase of wheat was in proportion to the quantity of ammonia supplied. 

But here a new and important fact was brought to light Though the increase of wheat was in 
proportion to the quantity of ammonia supplied, in no single case out of many hundreds of experiments 
which have been made during the last twenty years, was as much ammonia (or, rather, nitrogen) 
obtained in the increase of the wheat and straw as was furnished to the soil in manure. 

There was evidently a loss of ammonia hy the growth of wheat. Professor Way has advanced the 
hypplhesis that the large quantity of silica found in the straw of wheat and other grains is taken up 
by the roots of the plants as an ammonia-silicate — the silica being deposited on the straw, and the 
ammonia evaporated into the atmosphere. This may or may not be the true explanation ; but that 
there \%, practically y a great loss fjf ammonia by the growth of wheat there can be no doubt. The 
same, it is believed, is true of barley, oats, rye, and Indian com, as well as of herds-grass, rep-top, rye- 
grass, and other grasses grown for fodder. We rest this belief on the indications of experiments, and 
on the experience of practical farmers, and not on Way's hypothesis in regard to the absorption of 
silica as an ammonia-silicate. 

But if that hypothesis is correct, it follows, as a matter of course, that the plants we have named, 
and all others having silicious stems and stalks, belong to this class, and their growth involves a great 
loss of ammonia to the farm. 

On the other hand, Mr. Lawes's experiments on clover, beans, peas, and tares, indicate that there 
is no loss of ammonia during the growth of these plants. If we apply fifty pounds of ammonia to a crop 
of wheat, (which is equal to three hundred weight of the best Peruvian guano,) the increased growth of 
the wheat and straw will not give us back more than twenty or twenty-five pounds of ammonia; the 
remaining twenty-five or thirty pounds has been evaporated into the atmosphere. If, on the other hand, 
we apply fifty pounds of ammonia to clover or other leguminous plants, or to turnips, it is all, or nearly 
all, retained. There is little or no loss. 

Ammonia, or nitrogen, exists in all soils, but usually in a condition unavailable to plants except in 
small quantity. If it existed in an available condition, it would long ago have been washed away ; but 
it lies there inert and insoluble. // is rendered active and available by tillage. Hence the advantages 
of summer fallows on clay soils. Such soils frequently abound in nitrogen and other elements of plants, 
but they are in an insoluble condition. The soil is so compact that light, heat and air — the three 
grand agents of decomposition — are excluded, and it is only by tillage — by stirring the soil, by exposing 
it to the sun, and letting in the air — that these inert substances can be rendered available as food for 
jilants. 

On light and sandy soils, which admit the air more readily, there is not that accumulation of 
organic matter and other food of plants which exists in the clays, and consequently mere tillage is not 
so beneficial. 

Ammonia and nitric acid (which probably has the same effect as ammonia) exist in the atmos- 
phere. A well-pulverized soil, especially of a somewhat clayey nature, attracts ammonia from the air 
and retains it. And here we may allude to one of the most important discoveries which have been 
made in scientific agriculture during the past ten years. Professor Way, at the time chemist to the 
Royal Agricultural Society of England, made a series of investigations on what has since been called 
the "absorptive powers of soils," which resulted in throwing new light on the processes of vegetable 
nutrition, and opening up a new field for future investigations, which have since been made, in regard 
to the manner in which plants take up food from the soil through their roots. In the course of these 
investigations he found that ordinary soils possessed the power of separating from solution in water the 
different earthy and alkaline substances presented to them in manure. Thus, when solutions of salts 
of ammonia, of potash, magnesia, &c., were made to filter «lowly through a bed of dry soil five or six 
inches deep, arranged in some suitable vessel, it was observed that the liquid which ran through no 



xxxviii INTRODUCTION. 

longer contained any of the ammonia or other salt employed. The soil had, in some form or other, 
retained the alkaline substance, while the water in which it was previously dissolved passed through. 

Further, this power of the soil was found not to extend to the whole salt of ammonia or potash, 
but only to the alkali itself If, for instance, sulphate of ammonia was the compound used in the 
experiments, the ammonia would be removed from solution, but the filtered liquid would contain 
sulphuric acid in abundance, not in the free or uncombined form, but united to lime; instead of 
sulphate of ammonia, we should find sulphate of lime in the solution ; and this result was obtained, 
whatever the acid or the salt experimented upon might be. It was found, moreover, that the process 
of filtration was by no means necessary; by the mere mixing of an alkaline solution with a proper 
quantity of soil, as by shaking them together in a bottle, and allowing the soil to subside, the same 
result was obtained. The action, therefore, was in no way referable to any physical law brought into 
operation by the process of filtration. 

It was also found that the combination between the soil and the alkaline substance was rapid, if not 
instantaneous, partaking, therefore, of the nature of the ordinary union between an acid and an alkali. 

In the course of these experiments several different soils were operated upon, and it was found 
that all soils capable of profitable cultivation possessed the property in question in a greater or less 
degree. Pure sand, it was found, did not possess this property. The organic matter of the soil, it 
was proved, had nothing to do with it. The addition of carbonate of lime to a soil did not increase its 
absorptive power, and, indeed, it was found that a soil in which carbonate of lime did not exist possessed 
in a high degree the power of removing ammonia or potash from solution. 

To what, then, is the power of soils to arrest ammonia, potash, magnesia, phosphoric acid, &c., 
owing 1 The above experiments lead to the conclusion that it is due to the clay which they contain. 
Ill the language of Professor Way, however, ** It still remained to be considered, whether the whole clay 
took any active part in these changes, or whether there existed in clay some chemical compound in 
small quantity to which the action was due. This question was to be decided by the extent to which 
clay was able to unite with ammonia or other alkaline basis, and it soon became evident that the idea 
of the clay, as a whole, being the cause of the absorptive property was inconsistent with all the ascer- 
tained laws of chemical combination." 

Altera series of experiments, Professor Way came to the conclusion that there is in clays a peculiar 
class of double silicates to which the absorptive properties of soils are due. He found that the double 
silicate of alumina and Ume, or soda, whether found naturally in soils or produced artificially, would 
be dqcomposed when a salt of ammonia, or potash, &c., was mixed with it, the ammonia or potash 
taking the place of the lime or soda. Professor Way's "discovery," then, is, not that soils have "absorp- 
tive properties ' that have long been known, but that they absorb ammonia, potash, phosphoric acid, 
&c.. by virtue of the double silicate of alumina and soda, or lime, &c., which they contain. 

Soils are also found to have the power of absorbing ammonia, or rather carbonate of ammonia, from 
the air. 

" It has long been known," says Professor Way, " that soils acquire fertility by exposure to the 
influence of the atmosphere, hence one of the uses of fallows. * « « « j flj^^ tj^at clay 
is so greedy of ammonia, that if air charged with carbonate of ammonia, so as to be highly pungent, is 
passed through a tube filled with small fragments of dry clay, every particle of gas is airesUd!' 

This power of the soil to absorb ammonia is also due to the double silicates. But there is this 
remarkable diiference, that while either the lime, soda, or jwtash silicate is capable of removing the 
ammom'a from solution, the lime silicate alone has the power of absorbing it from the air. 

We have not the space to enter into the details ofthese investigations, or to point out their bearing 
on practical agriculture. Suffice it to say that a well- cultivated soil has the power of absorbing from 
the atmosphere a considerable quantity of ammonia. We will suppose that the soil, by the decomposi- 
tion of its organic matter, and its power of attracting ammonia from the atmosphere, and from rain and 
dew, receives annually fifty pounds of ammonia. If we grow a crop of wheat, barley, oats, rye, or Indian 
corn, from twenty to thirty pounds of this ammonia is evaporated into the atmosphere during the growth 



INTRODUCTION. xxxix 

of the plants, and is lost to the farm. If, on the other hand, we grow clover, beans, peas, tares, or turnips, 
the whole of this fifty pounds is organized in the crop, provided there is sufficient available mineral mat- 
ter in the soil; and if the crop is ploughed under, or consumod by animals on the farm, the wh^le fifty 
pounds of ammonia, or nearly so, will be retained for the use of the subsequent cereal crops. 

We have not space to dwell on this important difference in the two classes of plants here desig- 
nated, one of which (clover, &c.,) retains all the ammonia received from the soil and the atmosphere, 
while the other class (the cereals) dissipate it into the atmosphere during their growth. A correct appli- 
cation of this fact forms the key to good farming. 

We must grow more green crops and a less breadth of cereals. 

M. Leonce de Lavergne, an eminent French writer, in his work on the Rural Economy of England, 
Scotland, and Ireland, deduces the same law from his observations of the astonishing results of the English 
system of rotation, though without offering any satisfactory explanation of its rationale. Speaking of 
England, he says : " That small country, which is no larger than a fourth of France, alone produces one 
hundred and four millions of bushels of wheat, forty-eighty millions of barley, and ninety millions of 
oats. If France produced in the same ratio, her yield would be four hundred millions of bushels of 
wheat, five hundred and sixty millions of bushels of barley, oats, and other grain, equal to at least double 
her present productions; and we ought to obtain more, considering the nature of our soil and climate, 
both much more favorable to cereals than the soil and climate of England. These facts verify this 
agricultural law, that, to reap largely of cereals, it is better to reduce than to extend the breadth of land 
sown, and that by giving the greatest space to the forage crops, not only is a greater quantity of butcher's 
meat, milk, and wool obtained, but a larger production of grain. France will achieve similar results 
when she has covered her immense fallows with root and forage crops, and reduced the breadth of her 
cereals by several millions of hectares." 

This is true. English farmers, guided by close observation and experience, have slowly worked out 
an admirable system of rotation, and now scientific investigations have elucidated the principles upon which 
it is founded. We may not be able at present to pursue generally the same system of rotation in this 
country, but the principles are as applicable here as there, and, if adopted, will produce the same 
beneficial results. 

The application of plaster, ashes, superphosphate of lime, and bther mineral manures, has rarely any 
great effect on the growth of the cereals ; but superphosphate of lime has an almost magical effect on 
turnips, and plaster usually increases the growth of clover, so that these mineral manures, when applied 
to these crops, may be rendered, indirectly, of great benefit to the cereals. 

An English farmer once said to the writer, " Insure me a good crop of turnips, and I will insure 
you a good crop of barley, and of every other crop in the rotation." Of so much value do British farmers 
consider the turnip crop as a means of enriching the soil for the growth of the cereal grains, that they 
spend more money in preparing the soil for turnips than for any other crop, frequently fifty dollars per 
acre. The turnip crop has justly been termed the " sheet anchor " of British agriculture. It enables 
the farmer to keep an immense stock of sheep and cattle, and thus enrich the soil ; the ammonia which 
turnips obtain from the soil, the rain, and the atmosphere being retained and left on the farm for the 
use of the following cereal crops. In the Norfolk or four-course system of rotation, one-fourth of the 
arable land is sown to turnips, followed by barley, seeded with clover. It then lies one or two years 
in clover, followed by wheat at one furrow. After the wheat, turnips again follow, and so on as before. 
Latterly, by the use oi superphosphate and guano for turnips, and by feeding large quantities of oil-cake 
and other purchased cattle food, the land has become so rich that many farmers have thought it necessary 
to introduce an extra grain crop into the rotation, in order to reduce the soil. But hitherto the rule 
has been never to take two grain crops in succession. 

How different from this is the practice of some of our American farmers ! Corn, barley, and wheat 
often follow each other in succession ; then seed down with timothy, red-top, or some other exhausting 



xl INTRODUCTION. 

grass ; take ofF all the hay and then renew the process. To call this a " rotation of crops " is absurd 
We might as well grow a crop of Indian com every year. 

We must alternate tlie cereals with crops of clover, peas, beans, tares, and other leguminous plants, or 
turnips ; feed them out on the farm, and carefully save and return the manure to tfie soil. 

In determining which crop to raise for feeding on the farm, we must not merely ask the simple 
question, "Which crop will afford the most nutritious matter?" but, "Which will ultimately be most 
profitable, taking into consideration the effect of its growth on the soil, its value as food, and the value 
of the manure made by its consumption on the farm?" All will admit that to grow wheat to be fed 
to animals for the purpose of enriching the farm as the primary object would be a wasteful practice, 
no matter how low a price it brought in market ; and to grow barley, oats, rye, and Indian corn for the 
same object is wasteful also, though perhaps in a less degree. 

In order to enrich the soil for the growth of the cereals, therefore, we must grow those plants 
which do not dissipate ammonia. We must feed them on the farm to stock; and if we use any grain, 
or purchased cattle food, it should be such, other things being equal, as contains the most nitrogen for 
the value of the manure ; the quantity of ammonia it contains will be in proportion to the richness of 
the food in nitrogen. Many farmers think manure, is manure, no matter how it is produced. If the 
elements which make rich 7nanure are not in the food they will not he found in the 7nanure, however care- 
fully it is preserved or composted. 

Horses fed on herdsgrass and oats might do more work, but their droppings would not be as- 
valuable as though they were fed on clover-hay and^ peas, for the reason that peas contain twice as 
much nitrogen as oats, and the clover much more than the herdsgrass. 

In determining which food to use, both these facts must be taken into consideration. In regard 
t^ feeding sheep, however, there is no drawback to the use of clover. Sheep do better on clover-hay than 
on any other, and it would be the height of folly to grow herdsgrass, rye, grass, or red-top, or any of 
the natural grasses, for the purpose of feeding sheep. Clover impoverishes the soil less than the grasses; 
it contains more nitrogen, is at least equally fattening, and makes richer manure. The same may be 
said of peas and beans, as compared to oats, barley, rye, or corn. They impoverish the soil less, contain 
twice as much nitrogen, are equally fattening when judiciously used, and afford much more valuable 
manure. The same is true of oil-cake. It is quite as fattening as corn, and makes far better manure. 

Whatever we do in raising crops, in fattening stock or purchasing cattle foods, let our object be to 
accumulate ammonia for the growth of the cereals, and their yield will be soon greatly augmented. 

To avoid the midge, it is essential to get wheat in early. To attain this result, the land -must be 
naturally or artificially drained. This is the first requisite, without which all others will fail. The 
best of tillage, manures, culture, and seed will be of little avail if the soil requires under-draining. 

Other things being equal, wheat will be at least ten days earlier on land that is thoroughly under- 
drained than on that which needs draining ; and it is a well-known fact, that if we could get our wheat 
into flower ten days earlier than usual we should avoid the midge. 

Early sowing of late years has been very generally adopted as a means of getting wheat earlier ; 
but in sowing too early there is danger from the Hessian fly. This insect deposits its eggs in the 
young wheat in autumn, and early-sown wheat is more liable to injury than that which is sown later. 
In the wheat-growing section of New York the time for sowing winter wheat is from the first to the 
twentieth of September. Formerly it was sown as late as the twenty-titth of September, or, in some 
instances, as late as the first of October ; but, since the advent of the midge, such late sowing has been 
abandoned. If the land is in high condition and well drained, from the tenth to the twentieth of 
September is, perhaps, the best time to seed. Sown at this time, we stand a fair chance of steering 
between the two great pests of the ^heat-grower. If we sow earlier, we run additional risk from the 
Hessian fly ; and if later, the midge will almost certainly destroy the crop. 

The land being well drained, enriched, and properly prepared in good season, the next important 
point is the variety of wheat to sow. To avoid the midge, it must come into flower early. The variety 



\ 



INTRODUCTION. xli 

most extensively grown in New York and Pennsylvania since the advent of the midge is the Mediter- 
ranean. It is a red wheat, originally of inferior quality, but much improved of late years by sowing in 
good early-wheat soil. Of white wheat the Soules is most extensively grown. It is, with the exception 
of the Boughton wheat, one of the earliest white varieties yet generally introduced. The Boughton 
wheat is extensively grown in Maryland and Virginia. It is from two to three weeks earlier than the 
Soules, and has been introduced into New York in the hope that its early maturity will protect it 
from the midge. This subject of getting an early variety of white wheat is attracting much attention 
and there can be little doubt we shall be able to obtain a variety that will be early enough to escape 
the midge. 

WhecU'growing in the west.-^The increased production of wheat in the western States in propor- 
tion to population has been most gratifying. Greatly as the means of transportation have increased, 
they have not kept pace with the increase in production. The navigation of the Mississippi becoming 
closed as a result of the present civil war, it was impossible to transport the large crops of the west 
to the Atlantic markets. Freight rose to such an extent that it cost more than^t;^ times as much to 
transport a bushel of wheat from Iowa to New York as the farmer received for it. The crops were 
sold at prices ruinous to the producer. 

As the war continued, however, and as our western army advanced south, a demand for agricul- 
tural produce was created which gave buoyancy to prices, and at the present time (1864) the western 
farmer obtains nearly as much for his produce as the fanners of the middle States. 

The effect on wheat, however, has been less marked than on oats, corn, hay, and other articles 
largely consumed by the army. The price of wheat is relatively lower than that of any other produce 
So long as we continue to export wheat to Europe, the price will be regulated by the foreign markets, \ 
and the cost of sending it there. The bountiful wheat-harvest of 1863 in GrealPBritain and France, 
reduced prices so low that English farmers found wheat one of the cheapest grains they could feed to 
their stock. Had it not been for the high premium on gold, the price of wheat in this country, and espe- 
cially at the west, would have been less than the cost of production; as it is, the advance in gold has 
served to increase prices in the west much more in proportion than in the eastern and middle States* 
For instance, if a bushel of American wheat sells at $1 25 in London, and the cost of sending it from 
Iowa is $1, the Iowa fiirmer, with gold at par, receives only twenty-five cents a bushel for the wheat. 

Should gold continue at $2 50, (the price at the present writing,) though the wheat still brings 
only $1 25 per bushel in London, and the cost of sending it there should be $1 a bushel, as before, the 
Iowa farmer would receive $2 12 per bushel for his wheat, instead of twenty-five cents, as would be 
the case if gold was at par. The. wheat is sold for gold, and $1 25 in gold sells for $3 12 in legal 
money. Deduct $1 as the expense of sending it to London, and we have $2 12 as the price which 
wheat should bring in Iowa. In other words, the premium on gold increases the price of wheat in 
Iowa eight-fold. 

On the same basis, the farmer in New York, whose wheat costs only twenty-five cents a bushel to 
ship to London, would receive, with gold at par, $1 a bushel; and with gold at $2 50, as before, he 
would receive $2 87. 

The premium on gold, which advances the price of wheat eight-fold in Iowa, increases it less than 
three-fold in New York. In other words, the increase in the price of wheat caused by the premium on 
gold is more than twice as great in the west as in the eastern and middle States. 

These figures are not intended to represent the actual cost of sending wheat to Europe, but are 
used merely to illustrate the effect on prices of the present premium on gold. There can be no doubt 
that the western farmer obtains a relatively higher price for his produce, owing to the premium on 
gold, than the eastern farmer. 

Of course any conclusions based on the present anomalous condition of affairs will be unsatis- 
factory. When we return to a specie basis, it would seem that the present high prices of produce in 

the west, being caused by the premium on gold, must rapidly fall. 

6 



xlii INTRODUCTION. 

For some time before the war our western farmers were beginning to complain tnat wheat- 
growing was not profitable — that the cost of transportation left them barely enough to meet the cost 
of production — ^and it was argued wisely, as we think, that it would be more profitable to grow less 
wheat, and raise more cattle, pork, wool, &c., the cost of transporting which, in proportion to value, is 
much less than that of a more bulky produce. 

When things return to their natural channel, there can be little doubt that the west will find it 
more profitable to produce meat and wool, than to grow wheat. It was so for some years previous to 
the war, and will be so again when the war ends. 

In the mean time the demand for wheat and other grain, induced partly by the increased con- 
sumption caused by the war, and the decreased production caused by the abstraction of labor employed 
in the mechanic arts and the military service, will for some years, probably, keep prices high enough 
to make wheat-growing at the west exceedingly profitable. The time must be expected, however, 
when the western farmer will again find the cost of sending wheat to the eastern cities and to Europe, 
so high as to leave him barely margin enough to pay the cost of production. 

The western farmer for a year or two has been receiving high prices for his produce. He would 
do well fully to understand the causes which have led to this result. They are by no means permanent, 
and as long as we continue to export breadstuffs to Europe, and prices remain there as they are at 
present, nothing but a high premium on gold would enable us to command high prices for breadstufis. 
When we return to specie payments, if we ha.ve a large surplus of wheat to export, it is vain to expect, 
as a general rule, anything like present prices in the west. 

The rapidity with which manufactures have increased ia the west, as well as at the east, render it 
highly probable that in future there will be a much greater home demand for agricultural products of 
all kinds, than existfed for a few years previous to the war. Some of the largest coal-fields in the world 
exist in the western States, while iron and other metals are found there in great abundance. Every- 
thing is favorable for building up a great manufacturing interest. Whatever may be the result of the 
war in other respects, it seems certain that the price of manufactured articles must also continue high. 
The interest on our national debt, and the increased yearly expenses of the government, will require 
heavy duties /on foreign manufactures ; and this, in addition to the heavy expenses of transportation, 
will give the manufacturers in the west all the protection that can be desired. The discovery and 
development of the immense mineral resources of our western Territories, and their astonishing rich- 
ness in gold, silver, and other metals, also favor the idea that in a few years the centre of population 
will be found in the west, whither it has been marching with steady progress, rather than in the 
Atlantic States. Most of the produce which is now sent east at such a great expense will be con- 
sumed at home, and the farmers of the interior will thus obtain a more equable market at fair 
remunerative prices. 

There is, perhaps, no one fact which gives a clearer idea of the great growth of the west, and the 
increase of its products, than the amount of grain which is shipped each year from Chicago. In 1838 
seventy-eight bushels of wheat comprised the total exports from what has since become the greatest 
grain market in the world. In 1839 it was 3,678 bushels; in 1840, 10,000 bushels; in 1841, 40,000 
bushels; in 1842, 586,907 bushels; in 1845 it first reached a million bushels; in 1847 over 2,000,000 
bushels. In 1851 and 1852 it again fell ofi* to less than a million bushels; but in 1853 again 
rose to 1,680,998 bushels. In 1854 it was 2,744,8^0 bushels. In 1855, 7,110,270 bushels; in 1856, 
9,419,365 bushels; in 1857, 10,783.292 bushels; in 1858,10,759,359 bushels; in 1860, 16,054,379 
bushels; in 1861, 22,913,830 bushels; in 1862, 22,902,765 bushels; and in 1863, 17,925,336 bushels 
of wheat. 

Our official tables show that there were 173,104,924 bushels of wheat raised in the United States 
in the year 1859. In that year we exported to Great Britain only 295,248 bushels of wheat. In 
other words, out of every thousand bushels produced, we exported to Great Britain less than one and 
three-fourths bushels. In 1860 our exports of wheat amounted to 11,995,080 bushels, or, assuming thai 



INTRODUCTION. xliii 

• 

no more was raised that year than in 1869, over seventy bushels in each one thousand produced. In 
1861 and 1862 the exports were even still greater — greater by far than ever before known, being 
20,061,952 and 29,798,160 respectively— falling down in 1863 to 16,069,664 The closing of the 
Mississippi, and the loss of the southern trade, caused by the rebellion, together with the comparative 
failure of the wheat crop in Great Britain, accounts for this large increase in our foreign exports. 

There can be no doubt that the west, directly or indirectly, is the source of all the wheat that is 
exported from the United States, and this in addition to supplying New England with breadstufis. 
Under these circumstances, or such as are likely to exist, shall we continue to export wheat ? 

This question has been raised both in Europe and in this country. The question is not whether 
the western States can raise more than enough for home consumption. There can be no doubt on this 
point But New England and the middle States are increasing in population, while their production of 
wheat is declining. Can the west supply this increased demand and growing deficiency of the New 
England and middle States, besides supplying the rapidly increasing home demand, and have a surplus 
left to export to foreign countries 1 Had the country continued united and prosperous, had the west 
continued to develop her rich agricultural resources with the rapidity of the last ten years, there can be 
little doubt that we should have continued for a considerable time at least to export wheat ; but, with 
the increased demand caused by the war, with the abstraction of labor from agricultural pursuits, and 
the stimulus given to manufactures, it is a question not so easily answered, whether we shall, for a few 
years to come, continue to produce a surplus. Much depends on the middle States, to the productive- 
ness whereof very sUght improvement in our system of agriculture would add gjeatly. 

There is no reason why the' middle States should not raise wheat as abundantly as in past years. 
While the aggregate production of wheat has greatly decreased, there are farmers in every county who, 
by a judicious system of cultivation, raise as much wheat as at any former period. Let this improved 
system of farming become general, and the middle States would soon become large exporters of wheat, 
unless the stimulus given to manufactures shall greatly increase the home demand. Farmers are now 
receiving better prices for their produce than at any former period, and this is favorable to the intro- 
duction of improved systems of cultivation. With prices as low as they have ruled frorn^ 1850 to 1860, 
it was not clear whether farmers in the middle States could afford to underdrain, manure, and cultivate 
their land to that extent which is necessary for the production of large crops. This has been done in 
individual cases with much profit, but still the great majority of farmers could not see their way clear 
in expending so much capital, and, indeed, it must be confessed that it is not easy to show how high 
farming can be made profitable with low prices. All this for the present, however, is now changed. 
Prices have increased to a figure never before reached in this country. Everything that the farmer 
can raise, is in demand at rates which are highly remunerative. This demand and high prices cannot 
fail to stimulate farmers to put forth every energy to increase their crops. A higher system of culture 
will be introduced, and, when once adopted and found profitable, will be continued, even though prices 
should fall to the old standard. 

There can be little doubt that the war is destined to make great changes in our agriculture. 
Farming never was so remunerative as at 'the present time. Hitherto, while the profits have been 
generally steady and sure, they have not been large, and the best talent of the country found greater 
attraction in other pursuits. 

As a people we have been distinguished for our material prosperity. " Labor is wealth," and this 
has poured in upon us from every country in Europe. This labor, directed by men of superior educa- 
tion and enterprise, has developed the vast resources of the country to an extent without a parallel in 
history. We had enjoyed a long period of peace. The expenses of the government were but little, 
people were active, industrious, intelligent, and enterprising. No wonder we became wealthy. But 
did our gains favor agricultural improvement ? We think not, materially. Being rich, with none of 
those social distinctions which in Europe are kept up at such great cost, our wealth has been expended 
in luxuries. The result was, that those who contributed to our pleasures and the gratification of our 



xliT . INTRODUCTION. 

tastes were more in demand and received a higher compensation than those who famished the mere 
necessaries of life. The war will, in the end, make us poorer and more economical, and the time must 
sooner or later arrive when we shall have less to spend in mere luxuries ; and those who furnish the 
necessaries of life will receive a higher consideration and better compensation. The importance of 
agriculture will be realized, and will attract the best minds of the country, and vast improvements 
rapidly follow, succeeded by enlarged production. This great change, however, will not be brought 
about at once. It will require time to introduce an improved system of agriculture and to materi^y 
increase the productiveness of our &rms. 

In the mean time, it is highly probable that our exportation of breadstufis to Europe will be 
materially lessened, unless a European war should greatly enhance prices. It is, however, to an 
increased home consumption that we look for those higher prices that will give that stimulus to American 
agriculture it has hitherto needed. As long as we continue to export wheat, no matter to how small 
an extent, the price in Europe will regulate the price in this country. 
^ The price obtained in England for the 295,241 bushels of wheat which we exported in 1859 

determined the price of our whole crop of over 173,000,000 of bushels raised that year. The price of 
the one and three-fourths bushel exported fixed the price of the thousand bushels consumed at home. 
If, for a few years, the price of grain in this country is determined not by what it will bring when 
shipped to Europe, but by the price at which Europe can furnish it to us here, and if we are compelled 
to forego some of the European luxuries which have of late years absorbed such a large proportion of 
our wealth, it will be no great misfortune to us as a people. 

For the following remarks on wheat culture in California we are indebted to ex-Govercor Downey 
to whom we are under great obligations for other important statements : 

** Thus far in oar histoiy the wheat crop is next in importance to onr product of the precious metals ; yielding an abaudant 
supply for home consumption, and a large surplus for exportation. All of our valleys north of the Salinas plains, in Monterej 
countj, are admirably adapted to the production of this great staple, yielding from 30 to 60 bushels to the acre, and generalij 
exempt from all diseases that affect and annoy the farmer in the Atlantic and Mississippi States. Our virgin soil as yet requires 
neither fallowing nor manuring, but year after year yields from the same field its heaps of golden grain. From the bay of 
Monterey to the head of Russian river, an extent of 250 miles, is one vast wheat field. Barley and oats are produced in great 
abundance, but their export demand is limited. The wild oats, which is fully as luxuriant as the cultivated, is one of our most 
important grasses, and, cut while the grain is in its lactescent condition, is considered the best hay in the world. From the 10th 
of May until the 1st of November the farmer expects no rain. He therefore cuts, threshes, and sacks on the same field, and 
houses in a sound and perfect condition, rendering it perfectly safe for the mill or the longest voyage." 

THE QUAUTY OP OUB WHEAT. 

High quality in wheat can only be obtained where there is sufficient heat in summer for its per- 
fect elaboration. There is nothing that will take the place of sunshine. In this respect the climate 
of the United States is far better for the production of wheat of high quality, than that of Great Britain. 

The best wheat years in England are the dryest and hottest. The year 1863, with its great heat, 
was the best wheat season ever known in England. The crop was never before so large, or the quality 
so good. The heat of the summer months approximated closely to that of this country. With ** high 
farming " there is nothing which the English wheat-grower dreads so much as a cold, moist summer. 
Could he be always sure of an American summer he could calculate on obtaining an average yield of 
not less than forty bushels per acre, and of the highest quality. But should he make his land rich enough 
to produce a heavy crop in a dry season, and a cool, moist summer should ensue, his wheat would be all 
laid and not yield half a crop. So far as the summer climate is concerned, therefore, the American 
wheat-grower has everything that he can desire. Ours is the climate for " high farming." 

The severity of the winters, and cold, late, wet springs, followed suddenly by dry, hot summers, are 
the chief drawbacks to our American climate; but their injurious eflfects can easily be guarded against. 
All that we need is good/arming. The land must be drained, well cultivated, properly enriched, and 
sown with a variety that matures early, and the result will be all that can be desired. In moist lands. 



INTEODUCTIOH. xlv 

especially, the roots of grain which are not well protected by a healthy growth in aufumn are very sure, 
by the upheaving of the ground, to be broken and exposed to a killing cold in winter. This is inevitable 
in long-cultivated and moist lands. In new soils, rendered light and porous by the remains of vegetable 
nriatter, late sowing often results differently. Underdraining will length en the season at least two weeks 
in autumn and spring. The land will be drier and warmer in spring and fall, and cooler and more moist 
during the summer months. The wheat, on thoroughly underdrained, well-cultivated, and enriched 
land, will make a strong, healthy growth in autumn, and thus be enabled to protect itself against the 
rigors of our severest winters ; while it will come forward rapidly during the cool spring months, and 
by the time that dry, hot weather sets in the plants will be so far advanced, and so full of sap, that all 
that is needed is for the crop to mature. It is at this point that we need sufficient sunshine to elaborate 
the juices of the plant and give us heat of high quality; and it is just here that the American climate 
is so &r superior to that of Great Britain. It is seldom, indeed, that we have not sun enough to mature 
the heaviest crops when the soil and culture are adapted to the wheat plant. 

While it is true that the American &rmer is highly favored in regard to climate, it must be 
acknowledged that the average quality of our wheat is by no means what it should be. In New York, 
Pennsylvania, and Ohio, the midge has driven out of cultivation some of the best varieties of white 
wheat, and their place has been occupied by the red Mediterranean wheat, which, though earlier, is of 
inferior quality. The means which we have recommended to avoid the midge, would enable us to grow 
better varieties, as well as to improve their quality. 

In the western States the quality of the wheat has greatly improved ; but yet it is by no means 
what it should be. More care in cleaning the seed, better cultivation, and less slovenly harvesting, 
threshing, and cleaning, would add greatly to the quality of the western wheat crop, as well as to the 
profits of the grower. The census returns do not show, separately, the amount of winter and spring 
wheat. In many sections of the west, spring wheat is now much more extensively grown than winter 
wheat, and the quality is, of course, inferior to the best samples of the latter. Much can be done, and 
is doing, to improve ihe quality of our spring wheat, but the same efforts would give us winter wheat 
of much greater excellence. With a better system of cultivation at the west, winter wheat will take 
the place of the spring variety. 

In concluding this article, it may not be out of place to suggest, that if any persons should be 
disposed, from what we have written respecting the consumption of wheat, to draw parallels with the 
individual consumption in other countries, they should not overlook the extensive use made of maize 
(Indian corn) by some portions of our people with whom wheat is a secondary consideration as an 
article of diet. 



xlvi 



INTRODUCTION. 



INDIAN CORN. 
BuMheU of Indian com produced in 1860. 



STATES. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Connecticnt.... 

Delaware 

riorida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Ejinsas 

Kentnckj 

Lonisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts . . 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

New Hampshire 
New Jersey.... 

New York 

North Carolina. 

Ohio 

Oregon 



BUSHELS. 



33, 226, 282 

17, 823, 588 

510, 708 

2, 059, 835 

3, 892, 337 
2, 834, 391 

30, 776, 293 
115, 174, 777 

71, 588, 919 
42, 410, 686 

6, 150, 727 
64, 043, 633 
16, 853, 745 

1, 546, 071 
13, 444, 922 

2,157,063 
12, 444, 676 

2, 941, 952 
29, 057, 682 

72, 802, 157 
1, 414, 628 
9, 723, 336 

20, 061, 049 

30, 078, 564 

73, 543, 190 

76, 122 



STATES. 



Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Total States 

TBBRITORIES. 

District of Columbia 

Dakotah 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Mexico 

Utah 

Washington 

Total Territories 

Aggregate 



BUSHELS. 



28, 196, 821 
461. 497 

15, 065, 606 
52, 089, 926 

16, 500, 702 
1, 525, 411 

38, 319, 999 
7, 517, 300 



836, 404, 593 



80,840 

20, 269 

1, 482, 080 

460 

709, 304 

90,482 

4,712 



2. 388, 147 



838, 792, 740 



The production of Indian com in the United States and Territories, according to the census of 
I860, «was 838,792,740 bushels. It is difficult to fully realize the magnitude of these figures, which we 
can only appreciate by contemplating them in connexion with the aggregate production of our other 
great staples. With this object, we here introduce a table shovdng the production of wheat, rye« oats, 
barley, buckwheat, peas and beans, in 1850 and in 1860, as compared with the production of Indian 
com. 

Tffheatf rytt oats, barley, buckwheat, pea$ and beam, raised in the United States and Territories in 1850 and 1860, as com- 

pared udtk Indian com. 

1850. 1860. 

Wheat 100,485,944 bnshelB. 173,104,924 boBhela. 

Rye 14,188,813 " 21,101,380 

Oata 146,584,179 " 172,643,185 

Barley 5^167,015 " 15,826,898 

Buckwheat *.-. 8,956,912 " 17,571,818 

Peas and beana 9, 219, 901 " 15, 061, 995 

Total - 284.602,764 " 415,309,200 

Indian com 592,071,104 " 838,792,740 



INTRODUCTION. 



xlvii 



It will be seen from the above table that we raise nearly five bushels of Indian com to one of wheat, 
and more than double the aggregate production of wheat, rje, oats, barley, buckwheat, peas, and beans. 
Such was also the case in 1850. It will be seen, however, that less wheat was raised in 1850 in pro- 
portion to Indian corn than in 1860. In other words, vastly as the production of Indian corn has 
increased in ten years, the production of wheat has increased in still greater proportion. 

We produce more bushels of oats than of wheat, but in proportion to Indian corn the increase is 
not as great in 1860, as compared with 1850, as in the case of wheat. 

The production of no other grain has increased so much in the last ten years as barley. It will 
be seen that we produce three times as much in 1860 as in 1850, while the production of Indian com 
has not quite doubled. 

Buckwheat, peas, and beans have also greatly increased, but only a fraction more than Indian com. 

The principal corn-growing States are: Illinois, Missouri, Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, 
Iowa, Virginia, Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, Mississippi, Pennsylvania, and New York. 

The following table shows the production of Indian corn in these States in 1860, 1850, and 1840 



Production of Indian com in the principal corn-growing States in 1860, 1850, and 1840. 



States. 



Illinois 

litfsoori 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Iowa 

Virginia «. 

Alabama 

Georgia 

North Carolina.. 

Mississippi 

Pennsylvania .... 
KewYork 



1860. 



115,174,777 
72, 892, 157 
73, 543, 190 
71,588,919 
64, 043, 633 
52,089,926 
42, 410, 686 
38,319,999 
33,226,282 
30, 776, 293 
30, 078, 564 
29, 057, 682 
28, 196, 821 
20,061,049 



1850. 



57, 646, 984 
36,214,537 
59, 078, 695 
52,964,363 
58, 672, 591 
52,276,223 
8, 656, 799 
35,254,319 
28,754,048 
30,080,099 
27, 941, 051 
22, 446, 552 
19, 835, 214 
17,858,400 



1840. 



22,634,211 
17, 332, 524 
33^668, 144 
28,155,887 
39, 847, 120 
44,986,188 
1,406,241 
34, 577, 591 
20, 947, 004 
20, 905, 122 
23, 893, 763 
13,161,237 
14, 240, 022 
10, 972, 286 



Tennessee was the greatest corn-producing State in 1840, Ohio in 1850, and Illinois in 1860. 

Kentucky was the second greatest corn-producing State in 1840, and also in 1850, while she 
yielded the honor to Ohio in 1860. 

Virginia stood third as a corn-producing State in 1840, Illinois in 1850, and Missouri in I860. 

Ohio stood fourth in 1840, Indiana in 1850, and again in 1860. 

Indiana stood fifth in 1840, Tennessee in 1850, and Kentucky in 1860. 

North Carolina stood sixth in 1840, Virginia in 1850, and Tennessee in 1860. 

Illinois produces nearly one-seventh of all the com raised in the States and Territories. 

The six States of Illinois, Missouri, Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky, and Tennessee, produced, in 1860, 
449,332,502 bushels of Indian com, or more than half the entire production of the United States and 
Territories. 

It will be observed from the above table that Iowa has increased her production of Indian corn 
during the last twenty and ten years, more than any other of the great corn-growing States. In 
twenty years she has increased from less than one and a half million bushels to more than forty-one 
million bushels. This young State produces nearly half as much com as all New 'England and the 
middle States. 

The following table shows the production of Indian corn in the New England States, together 
with the number of inhabitants, in the years 1860, 1850, and 1840 : 



xlviii 



INTRODUCTION. 



Ifidian com in the New England States in 1860, 1850, and 1840, together with the population. 



States. 



BUSHELS OF IKDIAN CORN. 



1860. 



Connecticut 

Maine 

Mossacbnsetts .. 
New Hampshire 
Bhode Island . . . 
Vermont 



Total. 



2,059,835 
1,546,071 
2, 157, 063 
1,414,628 
461,497 
1, 525,411 



9, 164,505 



1850. 



1,935,043 
1,750,056 
2, 345, 490 
1,573,670 
539,201 
2, 032, 396 



10, 175, 856 



1840. 



1,500,441 
950,528 

1,809,192 

1, 162, 572 
450,498 

1,119,678 



6,992,909 



POPULATIOir. 



1860. 



460, 147 
688,279 
1,231,066 
326,073 
174,620 
315,098 



3,135,283 



1850. 



370,792 
583,169 
994, U4 
317, 976 
147,545 
314, 120 



2,728,116 



1840. 



309,978 
516,793 
737,699 
284.574 
106,830 
291,948 



3,234,822 



It will be seen that in the last ten years the production of Indian com has decreased in Maine, 
Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. This is accounted for, in part, by the 
fact that the year 1859, to which the census of crops applies, was unusually dry, and the crops in New 
England suffered considerably. It must be confessed, however, that the figures, making all due allow- 
ance for the drought, do not place the agriculture of New England in a favorable light 

The following table shows the production of Indian corn in the middle States, together with the 
number of inhabitants in the years 1860, 1850, and 1840. 



states. 



New York 

Pennsylvania 

New Jersey 

Delaware, 

Maryland 

District of Colombia 

Total 



BUSHELS OF IKDIAK CORK. 



1860. 



20,061,049 

28, 196, 821 

9, 723, 336 

3,892,337 

13,444,922 

80,840 



75, 399, 305 



1850. 



1840. 



17,868,400 

19, 835, 214 

8, 759, 704 

3,145,542 

10,749,858 

65,230 



61,413,948 



10,972,286 

14, 240, 022 

4,361,975 

2,099,359 

8, 23.3, 086 

39,485 



39, 916, 213 



POPULATION. 



1860. 



3, 880, 735 

2,906,115 

672,035 

112,216 

687,049 

75,080 



8, 333, 2.30 



1850. 



3,097,394 

2,311,786 

489,555 

91,532 

583,034 

51,687 



6,624,988 



1840. 



^, 428, 951 

1,724,033 

,^3,306 

78,065 

470, 019 

43, 712 



5,118,076 



The production of com in the middle States increased over twenty millions of bushels from 1840 
to 1850, and nearly fourteen millions from 1850 to 1860. When we consider that the production of 
wheat during the last ten years in the middle States has fallen off very materially, this increase in 
Indian corn is not more than might have been expected. 

The following table shows the production of Indian com in the southern States, together with the 
number of inhabitants in the years 1860, 1850, and 1840: 



Stated. 



Virginia 

North Carolina 
South Carolina 

Georgia 

Alabama 

Louisiana .... 

Texas 

Mississippi 

Arkansas 

Tennessee 

Florida 

Total.. 



BUSHELS OF INDIAN CORN. 



1860. 



38,319,999 
30, 078, 564 
15,065,606 
30, 776, 293 
33,226,282 
16,853,745 
16, 500, 702 
29, 057, 682 
17, 823, 588 
52, 089, 926 
2, 834, 391 



2S2, 026, 778 



1850. 



35,254,319 
27,941,051 
16, 271, 454 
30,080,099 
28,754,048 
10,266,373 

6, 028, 876 
22, 446, 552 

8, 893, 939 
52,276,223 

1,996,809 



238, 209, 743 



1840. 



34,577,591 
23, 893, 763 
14, 722, 805 
20, 905, 122 
20, 947, 004 
5, 952, 912 



13,161,237 

4, 846, 632 

44,966,188 

898,974 



FOFULATION. 



184,892,228 



1860. 



1850. 



1840. 



1,596,318 
992,622 
703,708 

1, 057, 286 
964,201 
708,002 
604,218 
791,305 
435,450 

1,109,801 
140,425 



1,421,661 
869,039 
666,507 
906,185 
771,623 
517, 762 
212, 592 
606,526 
209,897 

1.002,717 
87,445 



9. 10,% 333 



7, 273, 954 



1, 239, 797 
753,419 
594,398 
691, 3S2 
590,756 
352,411 



375,651 
97,574 

829,210 
54,477 



5, 579, 085 



INTRODUCTION. 



xlix 



Both Tennessee and South Carolina produced less corn in 1860 than in- 1850 ; while Georgia, 
though showing a slight increase, remains almost stationary. Texas, which was unreported in 1840, 
gave six million bushels in 1850, and sixteen and a half million in 1860. Arkansas nearly doubled her 
production of Indian corn from 1840 to 1850, and again from 1850 to 1860. Louisiana also shows a 
rapid increase — nearly six million bushels. The total increase in the southern States from 1840 to 
1850 is a little over fifty-three million bushels of Indian corn, and from 1850 to 1860 less than forty- 
two and a half million bushels. 

The following table shows the production of Indian corn in the western States, together with the 
number of inhabitants in the years 1860, 1850, and 1840: 



States. 



Ohio 

iDdiana 

Micbigan . . . 

Illinois 

Wisconsin . . 
Minnesota. . 

Iowa 

Missouri . . . 
Kentucky . . 

Kansas 

Nebraska... 

Total 



nUSHELS OF INDIAN CORN. 



18C0. 



73, 543, 190 

71,588,919 

12, 444, 676 

115,174,777 

7, 517, 300 

2,941,952 

42,410,686 

72, 892, 157 

64,043,633 

6, 150, 727 

1,482,080 



470, 190, 097 



1850. 



59, 078, 695 
52, 964, 363 

5,641,420 
57, 646, 984 

1,988,979 
16,725 

8, 656, 799 
36,214,537 
58, 672, 591 



280,881,093 



1840. 



33, 660, 144 

28, 155, 887 

2, 277, 039 

22,634,211 

379,359 



1,406,241 
17, 332, 524 
39, 847, 120 



145,700,525 



POPULATION. 



1860. 



2,339,511 

1,350,428 

749,113 

1,711,951 

775,881 

172, 123 

674,913 

1,182,012 

1,155,684 

107,206 

28,841 



10,247,663 



1850. 



1,980,329 
988,416 
397,654 
851,470 
305, 391 
6,077 
192,214 
682,044 
982, 405 



6,386,000 



1840. 



1,519,467 

685,866 

212, 267 

476, 183 

30, 945 



43,112 

:»3,702 
779, 828 



4,131,370 



The above table is worthy of careful study. It shows at a glance the unparalleled rapidity with 
which the agricultural resources of the western States are being developed. 

Kansas has advanced more rapidly than any other State, having neither crops nor population in 
1850. The production of Indian corn has grown up to over five and a half million bushels in 1860. 

Minnesota presents also another instance of rapid increase In 1850 her return of Indian corn was 
only 16,725 bushels. While in 1860 her product is given at nearly three million bushels, or over one 
hundred and seventy-eight times as much as in 1850. 

Nebraska, which was unreported in 1850, produced nearly IJ million bushels of Indian corn in 
1860, as before stated. 

Iowa makes exhibit of remarkable increase in the production of Indian corn. From less than one 
and a half million bushels in 1840, she has increased to over forty-two million bushels in 1860. 

The following table shows the production of Indian corn in the Pacific States, together with the 
number of inhabitants in the years 1860, 1850, and 1840: 



States and Territories. 



California . . 

Oregon 

New Mexico 
Washington 
Utah 

Total 



BUSHELS OF INDIAN CORN. 



1860. 



510, 708 

76, 122 

709,304 

4,712 

9(), 48-J 



1,391,328 



1850. 



12,236 

2,918 

3(i5,411 



9,899 



390, 464 



1840. 



POPULATION. 



1860. 



365,439 
52, 465 
83,009 
11,168 
40,273 



552, 354 



1850. 



92,597 
13,294 
61,547 



11,380 



178, 818 



1840. 



1 



INTRODUCTION. 



In the production of Indian com, as in all other evidences of material prosperity, California pre- 
sents a conspicuous instance of rapid increase. From 12,236 bushels in 1850, she produces 510,708 
bushels of Indian corn in 1860, or over forty times as much as in 1850. This is by no means equal to 
the ratio of increase in Minnesota— only, in fact, one-fourth as great; but it shows, nevertheless, that 
the golden State is rapidly developing her agricultural resources. 

The following table shows the production of Indian com in the New England, middle, western, 
southern, and Pacific States in the years 1860, 1850, and 1840, together with the number of inhabitants : 



States. 



Western 

Southern 

Middle 

New England 
Pacific 

Total. 



BUSHELS OF INDIAN CORN. 



1660. 



470, 190, 097 

282, 026, 778 

75, 399, 309 

9, 164, 505 

1,391,328 



838,772,017 



1650. 



280,881,093 

238,209,743 

61,413,948 

10, 175, 856 

390,464 



592,071,104 



1840. 



145, 700, 525 

184, 892, 228 

39, 916, 913 

6,992,909 



317,531,875 



POPULATION. 



1800. 



10,247,663 

9, 103, 333 

8,333,230 

3, 135, 283 

552,254 



31,443,322 



1H50. 



6,386,000 
7,273,954 
6,624,988 
2,728,116 

178, 818 



23,191,876 



1840. 



4,131,370 
5, 579, 085 
5,118,076 
2,234,822 



17, 069, 453 



The following table shows the number of bushels of Indian com produced in the different sections of 
the United States to each inhabitant, in the years 1860, 1850, and 1840: 

I860. 1850 1840. 

New England States 2.90 3.70 3.02 

Middle States 9.04 9.11 7.79 

Southern States 30.83 32.76 33.13 

Pacific States 2.f>b 2.18 

Western States 45.27 44.14 35.33 

The United States and Territories 26.12 26.04 22.11 



In the New England States the production of corn increased over three million bushels from 1840 
to 1850, but decreased over a million bushels from 1850 to 1860. In proportion to population there 
was also a slight increase from 1840 to 1850; but a decrease of nearly one bushel to each inhabitant 
from 1850 to 1860. With the exception of the Pacific States, the New England States, in proportion 
to population, produce far less Indian corn than any other section in 1860 — ^less than three bushels to 
each inhabitant. 

The middle States have nearly doubled their production of Indian com since 1840. From 1840 
to 1850 the increase was from nearly forty millions to over sixty-one millions of bushels; and in 1860 
to over sixty-five millions of bushels. 

In proportion to population, the middle States show a slight decrease in the production of Indian 
corn since the census of 1850, but a decided increase from 1840 to 1850. These States now produce 
about nine bushels of Indian corn to each inhabitant, or more than three times as much as the New 
England States. 

We have no means of knowing the actual increase in the number of acres planted to Indian corn 
but it is hardly probable that they have increased more than the increase in the production of this 
grain. The increase in the population is due mainly to the growth of the cities and villages rather 
than to an increase in the number of persons engaged in the cultivation of the soil. .The table, how- 
ever, is interesting in reference to our ability to sustain a rapidly increasing population. 

Indian corn is probably the best crop for such an object. In the case of an individual farmer we 
are aj)t to judge of the character of his farming from the appearance and product of his corn crop ; and 



INTRODUCTION. li 

what is true of an individual is no less true of a nation. If the average yield of Indian corn is increas- 
ing, it is pretty good evidence that our general system of agriculture is improving. For this reason 
the tables here presented are pre-eminently worthy of study. 

In the New England States, as we have shown, the aggregate crop of Indian com in 1860 was 

less than in 1850. 

In the middle States there has been a steady increase from 1840 to 1850, and from 1850 to 1860 ; 
but from 1850 to 1860 this increase in the corn crop has barely kept pace with the increase in popu- 
lation. 

In the southern States there has also been a steady increase in the amount of Indian corn pro- 
duced in 1840, 1850, and 1860. The increase in 1850, as compared with 1840, was about fifty-three 
million bushels ; and from 1850 to 1860 a little less than forty-two and a half millions. 

The increase of the corn crop in the southern States, however, has not kept pace with the increase 
in population. There were produced in 1840 a little over thirty-three bushels to an inhabitant; in 
J 850, thirty-two and three-fourths bushels, and in 1860 less than thirty-one bushels to each person. 

The southern States, it will be seen, produce, in proportion to population, ten times as much corn 
as the New England States, and over three times as much as the middle States. 

In the western States the aggregate production of Indian corn was, in round numbers, 145,000,000 
bushels in 1840, 280,000,000 bushels in 1850, and 470,000,000 bushels in 1860; while the popula- 
tion, in round numbers, was 4,000,000 in 1840, 6,000,000 in 1850, and 10.000,000 in 1860. 

The western States are the only section of the country (except the Pacific States) in which the 
production of Indian corn has steadily increased in greater proportion than the population. In 1840 
the western States produced 35 bushels to each inhabitant; 44 bushels in 1850, and 45 bushels to 
each person in 1860. 

This result is owing, in a good degree, to the increased facilities of transportation, and still more 
to the improved processes of culture which have followed the introduction of improved implements and 
machines. In no other section have farmers manifested a greater promptitude to avail themselves of 
the labors of the inventor and mechanic, and the result is shown in the above table. In no country in 
the world is there a finer field for the introduction of mechanical appliances for the culture of the soil 
than on the rich prairies of the western States. It was here that the reaper first fouiid its way into 
general use ; and what is true of the reaper is equally true of nearly all other agricultural machinery. 
The steam-plough, introduced the present year from England, will here, if anywhere, be speedily em- 
ployed to pulverize the soil and prepare it for a crop. 

Taking the country as a whole, the production of Indian corn to each inhabitant was 22 bushels 
in 1840, 26 bushels in 1850, and a little over 26 bushels in 1860. The census of 1850 showed an 
increase of four bushels to each inhabitant, while the last census shows that the production of Indian 
com, taking the country as a whole, fully keeps pace with the increase in population. 

Illinois not only produces the largest aggregate amount of Indian corn, but also produces more in 
proportion to population than any other State. She produced 67 bushels of corn to each inhabitant in 
1850, and also in 1860, and 47 bushels in 1840. 

Iowa comes next. She produced 32 bushels of com to each inhabitant in 1840, 45 bushels in 
1850, and 60 bushels in 1860, 

The next highest is Kansas. She produced 52 bushels of corn to each inhabitant in 1860. 

Indiana succeeds, with 41 bushels to each inhabitant in 1840, 50 bushels in 1850, and 51 bushels 
in 1860. 

Tennessee stands next. She produced 42 bushels of com to each person in 1860. This, however, 
is far less than she produced in 1850 and in 1840. In 1850 she produced 52 bushels of com to each 
person, and in 1840, 54 bushels. 



lii INTRODUCTION. 

CULTURE OF INDIAN CORN. 

Little need be said on this subject. Throughout the great western States, the price of Indian com 
has usually, till within a year past, been so low that little money or labor could be expended profitably 
in manuring or cultivating the corn crop. There are millions of acres that seem as though they were 
formed to produce this magnificent American cereal at the least cost of time and labor. A loose, moist, 
but not toet, fertile soil, with abundance of sunshine, is what is needed for the growth of large crops of 
Indian corn. The rich bottom lands of the west and southwest are the finest lands in the world for 
this grain. There are instances where it has been grown annually on such lands for over fifty years 
without any sensible diminution in the yield either of grain or stalks. 

The ease with which Indian corn can be grown, is, perhaps, one reason why there have been so 
few investigations in regard to the requirements of this important plant. We know something of the 
best fertilizers of wheat, barley, beans, peas, turnips, and grass, but how few have made investigations 
respecting the special demands of Indian com. To increase a crop of wheat from 15 to 25 bushels 
per acre, we know with considerable certainty the quantity of certain constituents of manure that will 
be needed; but who can say the same in regard to Indian com? If a soil without manure yields 30 
bushels of Indian corn per acre, who can tell bow much ammonia, phosphoric acid, potash^ and other 
elements of plant food, are required to enable it to produce 60 bushels per acre. 

In the hope of ascertaining something in regard to this subject, the New York State Agricultural 
Society ofier a standing prize for experiments on this culture. As the subject is one of great importance 
to the farmers of the whole country, it will be interesting to give the rules laid down for conducting 
these experiments, and we cannot but hope that farmers in other States will make similar experiments, 
so that before another census is taken, we shall not have .to confess our ignoranc e in regard to the 
peculiar manurial requirements of the most important crop of American agriculture. 

The following is the plan of experiments suggested : The executive committee of the New York 
State Agricultural Society, deeming it of great importance to ascertain the manure best adapted to 
Indian corn, one of the most important crops of this country, propose to award premiums for the best 
conducted and most satisfactory experiments with the manures hereinafter named. 

It is desired that the field upon which the experiment is made, should have been under cultivation 
for a considerable time ; and if it has not been manured, and has beetl impoverished by continued culti- 
vation of cereal crops, it will be the most acceptable. It is very important to ascertain the amount of 
phosphoric acid, sulphuric acid, potash, soda, lime, &c., required in the soil for the proper growth of 
Indian corn. 

The mecfuznical condition of the field must be carefully attended to, and all parts of the field to be 
as much alike as possible. One-fourth of an acre for each plot, and two of these to be without manure 
of any kind. It is believed that this is as small a quantity of land as will secure reliable results, and it 
is of the utmost importance that the field experiments should be satisfactory. 

Plate or money premium $75. 

No. 1. The following preparations to be tried, each of the numbers representing one-fourth of an acre: 

1. Without manure. 

2. 4 tons of well-decomposed barn yard manure. 

3. 4 tons of green manure from barn yard. 

4. 100 pounds sulphate of lime. 

5. 100 pounds sulphate of ammonia. 

6. 100 pounds of superphosphate of lime. 

7. 75 pounds of pearl-ash. 

8. 50 pounds of soda-ash. 

9. 25 pounds of sulphate of magnesia. 
10. 50 pounds of sulphate of lime. 



INTRODUCTION. liii 

11. 75 pounds of pearlash, 50 pounds of soda-ash, 25 pounds of sulphate of lime, and 25 pounds of sulphate 

of magnesia. 

12. As No. 11, with 100 pounds of sulphate of ammonia. 

13. As No. 11, with 100 pounds of superphosphate of lime. 

14. As No. 11, with 100 pounds of sulphate of ammonia, and 100 pounds of superphosphate of lime. 

15. As No. 11, with 50 pounds of sulphate of ammonia. 

16. 50 pounds of sulphate of ammonia. 

17. 60 pounds of superphosphate of lime. 

18. 4 tons of barn yard manure, 50 pounds each of sulphate of ammonia, superphosphate of lime, pearl- • 

ash, soda-ash, sulphate of magnesia, and sulphate of lime. 

19. Without manure. 

If potash, soda-ash, and magnesia cannot be readily obtained, unleached hard-wood ashes may be 
substituted for them. 

The superphospliate of lime should be made from calcined bones, and should be placed in direct con- 
tact with the seed. The sulphate of ammonia should be applied in the hill, with a little soil intervening 
between it and the seed. The pearlash or soda-ash must not be mixed with the superphosphate or sul- 
phate of ammonia before sowing. The other substances can be applied as convenience or custom dictates. 

Superphosphate of Ibne from calcined bones, ground quite fine before admixture with acid, may be 
made as follows : Grind the calcined bones very fine ; then to 100 pounds of bone-dust add 75 pounds 
of water, and mix thoroughly; then add 100 pounds of" brown or chamber" sulphuric acid and mix 
completely, and repeat the process until the quantity required is made. (Such a superphosphate can 
be sown with the smallest seeds without fear of injuring the germinating principle.) 

Hitherto the only experiment that has been made in reference to this prize was conducted by 
Joseph Harris, near Rochester, New York. The society awarded him the prize, although the precise 
conditions of the experiments were not adhered to. As the first, and indeed the only experiments of 
the kind ever made in this country, we need offer no apology for embodying them in this report. 

The soil on which the experiments were made is a light sandy loam. It has been under cultiva- 
tion for upwards of twenty years, and, so far as could be ascertained, had never been manured. It had 
been somewhat impoverished by the growth of cereal crops, and it was thought that for this reason, and 
on account of its light texture and active character, which would cause the manures to act immediately, 
it was well adapted to the purpose of showing the effect of different manurial substances on the com 
crop. The land was a clover sod, two years old, pastured the previous summer. It was ploughed 
early in the spring and harrowed till in excellent condition. The corn was planted May 23, in hills 
three and one-half feet apart each way. Each experiment was made on the one-tenth of an acre, 
and consisted of four rows, with one row between each plot, without any manure. The manures 
were applied in the hill immediately before the seed was planted. With the superphosphate of lime, 
and with plaster, (gypsum, or sulphate of lime,) the seed was placed directly on top of the manure. 
The ashes were dropped in the hill and covered with soil, upon which the seed was planted, that it 
should not come in contact with the ashes. Guano and sulphate of ammonia were treated in the same 
way. On the plots where ashes and guano or ashes and sulphate of ammonia were both used, the 
ashes were first put in the hill and covered with soil, and the guano or sulphate of ammonia placed 
above, and also covered with soil before the seed was planted. The ashes and superphosphate of lime 
were treated in the same way. It is well known that unleached ashes, mixed either with guano, sulphate 
of ammonia, or superphosphate of lime, mutually decompose each other, setting free the ammonia of the 
guano and sulphate of ammonia, and converting the soluble phosphate of the superphosphate of lime 
into the insoluble form in which it existed before treatment with sulphuric acid. All the plots were 
planted on the same day, and the manures weighed and applied under Mr. Harris's immediate super- 
vision. Everything was done that seemed necessary to secure accuracy. 



Uv 



INTRODUCTION. 



5 

o 

I 
i 



1 

2 

3 
4 

5 
6 
7 

8 



10 

a 

J2 
13 
14 



The following table gives the results of the experiments : 

Tahle showing the rettdts of experiments on Indian com near Rochester, New York. 



Descriptions of manure and quantHies applied per acre . 



No manure 

100 pounds plaster, gypsum, or sulphate of lime 

400 pounds unleached wood-ashes and 100 pounds plaster, (mixed) 

150 pounds sulphate of ammonia < 

300 pounds superphosphate of lime ■ 

150 pounds sulphate of ammonia and 300 pounds superphosphate of lime, (mixed). . 

400 pounds unleached wood-ashes, (uncertain) 

150 pounds sulphate of ammonia and 400 pounds unleached wood-ashes, (sown sepa- 
rately) 

300 pounds superphosphate of lime, 150 pounds sulphate of ammonia, and 400 pounds 
unleached wood-ashes 

400 pounds unleached wood-ashes 

100 pounds plaster, 400 pounds unleached wood-ashes, 300 pounds superphosphate 

of lime, and 200 pounds Peruvian guano 

75 pounds sulphate of ammonia 

200 pounds Peruvian guano 

400 pounds unleached wood-ashes, 100 pounds plaster, and 500 pounds Peruvian guano 



S 



I 



i 

g 

s 



60 
70 
68 
90 
70 
85 
60 

87 

100 
60 

95 

78 

88 

111 



1 

S s 

t e 

I ^ 
I 



7 

8 

10 

15 

8 

5 

12 

10 

8 
8 

10 
10 
13 
14 



-g 



I 



2 e 

S o 

d CD 



e 



67 
78 
78 
105 
78 
90 
72 

97 

108 
68 

105 

88 

101 

125 



O CO 



10 
8 
30 
10 
25 



27 

40 



35 
18 
28 
51 



S S 
S o 



1 
3 

8 
1 



1 
1 

3 
3 
6 

7 



8,1 



^ I 



11 
u 

33 

11 

23 

5 

30 

41 
1 

38 
21 
34 
58 



The superphosphate of lime was formed especially for these experiments, and was a pure mineral 
manure of superior quality, made from calcined bones ; it cost about two and a half cents per pound. 
The sulphate of ammonia was a good commercial article obtained from London at a cost of about 
seven cents per pound. The ashes were made from beech and hard maple (acer saccharinum) wood, 
and were siflbed through a fine sieve before being weighed. The guano was the best Peruvian, costing 
about three cents per pound. It was crushed and sifted before using. In sowing the ashes on plot 7 
an error occurred in their application, and for the purpose of checking the result, it was deemed 
advisable to repeat the experiment on plot 10. 

On plot 5, with 300 pounds of superphosphate of lime per acre, the plants came up first, and 
exhibited a healthy, dark-green appearance, which they retained for some time. This result was not 
anticipated, though it is well known that superphosphate of lime has the effect of stimulating the 
germination of turnip-seed, and the early growth of the plants to an astonishing degree ; yet, as it has 
no such effect on wheat, it seemed probable that it would not produce this effect on Indian corn, which 
in chemical composition is very similar to wheat. The result shows how uncertain are all specula- 
tions in regard to the manurial requirements of plants. This immediate effect of superphosphate of 
lime on com was so marked that the men (who were at the time of planting somewhat inclined to be 
skeptical in regard to the value of such small doses of manure) declared that " superphosphate beats 
all creation for com." The difference in favor of superphosphate at the time of hoeing, was very per- 
ceptible even at some distance. 

Although every precaution deemed necessary was taken to prevent the manures from mixing in 
the hill, or from injuring the seed, yet it was found that those plots dressed with ashes and guano, or 
with ashes and sulphate of ammonia, were injured to some extent. Shortly after the corn was planted 
heavy rain set in and washed the sulphate of ammonia and guano down into the ashes, and mutual 
decomposition took place, with more or less loss of ammonia. In addition to this loss of ammonia 
these manures came up to the surface of the ground in the form of an excrescence so hard that the 
plants could with difficulty penetrate through it. This is a fact which should be borne in mind in 



INTRODUCTION. Iv 

instituting future experiments. It would have been better, undoubtedly, to have sown these manures 
broadcast, except for the difficulty of sowing them evenly by hand on so narrow a plot without risk of 
having some part of the manures blown upon the adjoining plots. 

It will be seen by examining the table, that, although the superphosphate of lime had a good 
effect during the early stages of the growth of the plants, yet the increase of product did not come up 
to these early indications. On plot 5, with 300 pounds of superphosphate of lime per acre, the yield 
is precisely the same as on plot 2, with 100 pounds of plaster (sulphate of lime) per acre. Now, 
superphosphate of lime is composed, necessarily, of soluble phosphate of lime and plaster, or sulphate 
of lime formed from a combination of the sulphuric acid employed in the manufacture of superphos- 
phate with the lime of the bones. In the 300 pounds of superphosphate of lime sown on plot 5 there 
would be about 100 pounds of plaster, and as the effect of this dressing is no greater than was 
obtained from the 100 pounds plaster sown on plot 2, it follows that the good effect of the superphos- 
phate of lime was due to the plaster which it contained. 

Again, on plot 4, with 150 pounds of sulphate of ammonia per acre, we have ninety bushels of 
ears of sound corn, and fifteen bushels of ears of soft corn ("nubbins") per acre, or a total increase 
over the plot without manure, of thirty-eight bushels. Now, the sulphate of ammonia contains no 
phosphate of lime, and the fact tha* such a manure gives a considerable increase of crop confirms the 
conclusion arrived at from a comparison of the results on plots 2 and 5, that the increase from the 
superphosphate of lime is not due to the phosphate of lime which it contains, unless we are to conclude 
that the sulphate of ammonia rendered the phosphate of lime in the soil more readily soluble, and 
thus furnished an increased quantity in an available form for assimilation by the plants — ^a conclusion 
which the results with superphosphate alone, on plot 5, and with superphosphate and sulphate of 
ammonia combined, on plot 6, do not sustain. 

On plot 12 half the quantity of sulphate of ammonia was used as on plot 4, and the increase is a 
little more than half what it is where double the quantity was used. 

Again, on plot 13, 200 pounds of Peruvian guano per acre gives nearly as great an increase of 
sound com as the 150 pounds of sulphate of ammonia. Now, 200 pounds of Peruvian guano contains 
nearly as much ammonia as 150 pounds sulphate of ammonia, and the increase in both cases is evidently 
due to the ammonia of these manures. The 200 pounds of Peruvian guano contained about 50 pounds 
of phosphate of lime; but as the sulphate of ammonia, which contains no phosphate of lime, gives as great 
an increase as the guano, it follows that the phosphate of lime in the guano had little if any effect — ^a 
result precisely similar to that obtained with superphosphate of lime. 

We may conclude, therefore, that on this soil, which had never been manured, and which had been 
cultivated for many years with the ceralior—ox, in other words, with crops which remove a large quan- 
tity of phosphate of lime from the soil — the phosphate of lime, relatively to. the ammonia, is not defi- 
cient If such were not the case, an application of soluble phosphate of lime would have given an in- 
crease of crop, which we have shown was not the case in any one of the experiments. 

Plot 10, with 400 pounds of unbleached wood-ashes per acre, produces the same quantity of ^^wnrf 
corn, with an extra bushel of "nubbins" per acre, as plot 1, without any manure at all ; ashes, therefore, 
applied alone, may be said to have had no effect whatever. On plot 3, 400 pounds of ashes, and 100 
pounds of plaster, give the same total number of bushels per acre as plot 2, with 100 pounds plaster 
alone. Plot 8, with 400 pounds of ashes and 150 pounds sulphate of ammonia, yields three bushels of 
sound com and five bushels of "nubbins" per acre less than plot 4, with 150 pounds sulphate of ammo- 
nia alone. This result may be ascribed to the fact previously alluded to — the ashes dissipated some of 
the ammonia. 

Plot 11, with 100 pounds of plaster, 400 pounds ashes, 300 pounds of superphosphate of lime, and 
200 pounds Pemvian guano, (which contains about as much ammonia as 150 pounds sulphate of ammo- 
nia,) produced precisely the same total number of bushels per acre as plot 4, with 1 50 pounds sulphate 
of ammonia alone, and but four bushels more per acre than plot 13, with 200 pounds Peruvian guano 



Ivi . INTRODUCTION. 

alone. It is evident, from these results, that neither aslies nor phosphates had much effect on Indian 
corn on this Impoverished soil. 

Plot 14 received the largest dressing of ammonia, (500 pounds of Peruvian guano,) and produced 
much the largest crop, though the increase is not so great in proportion to the guano as where smaller 
quantities were used. 

The manure which produced the most profitable result was the 100 pounds of plaster on plot 2. 
The 200 pounds of Peruvian guano on plot 13, and which cost about $6, gave an increase of fourteen 
bushels of shelled corn and six bushels of "nubbins." The superphosphate of lime, although a very 
superior article, and estimated oji cost price, in no case paid for itself. The same is true of the ashes. 

But the object of the experiment was not so much to ascertain what manures will pay, as to as- 
certain, if possible, what constituents of manures are required in greatest quantity for the maximum 
production of corn. All our agricultural plants are composed of the same elements; the only difference 
being in the relative proportions in which they exist in the plants. Thus, wheat and turnips contain 
precisely the same elements, but the ash of wheat contains five times as much phosphoric acid as the 
ash of turnips ; while the turnips contain much more potash than wheat This fact being ascertained 
by chemical analysis, it was supposed that wheat required a manure relatively richer in phosphoric acid 
than was required for turnips. This is certainly a plausible deduction; but careful and numerous ex- 
periments have incontrovertibly proved that such is not the case ; in fact, that an ordinary crop of 
turnips requires more phosphoric acid, in an available condition in the soil, than an ordinary crop of 
wheat. From this fact, and several others of a similar character, the conclusion is irresistible, that the 
chemical composition of a plant — the relative proportion in which the several elements exist in the 
plant — is not a certain indication of the manurial requirements of the plant; or, in other words, it does 
not follow that because a plant contains a relatively larger proportion of any particular element, that 
the soil or manure best adapted for the growth of this plant must contain a relatively larger proportion 
of this element. 

Wheat, rye, barley, oats, and Indian corn all contain a relatively large quantity of phosphate of 
lime ; but it is not safe to conclude from this, that a soil or manure best adapted for their maximum 
growth must also contain a relatively large quantity of phosphate of lime. It is known positively, from 
numerous experiments, that such is not the case with wheat; and it is, therefore, at least doubtful 
whether such is true of Indian corn. On the other hand, we know, from repeated experiments, that 
wheat requires a large quantity of ammonia for its maximum growth; and as Indian corn is nearly 
identical in composition to wheat, it is somewhat probable that it requires food similar in composition. 
This, however, is merely a deduction — never a safe rule in agriculture. We cannot obtain positive 
knowledge in regard to the requirements of plants, except from actual experiments. Numerous ex- 
periments have been made in this country with guano and superphosphate of lime; but the superphos- 
phates used were commercial articles, containing more or less ammonia ; and if they are of any benefit 
to those crops to which they are applied, it is a matter of uncertainty whether the beneficial effect of 
the application is due to the soluble phosphate of lime or to the ammonia. On the other hand, guano 
contains both ammonia and phosphate, and we are equally at a loss to determine whether the effect is 
attributable to the ammonia or phosphate, or both. In order, therefore, to determine satisfactorily 
which of the several ingredients of plants is required in greatest proportion for the maximum growth of 
any particular crop, we must apply the ingredients separately, or in such definite compounds as will 
enable us to determine to what particular element or compounds the beneficial effect is to be ascribed. 
It was for this reason that sulphate of ammonia and a purely mineral superphosphate of lime were used 
in the above experiments. No one would think of using sulphate of ammonia at its present price as 
an ordinary manure, for the reason that the same quantity of ammonia can be obtained in other sub- 
stances, such as barn-yard manure, Peruvian guano, &c., at a much cheaper rate. But these manures 
contain all the elements of plants, and we cannot know whether the effect produced by them is due 
to the ammonia, phosphates, or any other ingredient. For the purpose of experiment, therefore, we 



INTRODUCTION. 



Ivii 



must use a manure that furnishes ammonia without any admixture of phosphates, potash, soda, lime, 
magnesia, &c., even though it cost much more than we could obtain the same amount of ammonia for in 
other manures. These remarks are made in order to correct a very common opinion, that if experi- 
ments do not pay they are useless. The ultimate object, indeed, is to ascertain the most profitable 
method of manuring ; but the means of obtaining this information cannot, in all cases, be profitable. 

Similar experiments to those made on Indian corn were made on soil of a similar character on 
about an acre of sorghum or Chinese sugar-cane. We have not space to give the results in detail at 
this time, and allude to them merely to mention one very important fact — the superphosphate of lime had 
a very marked effect. This manure was applied in the hill on one plot (the twentieth of an acre) at 
the rate of 400 pounds per acre, and the plants on this plot came up first, and outgrew all the others 
from the start, and ultimately attained the height of about ten feet, while on the plot receiving no 
manure the plants were not five feet high. This is a result entirely difierent from what Mr. Harris 
expected. He supposed, from the fact that superphosphate of lime had no efiect on wheat, that it 
would probably have little efiect on corn^ or on the sugar-cane, or other ceralia ; and that as ammonia 
is so beneficial for wheat, it would probably be beneficial for com and sugar-cane. The above experi- 
ment indicates that such is the case in regard to Indian com, so far as the production of grain is con- 
cerned, though, as we have stated, it is not true in reference to the early growth of the plants. The 
superphosphate of lime on Indian corn stimulated the growth of the plants in a very decided manner 
at first — so much so that Mr. Harris was led to suppose for some time that it would give the largest 
crops, but at harvest it was found that it produced no more corn than plaster. These results seem to 
indicate that superphosphate of lime stimulates the growth of stalks and leaves, and has little efiect in 
increasing the production of seed. In raising Indian corn for fodder, or for soiling purposes, super- 
phosphate of lime may be beneficial as well as in growing the sorghum for sugar-making purposes, or 
for fodder, though perhaps not for seed. 

In addition to the experiments given above, Sir. Harris made the same season, on an adjoining 
field, another set of experiments on Indian corn, the results of which are interesting. 

The land on which these experiments were made, was of a somewhat firmer texture than that on 
which the other set of experiments was made. It is situated about a mile from the barn-yard, and on 
this account had seldom if ever been manured. It had been cultivated for many years with ordinary 
farm crops. It was ploughed early in the spring, and harrowed until quite mellow. The corn was 
planted May 30. Each experiment occupied one-tenth of an acre^ consisting of four rows three and a 
half feet apart, and the same distance between the hills in the rows, with one row without manure 
between each experimental plot. 

The manure was applied in the hill in the same manner as in the first set of experiments. 

The barn-yard manure was well rotted, and consisted principally of cow-dung, with a little horse- 
dung. Twenty two-horse wagon-loads of this was applied per acre, and each load would probably 
weigh about one ton. It was put in the hill and covered with soil, and the seed then planted on the top. 

The following table gives the results of the experiments : 

Table showing the results of experimerUs on Indian com near RochesteTf New York. 






1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 

8 



Descriptioiui of manure and quantities applied 

per acre. 



No manure 

20 loads barn-yard manure 

150 pounds sulphate of ammonia 

300 pounds superphosphate of lime 

400 pounds Peruvian guano 

400 pounds of " cancerine," or fish manure 



i 



g • " 



S i 
•3 S 



I 



O P4 



75 

82i 

85 

88 

90 

85 



12 
10 
30 
10 
30 
20 



o § S 
iH S O 

fl o " 



a 



fl e e 



« « 8 



87 

92i 
115 

98 
120 
105 






|8oa 



"s e 



8 



7i 
10 
13 
15 
10 



18 



18 
8 






i 

I 



H 

28 
11 
33 
18 



Iviii INTRODUCTION. 

As before stated, the land was of a stronger nature than that on which the first set of experiments 
was made, and it was evidently in better condition, as the plot having no manure produced twenty 
bushels of ears of com per acre more than the plot without manure in the other field. 

On plot 4, 300 pounds of superphosphate of lime gives a total increase of eleven bushels of ears 
of corn per acre over the unmanured plot, agreeing exactly with the increase obtained from the same 
quantity of the same manure on plot 5, in the first set of experiments. 

Plot 3, dressed with 150 pounds of sulphate of ammonia per acre, gives a total increase of 28 
bushels of ears of com per acre over the unmanured plot, and an increase of 22J bushels of ears per 
acre over plot 2, which received twenty loads of good, well-rotted barn-yard dung per acre. 

Plot 5, with 400 pounds of Peravian guano per acre, gives the best crop of this series, viz : an in- 
crease of 33 bushels of ears of Corn per acre over the unmanured plot, and 27^ over the plot manured 
with twenty loads of barn-yard dung. The 400 pounds of *' cancerine," an artificial manure made in 
New Jersey, from fish, gives a total increase of 18 bushels of ears per acre over the unmanured .plot, 
and 12^ bushels more than that manured with barn-yard dung ; though 5 bushels of ears of sound 
com and 10 bushels of "nubbins" per acre less than the same quantity of Peruvian guano. 

At the present price of Indian corn, artificial manures can be used with considerable profit, but 
the main dependence of the farmer must still be on barn-yard manure. The light, concentrated fertil- 
izers should be used as auxiliaries to barn-yard manure. In this way they will prove of great advan- 
tage. Anything which increases the crop of Indian corn increases the means of making more manure, 
and that of a better quality. 

The great bulk of our farmers, however, will still rely on natural sources for their manure; and, 
happily, there are comparatively few soils on which Indian corn will not produce a fair return if the soil 
is thoroughly cultivated. With our improved horsehoes and cultivators, there is no excuse for those 
farmers who neglect to keep their com land mellow and entirely firee from weeds. When this is done, 
we can, in ordinary seasons, and on the majority of soils, be sure of a good crop of Indian corn. It 
must be confessed, however, that there are too many farmers who fail to practice this thorough culti- 
vation. One of the greatest advantages of the com crop is, that, being planted in rows at from three 
to four feet apart, the horsehoe can be used to clean the land* In this respect Indian corn is a '' fiillow 
crop;" and it is much to be regretted that so many farmers neglect to avail themselves of this means 
of cleaning their land. They would find that the repeated stirring of the soil would not only destroy 
the weeds, but would make the soil moister in dry weather, and increase its fertility by developing 
the plant-food locked up in the land. Thorough cultivation alone, would double the average yield of 
Indian com in the United States, besides leaving the land cleaner and in much better condition for 
future crops. 



INTRODUCTION. 



lix 



RYE. 
BusJieU of rye produced in 1860. 



STATES. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Connecticut 

Delaware , 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts.. . 

Michigan . . . 

Minnesota. . . .. 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

New Hampshire 
New Jersey . . . . 

New York 

North Carolina. 

Ohio 

Oregon 



BUSHBI^. 



72, 457 

78, 092 

52, 140 

618, 702 

27. 209 

21,306 

115,532 

951,281 

463, 495 

183, 022 

3,833 

1,055,260 

36, 065 

123, 287 

518, 901 

388, 085 

514, 129 

121,411 

39, 474 

293, 2(j2 

128, 247 

1, 439, 497 

4, 786, 905 

436, 856 

683, 686 

2,704 



STATES. 



Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Total, States 

TBRRITORIBS. 

District of Columhia 

Dakota 

Nehraska , 

Nevada 

New Mexico 

Utah 

Washington 

Total, Territories 

Aggregate 



BUSHELS. 



5, 474, 788 
28, 259 
89, 091 
257, 989 
111,860 
139, 271 
944, 330 
888, 544 



21,088,970 



6,919 
700 

2,495 
98 

1,300 
754 
144 



12, 410 



21,101,380 



The amount of rye produced in the United States in 1840 was 18,645,567 bushels; in 1850, 
14,188,813 bushels; and in 1860, 21,101,380 bushels. 

Pennsylvania and New York are the largest producers of rye. These two States produce nearly 
as much rye as all the other States and Territories together. New Jersey also produces largely, 
raising nearly as much rye as wheat. It is a crop well adapted for light sandy soils, and in the neigh- 
borhood of large cities is a profitable crop, not so much, however, for the grain as for the straw. 

The following table shows the amount of rye raised in the New England States in 1860, as com- 
pared with 1850 : 

I860. 1850. 

Connecticut 618, 702 600, 893 

Maine 123, 287 102, 916 

Massachusetts. 388, 085 481, 021 

New Hampshire 128, 247 183, 117 

Rhode Island 28, 259 26, 409 

Vermont 139,271 176,233 

1,425,851 1,570,589 



Ix INTRODUC riON. 

The proiuctioa of rye ia the New England States, has fallen off somewhat since 1850, and yet 
more since 1840. They continue, however, to raise more rye than wheat. In 1860 the New England 
States produced only 1,077,285 bushels of wheat, against 1,425,851 bushels of rye. 

The following table shows the amount of rye raised in the middle States in 1860, a^ compared 
with 1850 : 

I860. 1850. 

New York 4, 786, 905 4, 148, 182 

New Jersey 1, 439, 497 1, 255, 578 

Pennsylvania 5, 474, 788 4, 805, 160 

Maryland 518, 901 226, 014 

Delaware : 27, 209 8, 066 

District of Columbia 6, 919 5, 509 



12, 254, 219 10, 448, 509 



The production of rye has increased in all the middle States. It has increased more than three- 
fold in Delaware, and more than double in Maryland. It is, however, a small crop in these States. 
Pennsylvania, New York, and New Jersey produce nearly all the rye raised in the middle States. 

The following table shows the amount of rye raised in the western States in 1860, as compared 
with 1850: 

I860. 1850. 

Ohio 683, 686 425, 918 

Indiana 463, 495 78, 792 

, *^ Michigan 514, 129 105, 871 

, Illinois 951, 281 85, 364 

Wisconsin 888, 544 81, 253 

Iowa 183, 022 19, 916 

Missouri 293, 262 44, 268 

Kentucky 1, 055, 260 4 15, 073 

Kansas 3,833 

Nebraska 2, 495 

Minnesota 121, 411 125 



5,160,418 1,254,580 



There is a marked increase in the production of rye in all the western States In the aggregate 
there is four times as much rye raised in the western States as in 1850. Rye, however, is not an im- 
ix)rtant crop in the west. Pennsylvania alone produces more rye than all the western States. 

• The following table shows the amount of rye raised in the southern States in 1860, as compared 
with 1850: 

Virginia , 

North Carolina ^ 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Alabama 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Mississippi 

Arkansas 

Tennessee 

Florida 



1860. 


1850. 


944,330 


458, 930 


436, 856 


229, 563 


89, 091 


43, 790 


115,532 


53, 750 


72, 457 


17,261 


36, 065 . 


475 


111,860 


3,108 


39, 474 


9,606 


78, 092 


8,047 


257, 989 


89, 137 


21, 306 


1, 152 


2, 203, 052 


1,014,819 



INTRODUCTION. Ixi 

The production of rye in the southern States, it will be seen, has doubled since 1850. Virginia 
and North Carolina are, by far, the largest producers of rye in the southern States, though there it is 
by no means an important crop. 

The following table shows the amount of rye raised in the Pacific States in 1860, as compared 
with 1850: 

I860. 1850. 

California 52, 140 

Oregon 2, 704 106 

New Mexico 1 , 300 

Washington 144 — . 

Utah ;. 754 210 



57,042 316 



California produces nearly all the rye grown in the Pacific States, though there it is not exten- 
sively cultivated. 

The following table shows the amount of rye raised in the different sections of the United States 
in 1850 and in 1860, in proportion to the population : 

I860. 1850. 

New England States 0.42 0.57 

Western States 0.49 0.19 

Middle States 1.47 1.57 

Southern States 0.27 0.13 

Pacific States. 0.10 0.001 

United States 0.66 0.64 



Much more rye than wheat is raised in New England, and the crop has increased, as we have 
before shown from 1850 to 1860, but, as the above table shows, it has hardly kept pace with the 
increase in population. There is nearly half a bushel of rye raised in the New England States to each 
inhabitant. The western States also raise about half a bushel of rye to each person. There is nearly 
three times as much rye raised in the western States to each inhabitant as was raised in 1850. 

The middle States produce about one and a half bushel of rye to each inhabitant. There is, 
however, a slight falling off in proportion to population since 1850. 

In the States and Territories there were sixty-four hundredths of a bushel of rye raised to 
each inhabitant in 1850, and sixty-six hundredths in 1860, showing a slight increase in proportion to 
population. 

CULTURE OF RYE. 

Of all the bread-plants, rye will succeed best on the driest and poorest soils. It will grow where 
wheat, barley, oats, and Indian corn would fail. With the aid of a little manure it can be grown year 
after year on the same soil. It is exceedingly grateful for manure, and its application to this crop is 
quite profitable, especially in localities where the straw is in demand. 

Rye can be sown either earlier or later than winter wheat. In sections where corn cannot be 
harvested in time to sow winter wheat, rye is frequently substituted after Indian corn. 

In England and in France, on the light soils where wheat alone is rather an uncertain crop, it is com- 
mon to sow rye with the wheat — say half a bushel of rye to two bushels of wheat Large crops are 
thus produced, and the farmers use the mixture, when ground and bolted, for domestic use. It is 
called "monk corn." In Germany, under the name of "meslin," in France, "meteil," the same mix- 
ture is extensively used. There is no sweeter bread than that made of these mixed grains,' and its 
long retention of moisture would render it valuable and popular as an army bread. 

Production of wheat, rye, and com, in proportion to population. — It may be well here to group 
together the principal bread-crops of the United States for the years 1850 and 1860, to facilitate com- 



Ixii INTRODUCTION. 

parisons respecting the aggregate product of these cereals. In 1850 the United States, with a popula- 
tion of 23,191,876, exclusive of Indian tribes, produced 100,485,944 bushels of wheat, or 4.33 to each 
inhabitant;' 14,188,813 bushels of rye, or 0.61 to each inhabitant; and 592,071,104 bushels of corn, 
or 25.53 to each inhabitant. 

In 1860, with a population, exclusive of Indian tribes, of 31,443,321, there were 173,104,924 
bushels of wheat produced, or 5.50 to each inhabitant, showing an increase of one bushel and one- 
sixth to each inhabitant, or an increase, in proportion to population, of twenty-seven per cent. Of rye 
there were 21,101,380 bushels produced, or 0.67 to each inhabitant, showing an increase of 0.06 to each 
inhabitant, or an increase, in proportion to population, of about ten per cent. Of com there ^were 
838,792,740 bushels produced, or 26.73 to each inhabitant, showing an increase of 1.20 to each 
inhabitant, or an increase, in proportion to population, of 4.7 per cent 

The aggregate product of wheat, rye, and com produced in the United States in 1850 was 
706,745,861 bushels, or 30.47 to each inhabitant. In 1860 the aggregate product of wheat, rye, and 
corn was 1,032,999,044 bushels, or 32.90 to each inhabitant; an increase, in proportion to population, of 
7.97 per cent 

The New England States, with a population of 2,728,116 in 1850, produced 1,090,894 bushels of 
wheat, or only thirteen quarts to each inhabitant In 1860, with a population of 3,135,283, the New 
England States produced 1,083,193 bushels, or about eleven quarts and a half to each inhabitant, 
showing a decrease, in proportion to population, of 34.7 per cent Of rye, the New England States 
produced in 1850 1,570,589 bushels, or 0.539 to each inhabitant 

In 1860 they produced 1,425,851 bushels, or 0.455 to each inhabitant, being a decrease, in pro- 
portion to population, of 18.46 per cent The same States in 1850 produced 10,175,856 bushels of 
corn, or 3.73 to each inhabitant. In 1860 they produced 9,164,505 bushels of com, or 2.92 to each 
inhabitant; a decrease, in proportion to population, of 27.74 per cent 

The aggregate of wheat, rye, and corn produced in the New England States in 1850 was 
12,837,339 bushels, or 4.73 to each inhabitant In 1860 the aggregate of wheat, rye, and corn pro- 
duced was 11,673,549 bushels, or 3 72 to each inhabitant^ showing a decrease, in proportion to popula- 
tion, of twenty-seven per cent 

The middle States, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland, in 1850, with 
a population of 6,573,301, produced 35,067,570 bushels of wheat, or 5.33 to each inhabitant The 
same States, in 1860, with a population of 8,258,150, produced 30,502,909 bushels, or 3.69 to each 
inhabitant; a decrease, in proportion to population, of 44.4 per cent Of rye, these States, in 1850, pro- 
duced 10,443,000 bushels, or 1.58 to each inhabitant In 1860 the product was 12,247,300 bushels, 
or 1.48 to each inhabitant, being a decrease of 6.7 per cent in proportion to population. Of corn there 
were produced in 1850 60,348,718 bushels, or 9.18 to each inhabitant In 1860 there were produced 
75,318,465 bushels, or 9.12 to each inhabitant; a decrease, in proportion to population, of 0.65 percent 
The aggregate of wheat, rye, and com produced in the middle States in 1850 was 105.859,288 bushels, 
or 16.1 to each inhabitant In 1860 the aggregate product was 118,068,674 bushels, or 14.29 to each 
inhabitant; a decrease, in proportion to population, of 12.6 per cent 

The western States, Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Kentucky, 
Indiana, and Illinois, in 1850, with a population of 6,379,723, produced 46,076,318 bushels of wheat, or 
7.22 to each inhabitant The same States, in 1860, with apopulation of 10,218,722, produced 102.251,127 
bushels, or 10 to each inhabitant; an increase, in proportion to population, of 38.5 per cent Of rye, the 
product in 1850 was 1,254,580 bushels, or 0.196 to each inhabitant In 1860 the product was 5,157,923 
bushels, or 0.504 to each inhabitant; being an increase, in proportion to population, of 157 per cent Of 
com, the product in 1850 was 280,881,093 bushels, or 44 to each inhabitant In 1860 the product was 
468,708,017 bushels, or 45.86 to each inhabitant ; an increase, in proportion to population, of 4 per cent 
The aggregate of wheat, rye, and corn produced in 1850 was 328,211,991 bushels, or 51.4 to each 
inhabitant In 1860 the aggregate was 576,117,067 bushels, or 56.36 to each inhabitant ; an increase, 
in proportion to population, of 9.63 per cent. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Ixiii 



The southern States — Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, 
South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and Texas — in 1850, with a population of 7,373,954, produced 
17,791,761 bushels of wheat, or 2.42 to each inhabitant. In 1860 the same States, with a population 
of 8,975,124, produced 81,441,826 bushels, or 3.50 to each inhabitant; an increase, in proportion to 
population, of 44.6 per cent. In 1860 the product x)f rye was 914,819 bushels, or 0.12 to each inhabitant. 
In 1860 the quantity produced was 2,203,052 bushels, or 0.256 to each inhabitant; an increase, in pro- 
portion to population, of 113.3 per cent. The product of corn in 1850 was 240,209,743 bushels, or 
32.68 to each inhabitant. In 1860 the product was 282,626,778 bushels, or 31.49 to each inhabitant; a 
decrease, in proportion to population, of 3.78 per cent The aggregate of wheat, rye, and corn produced 
in 1850 was 258,916,323 bushels, or 35.2 to each inhabitant. In 1860 the aggregate was 316,271,656 
bushels, or 35.24 to each inhabitant; the number of bushels to each inhabitant being the same as in 1850. 

Statistics of tcheat, ri/e, and cam produced in the United States, 



Grain. 



1850. 



.a 
1 



^ 



UNITED STATES. 

Wheat 

Rye 

Com 

Total 

NEW ENGLAND STATES 

Wheat 

Rye 

Corn 

Total 

MIDDLE STATES. 

Wheat 

Rye 

Cora 

Total 

WESTERN STATES. 

Wheat 

Rye 

Com , 

Total 

SOUTHERN STATES. 

Wheat 

Rye 

Cora , 

Total 



100,485,944 

14,188,813 

592,071,104 



706, 745, 861 



1,090,894 

1,570,589 

10, 175, 856 



12, 837, 339 



35, 067, 570 
10, 443, 000 
60,348,718 



105,859,288 



46, 076, 318 
1,254,580 

260,881,093 



328,211,991 



17,791,761 

914, 819 

240, 209, 743 



258,916.323 



.52 -^ 

^ 



4.33 

.61 

25.53 



30.47 



4.65 
.539 
3.73 



4.73 



5.33 
1.58 
9.18 



16.10 



7.22 
.196 
44 



51.4 



2.42 

.12 

32.68 



35.2 



1860. 



I 



525 



173,104,924 
21,101,38a 

838,792,740 



1,032,999,044 



1,083,193 
1,425,851 
9,104,505 



11,673,549 



30,502,909 
12, 247, 300 
75, 318, 465 



118, 068, 674 



102,251,127 

5, 157, 923 

468, 708, 017 



576,117,067 



31,441,826 

2, 203, 052 

282, 626, 778 



316,271,656 



OD . 

* 



5.50 

.67 

26.73 



32.90 



.345 
.455 
2.92 



3.72 



3.69 
1.48 
9.12 



14.29 



10 

.504 
45.86 



56.36 



3.50 
.256 
31.49 



35.24 



<^ 



8 



3 





72, 618, 980 

6,912,567 

246,721,636 



326, 253, 183 



•7, 701 

^'144,738 

•1,011,351 



^1,163,790 



M, 564, 661 

1,804,300 
14, 969, 747 



12, 209, 386 



56, 174, 609 

3, 903, 343 

187, 826, 924 



247, 905, 076 



13,650,065 

1,288,233 

42, 417, 035 



57, 355, 333 



.a 

-M 

^ eB 

O 4> 






1.17 

.06 

1.20 



2.43 



M.20 

•.084 



^8l 



1.01 



•1.64 
•.10 
•.06 



1.80 



2.78 
.308 
1.86 



4.95 



1.08 
.136 
•1.19 






C C3 
9 






27 
9.8 
4.7 



7.97 



•34.7 

•18. 40 
•27. 74 



»27 



•44.4 

•6.7 
*.65 



^12.6 



38.5 
157 
4 



9.63 



44.6 
113.3 
•3.78 



* OecreaM. 



Ixiv 



INTRODUCTION. 



STATBS. 



Alabama . . . 
Arkansas . . 
California . . 
Connecticut 
Delaware — 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 



Iowa 



Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana ... 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts . . 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina. 
Ohio 



Oregon 



OATS. 
Bushels of oats produced m I860. 



BUSHELS. 






682, 179 
475, 268 

1, 043, 006 
1,522,218 
1,046,910 

46, 899 

1,231,817 

15, 220, 029 

5,^317, 831 

5, 887, 645 

88, 325 
4, 617, 029 

89, 377 

2, 988, 939 

3, 959, 298 
1, 180, 075 
4, 036, 980 
2, 176, 002 

221, 235 
3, 680, 870 

1, 329, 233 

4, 539, 132 
35, 175, 134 

2, 781, 860 
15, 409, 234 

885, 673 



STATES. 



Pennsylvania - 
Bhode Island . . 
South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Wisconsin 



Total, States 



TERRITORIES. 



District of Columbia. 

Dakota 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Mexico 

Utah 

Washington 



Total, Territories 



Aggregate 



BU8HELS. 



27, 387, 147 
244, 453 
936, 974 

2, 267, 814 
985, 889 

3, 630, 267 

10, 186, 720 

11, 059, 260 



172, 330, 722 



29, 548 
2,540 

74, 502 
1,082 
7,246 

63,211 
134, 334 



3 12, 463 



172, 643, 185 



More oats than wheat is raised in the United States by over a million bushels. In 1860 there 
were 172,643,185 bushels of oats raised, against 146,584,179 bushels in 1850. The increase is by no 
means equal to the increase in population, and is far less than the increase in wheat and Indian com. 

New York is the greatest oat-growing State in the Union, producing 35,176,134 bushels. 
Pennsylvania comes next, producing 27,387,147 bushels. Ohio stands third, producing 15,409,234 
bushels. Illinois is fourth, producing 15,220,029 bushels. Wisconsin stands fifth, producing 
11,059,270 bushels. Virginia comes next, producing 10,186,720 bushels. 

The four States of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Illinois, produce more oats than all the 
other States and Territories. 

The New England States produced 10,766,523 bushels in 1860, against 8,101,268 in 1850, as 
follows : 



I860. 

Maine 2, 988, 939 

New Hampshire 1, 329, 233 

Vermont 3, 630,267 

Massachusetts 1, 180, 075 

Rhode Island 234, 453 

Connecticut 1, 522, 218 



1850. 
2,181,037 

973, 381 
2, 307, 734 
1, 165, 146 

215, 232 
1, 258, 738 



10, 885, 185 



8, 101, 268 



INTRODUCTION. Ixv 

Vermont is the largest oat-produciag State in New England, Maine coming next. Both the&e 
States fell off in the production of Indian corn in 1860 as compared, with 1850; but the oat crop 
has materially increased. In none of the New England States has there been any fallinrg off in the 
production of oats, while in the aggregate there has been an increase of over 25 per cent. 

In the middle States, the oat crop has increased from 54,323,836 bushels in 1850, to 72,137,170 
bushels in 1860, as follows: 

I860 1850. 

New York 35, 175, 133 26, 552, 814 

New Jersey ^. 4, 539, 132 3, 378, 063 

Maryland 3, 959, 298 2, 242. 151 

Pennsylvania 27, 387, 149 21, 538, 156 

Delaware 1, 046, 910 604, 518 

District of Columbia 29, 548 8, 134 

72, 137, 170 54, 323, 836 



There is no falling off in any of the middle States. The increase from 1850 to 1860, in the aggre- 
gate, is over 25 per cent. 

In 1860, as compared with 1850, the production of wheat in the middle States, as we have before 
remarked, fell off nearly five millions of bushels. On the other hand, the crop of Indian corn increased 
in the same period nearly fourteen millions of bushels ; and, as will be seen from the above table, the 
crop of oats also increased in the same period nearly eighteen millions of bushels. In other words, 
while we lose five million bushels of wheat, we gain nearly thirty-two million bushels of Indian corn 
and oats. The decrease in the production of wheat, caused by the midge, is not an unmixed evil — the 
land has been devoted to other crops. 

The following table shows the amount of oats raised in the western States in 1860 and 1850: 

I860. 1850. 

Illinois 15, 220, 029 10, 087, 241 

Indiana 5, 317, 381 5, 655, 014 

Iowa 5, 887, 645 I, 624, 345 

Kansas 88, 325 

Kentucky 4, 617, 029 8, 201, 311 

Michigan 4, 036, 980 2, 866, 056 

Minnesota 2, 176, 002 30, 582 

Missouri 3, 680,^70 5, 278, 079 

Ohio 15, 409, 234 13, 472, 742 

Wisconsin 11, 059, 260 3, 414, 672 

Nebraska 74, 502 

67, 567, 257 48. 530, 042 



Ohio produces more oats than any other western State. Illinois produces nearly as much, and 
shows a much greater increase than Ohio since 1850. Wisconsin comes next. The production of oats 
in this State has increased from less than three and a haljF million bushels in 1850 to over eleven millioa 
bushels in 1860. 

The three States of Ohio, Illinois, and Wisconsin produce over 62 per cent, of all the oats raised 
in the western States. In round numbers these three States produce forty-two million bushels of oats, 
while all the other western States produce only twenty-five million bushels. 

In the production of oats, as in other crops, Minnesota shows a rapid increase. In 1860 she pro- 
duced over two million bushels of oats against thirty thousand bushels in 1850. Iowa, Wisconsin, and 
Michigan show a marked increase in the yield of oats. Indiana, on the other hand, has slightly de- 
creased. Kentucky has fallen off nearly one-half. Missouri also shows a marked decrease in the oat 

crop, falling off from five million bushels in 1850 to three and a half million bushels in 1860. 




Ixvi INTRODUCTION. 

On the whole, the western States do not show as great an increase in the production of oats as of 
Indian corn or wheat. The most remarkable decrease in the oat crop, however, is in the southern 
States. This will be seen from the following table, showing the production of oats in the different 
southern States in 1860 and 1850 : 

I860. 1850. 

Alabama 682, 179 2, 965, 696 

ArkaneaB 475, 268 656. 183 

Florida 46, 899 66, 586 

Georgia 1, 231, 817 3, 820, 044 

Louisiana 89, 377 89, 637 

Mississippi 221. 235 1, 503, 288 

North Carolina 2, 781. 860 4, 052, 078 

South Carolina 936, 974 2, 322, 155 

Tennessee 2, 267, 814 7, 703, 086 

Texas 985, 889 199, 017 

Virginia 10, 186, 720 10, 179, 144 

19, 906, 032 33, 566, 913 



With the exception of Texas and Virginia, the oat crop has fallen off in every southern State. 
The crop in Alabama fell off from nearly three million bushels in 1850 to less than three-c^uarters of a 
million in 1860. Mississippi falls off from one and a half million to two hundred and twenty thousand, 
and other States, as will be seen from the table, also fall, off to an equal extent. 

This rapid decrease in the production of oats in the slave States is quite curious. In the table 
showing the amount of oats raised in the western States it will be observed that Kentucky and Wis- 
consin showed a marked falling off in the production of oats. It is probable, however, that the system 
of labor there adopted, has less to do with the fact than the nature of the climate. Oats are essentially 
a northern crop; and, while they flourish well in the southwest, it is doubtless found that other crops 
which do not thrive so well in a more northern latitude can be raised south with greater profit. 

The following table shows the production of oats in the Pacific States : 

I860. J850. 

Caliloraia 1, 043, 006 

Oregon 885, 673 61, 214 

New Mexico 7, 246 5 

Washington 134, 334 

Utah 63, 211 10, 900 

2, 133, 420 72, 119 



California, which was unreported in 1850, produces over a million bushels in 1860. Oregon also 
has increased to an almost equal extent. 

The following table shows the production of oats in the different sections of the country in 1 850 
and in 1860 in proportion to population: 

I860. 1850. 

New England States 3.43 2.95 

Middle States 8.65 8.20 

Western States 6.51 7.59 

Southern States 2.18 4.46 

Pacific States 4.00 0.40 

United States 5.49 6.32 



as 



INTRODUCTION. Ixvii 

The New England States produced about the same quantity of oats as of Indian corn ; but, while 
there has been a falling off in the production of Indian corn, in proportion to population, between 1860 
and 1860, the production of oats has increased about half a bushel to each inhabitant, or from 2.96 
bushels in 1860 to 3.43 bushels in 1860. 

The middle States raise more oats, in proportion to population, than any other section. In the 
production of wheat there has been a great falling off from 1850 to 1860, and in Indian corn there was 
a slight decline in proportion to population ; but the oat crop has increased more than enough to make 
up for the deficiency in the corn crop, though by no means sufficient, in proportion to population, to 
make up for the decrease in the yield of wheat. In 1860 the middle States produced about nine 
bushels of Indian corn to each person, and a little over eight and one-half bushels of oats. 

The western States, which produce over 45 bushels of Indian com, produce only six and one-half 
bushels of oats to each inhabitant. The increase in the production of oats in the western States does 
not keep pace with the increase iu population. In 1860, as compared with 1850, there is a falling off 
of over one bushel of oats to each person. 

The southern States produced nearly four and one-half bushels of oats to each person in 1850, 
and only a fraction over two bushels in 1860. 

The Pacific States, in 1860, produced four bushels of oats to each person. 

Taking the country as a whole, the production of oats has not kept pace with the increase in popu- 
lation. In 1850 we produced six and three-tenths bushels to each person, and in 1860 less than five 
and one-half bushels. 

THE CULTURE OF OATS. 

This grain, while paying well for good cultivation, can be raised with less labor than any other 
cereal crop, and will thrive on a great variety of soils. Where extra care is taken in preparing and 
enriching the land, the best and heaviest oats are produced on a clayey loam ; but, as a general rule, 
in this country, oats are raised on low, moist, rather mucky soils. Unlike barley, they succeed on 
sod-land. They are frequently sown on new, moist land, that would otherwise be planted with Indian 
corn. They require less labor in planting and cultivating than corn, and are sown to a considerable 
extent on this account. 

In New York and Pennsylvania, which produce more than one-third of all the oats raised in the 
United States and Territories, oats are frequently sown on land intended for wheat, taking the place 
formerly occupied by a summer fallow. Where the land is rich enough, good wheat is often obtained 
after oats ; but, as a general rule, the oats are obtained at the expense of the succeeding wheat crop. 



Ixviii 



INTRODUCTION. 



BAKLEY. 
BusheU of barley produced in I860. 



STATES. 



BUSHELS. 



STATES. 



Alabama ! 15, 135 

Arkansas i 3, 158 

California i 4,415,426 

Connecticut , 20, 813 

Delaware ! 3, 646 

Florida \ 8, 309 

Georgia ' 14, 682 

Illinois 1, 036, 338 

Indiana ~ 382, 245 

Iowa 467, 103 

Kansas 4, 716 

Kentucky 270, 685 

Louisiana 224 

Maine i 802, 108 

Maryland 17, 350 

Massachusetts I 134, 891 

Michigan 307, 868 

Minnesota : 109, 668 

Mississippi 1, 875 

Missouri I 228, 502 

New Hampshire i 121, 103 

New Jersey 24, 915 

New York i 4, 186. 668 

North Carolina ' 3, 445 

Ohio 1, 663, 868 

Oregon 26, 254 



Pennsylvania. . 
Bhode Island . . 
South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Wisconsin 



Total, States 



TERRITORIES. 



District of Columbia 

Dakota 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Mexico 

Utah 

Washington 



ri'x 



Total, Territories 



Aggregate 



BUSHELS. 



530, 714 
40, 993 
11,490 
25, 144 
67,562 
79, 211 
68,846 

707, 307 



15, 802, 322 



175 



1,108 
1.597 
6,099 
9.976 
4,621 

23, 576 



15, 825, 898 



The climate of the United States is not as well adapted to the production of barley as of wheat 
Barley delights in a moist climate and an extended growing season. It is for this reason that English 
barley is superior to that of any other country. While we can raise wheat of a quality superior to 
that of England, our best barley would not be used by a London maltster. 

Barley is now used in this country principally for beer-making purposes. With the rapid increase 
in our foreign population there is yearly an increased demand for barley, and the price has advanced 
much more than that of any other of our ordinary grain crops. Weight for weight, barley of late years 
has brought a higher price than wheat, and, where the soil and climate are well suited to its production, 
there are few crops more profitable. In favorable circumstances it is believed that three bushels of 
barley can be raised with as little expense as two bushels of wheat. Barley, of all ordinary crops, 
however, requires good culture. It is only on well-drained and highly cultivated farms that we can 
depend for raising good crops. 

As compared with Indian corn, wheat, and oats, barley occupies a very subordinate position 
in American agriculture. In 1860 the total crop of the States and Territories was 15,825,898 
bushels; while, in round numbers, there were 838,000,000 bushels of Indian corn, 173,000,000 bushels 
of wheat, and 172,000,000 bushels of oats. As compared with 1850, however, the increase in the pro- 
duction of barley has been greater than in any of these crops. In round numbers, the barley crop in 
1850 was 5,000,000 bushels, and in 1860 16,000,000 bushels, or an increase of 200 per cent. This is 



INTRODUCTION. Ixix 

due principally, as before remarked, to the increased demand for barley for malting purposes, and the 
high price which, relatively to other crops, and to the expense of its cultivation, it commands in market. 
The following table shows the amount of barley raised in the New England States in 1860 as 
compared with 1850 : 

I860. 1850. 

Connecticut 20, 813 19, 099 

MasBachusetts 134, 891 112, 385 

Vermont 79, 211 42, 150 

Rhode Island 40, 993 18. 875 

New Hampshire 121, 103 70, 256 

Maine 802. 108 151, 731 

1,199,119 414,496 



It will be seen that the crop has increased in every one of the New England States. In the ag- 
gregate there was nearly three times as much raised in 1860 as in 1850. The greatest increase is in 
Maine. More than five times as much was raised in this State in 1860 as in 1850. 

The following table shows the amount of barley raised in the middle States in 1860 as compared 
with 1850: 

IBGO: 1850. 

New York 4. 186, 667 3, 585, 059 

Pennsylvania 530, 716 165, 584 

New Jersey 24, 915 6, 492 

Delaware 3, 646 56 

Maryland 17, 350 745 

District of Columbia 175 75 

4,753,469 3,758,011 



The production of barley in each of the middle States has increased since 1850; but the increase 
is by no means equal to that in the New England States. New York produces over 85 per cent, of all 
the barley raised in the middle States. The increased per cent., however, in this State has been far 
less than in the other States. This, however, is due to the fact that, as compared with other States, 
her barley crop was so large in 1850. She produced over half a million bushels more barley in 1860 
than in 1850, which is nearly as much as the total crop in the other middle States. 

Pennsylvania, which raised thirteen million bushels of wheat in 1860, while New York raised only 
eight and a half million bushels, and twenty-eight million bushels of Indian corn to twenty million 
bushels in New York, produces only a little more than half a million bushels of barley, while New York 
produces over four million bushels. 

The following table shows the amount of barley raised in the western States in 1860 as compared 
with 1850 : 

I860. 1850. 

Illinois 1, 036, 338 110, 795 

Indiana 382, 245 45, 483 

Iowa 467, 103 25, 093 

Kansas 4, 716 

Kentucky 270, 685 95, 343 

Michigan 307, 868 75, 249 

Minnesota 109. 668 1, 216 

Missouri 228, 502 9, 631 

Ohio 1. 663, 868 354, 358 

Nebraska 1, 108 

4,472,101 717.168 



hx INTRODUCTION. 

Western States, inclusive, produce but little more barley than the State of New York alone. Ohio 
produces more barley than any other western State. Illinois comes next. These two States produce 
about one million bushels more barley than all the other western States. 

Though the aggregate production of barley in the western States is so small, the increase since 
1850 has been very great. The crop of Illinois has increased eight hundred and fifty per cent. Iowa 
even more, or about eighteen hundred per cent. Missouri has increased still more rapidly, or nearly 
two thousand three hundred per cent. 

The following table shows the amount of barley raised in the southern States in 1860 as com- 
pared with 1860 : 

I860. lam 

Alabama 15, 135 2, 958 

Arkansas 3, 158 177 

Florida 8, 369 

Georgia 14, 682 11. 501 

Louisiana 224 

Mississippi 1, 875 228 

North Carolina 3, 445 2, 735 

South Carolina 11, 490 4, 583 

Tennessee 25, 144 2, 737 

Texas 67, 562 4, 776 

Virginia : 68, 846 25, 437 

i>19,930 56,132 



The production of barley in the southern States is quite small. The single State of Maine alone 
produces four times as much barley as all the southern States. The increase, however, since 1850, is 
very decided, or over three hundred per cent. Virginia produces nearly one-third of all the barley 
raised in the southern States. Texas, Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina are the 
principal southern barley-growing States; but even in these States the crop is very small. 

The following table shows the amount of barley raised in the Pacific States in 1860 as compared 
with 1850: 

I860. 1850. 

California 4, 415, 426 9, 712 

Oiegon 26, 254 

New Mexico 6, 099 5 

Waehington 4, 621 

Utah 9. 976 1, 799 

4,462,376 11,516 



California produces nearly all the barley raised in the Pacific States. It is a noteworthy fact, that 
this young State produces more barley than any other State in the Union. California and New York 
produce more barley than all the other States and Territories included. 

The following table shows the amount of barley raised in different sections of the United States in 
1860 and 1850, in proportion to the population : 

I860. 1850. 

New England State 0.38 0.15 

Middle States 0.54 0.56 

Western States 0.43 0.11 

Southern States 0.02 0.001 

Pacific States 7.88 0.05 

United States and Territories 0.40 0.22 



INTRODUCriON. 



Ixxi 



It will be seen that the production of barley in all the States more than keeps up with the in- 
crease in population. In fact the amount of barley raised to each person in 1860 was nearly twice as 
much as in 1850. It was more than double in the New England States ; nearly four times as great 
in the western States, and about fifteen times as great in the Pacific States. 

In the middle States alone, has the increase in the crop fallen below the increase in population. 

CULTURE OF BARLEY. 

As before remarked, barley requires good cultivation. It delights in a warm, active, fertile soil It 
does not do well on sod-land. In England it is usually sown on light, sandy soils, afler a crop of 
turnips that have been eaten on the land by sheep. The droppings of the sheep enrich the land, while 
the small feet of the sheep consolidate the light, porous soil. In this country barley appears to flourish 
on heavier soils, especially if they are thoroughly pulverized. At all events the soil must be well drained 
and the crop sown in good season in the spring. Our season is so short, and the roots of barley ex- 
tend, as compared with winter wheat, over such a small surface, that it is exceedingly important that 
the soil contain a liberal supply of plant-food in an active condition. 

Winter barley is grown to a considerable extent in the southwestern States, and its cultivation is 
rapidly increasing in western New York, where it takes the place, to a certain extent, of winter wheat 
Winter barley is heavier than spring barley, and commands a higher price. It is sown at the same 
time as winter wheat, and requires the same cultivation. 

BUCKWHEAT. 
Bushels of buckwheat produced in I860. 



STATES. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts . . 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina.. 

Ohio 

Oregon 



BUSHELS. 



1,347 

509 

76, 887 

309, 107 

16, 355 



2,023 

324, 117 

396, 989 

215, 705 

41, 575 

18, 928 

160 

239, 519 

212, 338 

123, 202 

529, 916 

28, 052 

1,699 

182, 292 

89, 996 

877, 386 

5, 126, 307 

35, 924 

2, 370, 650 

2,749 



STATES 



Pennsylvania . . . . 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina . . . 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Total, States 



TERRITORIES. 



District of Columbia 

Dakota 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Mexico 

Uuh 

Washington 



Total, Territories 



Aggregate 



BUSHELS. 



5, 572, 024 

3,573 

602 

14, 481 

1,349 

225, 415 

478, 090 

38, 987 



17, 558, 253 



445 

115 

12, 224 



6 

68 

707 



13, dGid 



17, 571, 818 



Ixxii INTRODUCTION. 

Buckwheat is an important crop in many sections of the United Statues. It has properties which 
render it peculiarly well suited to take the place it occupies among our grain crops. It is not botani- 
cally a cereal, but it affords a highly nutritious grain, which is used to a considerable extent as food for 
man and animals. It can be sown later in the season than any other grain-crop. In favorable sea- 
sons, and on good soil, the yield is very large. It is so rampant a grower that it smothers out weeds, 
and is frequently sown for this purpose. It is also grown as a green-crop for ploughing under as 
manure. Being sown so late in the season, it can be grown on land that is too wet for other crops. 
On the other hand, it succeeds well on rough, hilly land, where almost any other crop would perish. 

The total production of buckwheat in the United States and Territories in 1840 was 7,291,743 
bushels, in 1850 8,956,912 bushels, and in 1860 17,571,818 bushels. The crop of 1860 was nearly 
double what it was in 1850, showing a larger increase than any other grain-crop. 

The following table shows the amount of buckwheat raised in the New England States in 1860, 
as compared with 1850: 

I860. 1850. • 

Connecticut ! 309, 107 229, 297 

Maine 339, 519 104, 523 

Massachusetts 123, 202 ] 05, 895 

New Hampshire 89, 996 G5, 265 

Rhode Island 3, 573 1, 245 

Vermont 225, 415 209, 819 



• 



1. 090, 812 716, 044 



There is a large increase in the crop of buckwheat in the New England States in 1860, as com- 
pared with 1850; bat the crop of 1850 was less than in 1840, being 778,084 bushels in 1840, against 
716,044 bushels in 1860. 

The largest increase is in Maine. The crop of buckwheat in this State in 1840 was 51,543 bush- 
els, in 1850 104,523 bushels, and in 1860 330,519 bushels. 

Connecticut raised 303,043 bushels of buckwheat in 1840, 229,297 bushels in 1850, and 309,107 
bushels in 1860. These fluctuations in the produce of buckwheat are doubtless caused by the season, 
as this crop is more dependent on the weather than any other. 

The following table shows the amount of buckwheat raised in the middle States in 1360, as com- 
pared with 1850 : 

I860. 1850. 

New York 5, 126, 307 3, 183, 955 

New Jersey 817, 386 878, 934 

Pennsylvania 5, 572, 024 2, 193, 692 

Maryland. 212, 338 103, 671 

Delaware 16, 355 8, 615 

District of Columbia 445 378 



11, 744, 855 6, 369, 245 



In Pennsylvania and New York buckwheat is an important crop, and the above figures show that 
its cultivation is rapidly increasing. The crop has nearly doubled in these States since 1850. The 
grain is used extensively as food for sheep in winter, and there are few crops which for the labor 
attending it afford a better profit. 

The following table shows the amount of buckwheat raised in the westefn States in 1860, as 
compared with 1850 : 



INTRODUCTION. Uxiii 



I860. 

Obio ^ 2. 370, 650 

Indiana 39C, 989 

Michigan 529, 916 

Illinois 324, 117 

Wisconsin 38, 987 

Minnesota 28, 052 

Iowa 215, 705 

Missouri 182, 292 

Kentucky 18, 928 

Kansas 41, 575 

Nebraska 12, 224 

4, 159, 435 



1850. 


638, 


060 


149, 


740 


472, 


917 


184, 504 


79, 


878 




515 


52, 


516 


23, 


641 


16, 


097 

» « • • 


1,617, 


864 



It will be seen that Ohio raises more buckwheat than all the other western States, and that the 
crop has rapidly increased since 1850. 

Michigan raises the next largest crop of buckwheat, though but little more than one quarter of the 
amount raised in Ohio. 

Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, and Missouri are evidently giving some attention to buckwheat, but it is a 
very subordinate crop in these great corn-growing States. 

The following table shows the amount of buckwheat raised in the southern States in 1860 as 
compared with 1850 : 

I860. 1850. 

Virginia 478, 090 214, 898 

North Carolina 35, 924 16, 704 

South Carolina 602 283 

Georgia 2, 023 250 

Alabama 1, 347 348 

Louisiana 160 3 

Texas 1, 349 59 

Mississippi 1, 699 1, 121 

Arkansas 509 175 

Tennessee 14, 481 19, 427 

Florida 55 

536, 184 253, 323 



The crop of buckwheat has more than doubled in the southern States since 1850. It is, however, 
a very small crop in the south. 

Virginia produces eight times as much as all the other southern States together. It is probable 
that the bulk of the crop is raised in western Virginia, where the agriculture assimilates closely to that 
of Pennsylvania and Ohio. 

The following table shows the amount of buckwheat raised in the Pacific States in 1860, as com- 
pared with 1850 : 

I860. 1850. 

California 76,887 

Oregon 2, 749 

New Mexico 6 100 

Washington 707 

Utah 68 332 

80, 417 432 

10 



Ixxir INTRODUCTION. 

In buckwheat, as in every other agricultural product, California shows rapid progress. It is clear, 
however, that this crop receives but little attention on the Pacific coast. 

The following table shows the amount of buckwheat raised in the different sections of the United 
States in proportion to population : 

I860. 1850. 

New England States 0.35 0.26 

Middle States 1.41 0.96 

Western States ^. 0.41 0.25 

Soutbcm States 0.09 0.03 

Pacific States 0.14 ^ 0.002 

Whole United States and Territories 0.56 0.38 



Buckwheat is one of the few crops that increases more rapidly in the United States than the pop- 
ulation. In 1850 we raised in the whole United States and Territories about twelve quarts to each 
person, and in 1860 a little over half a bushel. 

The middle States in 1850 raised nearly a bushel of buckwheat to each inhabitant, and in 1860 
nearly a bushel and a half to each person. 

The western States raise less than half a bushel to each person, and New England seven-twen- 
tieths of a bushel. The southern States raise only nine hundredths of a bushel to each inhabitant. 

PEAS AND BEANS. 
Bushels of peas and beans produced in 1860. 



STATES. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louiciiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts . . 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

New Hampshire 

New Jcr.-:ey 

New York , 

North Carolina . . 

Ohio 

OregOQ 



BUSHELS. 



1, 482, 036 

440, 472 

165, 574 

25, 8G4 

7,438 

3G3, 217 

1,765,214 

108, 028 

79, 902 

41,081 

9,827 

288, 34G 

431, 148 

246, 915 

34, 407 

45, 246 

165, 128 

18, 988 

1,954.666 

107, 999 

79, 454 

27, 674 

1,609,339 

1, 932, 204 

102,511 

34, 407 



STATES. 



Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Total, States 

TERRITORIES. 

District of Columbia 

Dakota 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Mexico 

Utah 

Washington 

Total, Territories , 

Aggregate 



DDSHBLS. 



123, 090 

7,698 

1, 728, 074 

547, 803 

341, 961 

70, 654 

515, 16S 

99, 484 



15,001,017 







3, 


749 




286 


5, 


029 




15 


38, 


514 


2, 


535 


10, 


850 


60, 


978 


15,061, 


995 



INTRODUCTION. Ixx 



V 



In 1850 there were raised in the United States 9,219,901 bushels of peas and beans. The 
amount was not given in the census of 1840. In 1860 there were raised 15,061,995 bushels, showing 
an increase of over 50 per cent. 

Had the crops been returned separately it would have been more interesting. Though belonging 
to the same botanical order, {LeguminosiB,) and of quite similar chemical composition, the crops are 
raised practically for very different objects. Beans are grown principally as food for man, while the 
pea is cultivated principally as food for animals on the farms, or for ploughing under as a green crop 
ibr manure. 

With the exception of flax-seed and decorticated cotton-seed, peas and beans contain more nitrogen 
than any other grain. The droppings of animals fed on peas and beans are consequently more valuable 
than that from animals fed on any other grain. 

The growth of these crops when fed out on the farm increases its fertility more than any other 
grain crop. When consumed on the farm, and the manure returned to the land, or when ploughed under 
as a manure, peas may be considered as a renovating crop. As a crop to alternate with wheat, peas 
are exceedingly useful. They tax the soil but lightly, and when a heavy crop is produced they smother 
the weeds. They also ripen early enough to afford ample time to sow wheat after the peas are harvested. 

To a certain extent these remarks are applicable to beans. Their cultivation is rapidly extending 
in the wheat-growing districts. They can be planted late in the season, and yet can be harvested in 
time to allow the land to be sown to wheat. Being planted in rows, the land can be horsehoed and 
the soil cleaned and pulverized almost as well as if summer-fallowed. 

The following table shows the amount of peas and beans raised in the New England States in 
1860 as compared with 1850 : 

I860. 1850. 

Connecticut 25, 864 19, 090 

Maine 24G, 915 205, 541 

Massachusetts 45, 246 43, 709 

New Hampsbirc " 79, 454 70, 856 

Rhode Island 7, 698 6, 846 

Vermont 70,654 104,649 

475,831 450,691 



Except in Vermont, the crop of peas and beans has increased in all the New England States since 1 850. 

Maine raises more peas and beans than all the other New England States. The total of these two 
crops in New England is less than half a million bushels. 

The following table shows the amount of peas and beans raised in the middle States in 1860 as 
compared with 1 850 : 

I860. 1850. 

New York 1. 609, 339 741, 546 

New Jersey 27, 674 14, 174 

Pennsylvania 123, 090 65, 231 

Maryland 34, 407 12, 816 

Delaware 7, 438 4, 120 

District of Columbia 3, 749 ' 7, 754 

1, 805, 697 835, 641 



New York raises eight-ninths of all the peas and beans produced in the middle States. The crop 
in this State has more than doubled since 1850. 



Ixxvi INTRODUCTION. 

The following table shows the amount of peas and beans raised in the western States in 1860 as 
compared with 1850 : 

I860. 1850. 

Ohio 102, 511 60, 168 

Indiana 79, 902 35, 773 

Michigan 165,128 74,254 

Illinois 108, 028 82, 814 

Wisconsin 99,484 20,657 

Iowa 41, 081 4, 775 

Missouri 107, 999 46, 017 

Kentucky 288, 346 202, 574 

Minnesota: 18, 988 10, 002 

Kansas 9, 827 

Nebraska 5, 029 



1, 026, 323 537, 434 



It will be observed that the whole western States do not produce as much peas and beans as the 
State of New York alone. Kentucky produces more than any other western State. Michigan comes 
next, and then Illinois, Missouri, and Ohio. But these crops are not raised to any considerable extent in 
the west. 

During the present year (1864) the west has barely been able to supply the home demand for 
beans, and, to some extent at least, has imported them from the middle States and Canada. 

The following table shows the amount of peas and beans raised in the southern States in 1860 
as compared with 1850 : 

I860. 1850. 

Virginia 515,168 521,579 

North Carolina 1, 932, 204 1, 584, 252 

South Carolina 1, 728,074 1, 026, 900 

Georgia 1, 765, 214 1, 142, Oil 

Alabama 1, 482, 036 892, 701 

Louisiana 431, 148 161, 732 

' Texas 341, 961 179, 350 

Mississippi 1, 954, 666 1, 072, 757 

Arkansas 440, 472 285. 738 

Tennessee 547, 803 369, 321 

Florida 363, 217 135, 359 



11,501,963 7,371,700 



The States and Territories raised about 9,000,000 bushels of peas and beans in 1850. Of these 
the southern States raised over 7,000,000 bushels- In 1860 the States and Territories raised about 
15,000,000 bushels, and of these the southern States raised over 11,500,000 bushels. 

As before said, we have no means of knowing how much of this quantity is peas and how much 
beans. In the northern States the proportion of beans is undoubtedly larger than in the southern 
States. The so-called "cow pea " of the south is more closely allied to the bean than to the pea family. 
It is, however, a most valuable plant in a climate sufficiently warm to mature it. It has done much 
for southern agriculture. Like all the leguminous plants, it contains a high percentage of nitrogen ; and, 
when ploughed under as manure, or consumed on the farm by stock, it adds greatly to the fertility of 
the soil. It is the great renovating crop of the southern States. To a certain extent it is to the south 
what rcl clover is to the north. Within the past thirty years its cultivation has been greatly extended 
both as a green crop for ploughing under as manure and as a grain crop. Its importance in southern 
agriculture can hardly be overestimated. The great want of American agriculture is a plant which 



INTRODUCTION. Ixxvii 

shall occupy in our system of rotation the place which the turnip occupies in British agriculture. We 
have no such crop. The bean at the north has more of the necessary qualities than any other plant 
extensively cultivated. It is planted in rows, and admits the use of the horsehoe in cleaning the 
land. It does not draw heavily on the soil, and contains a large amount of nitrogen, the element 
which the cereals so much need. The "cow pea" has these qualities in a still greater degree. In 
the southern States it grows much more luxuriantly than the bean or the common pea at the north, and 
is the best plant that is extensively grown in southern agriculture for enriching the land. 

The cow pea does not flourish north of Virginia, and even in that State some of the best varieties 
do not succeed as well as in the more southern States. It will be seen from the above table that 
North and South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi raise the greatest amount of this crop. 
In Virginia the plant is grown extensively, but probably the larger proportion of it is ploughed under 
for manure. 

The following table shows the amount of peas and beans raised in the Pacific States in 1860 as 
compared with 1850: 

I860. 1850. 

California 165, 574 2, 292 

Oregon 34. 407 6. 566 

New Mexico 38, 514 15, 688 

Washington 10, 850 

Utali 2, 535 289 



251,880 24,835 



The cultivation of this crop is rapidly extending in the Pacific States. As will be seen from the 
following table, they increase four times as rapidly as the population. 

The following table shows the amount of peas and beans raised in the different sections in 1860 
and 1850, and in the whole United States and Territories in proportion to population : 

I860. 1850. 

New England States 0.15 0.12 

Middle States 0.21 0.12 

Western States 0.10 0.13 

Southern States 1.26 0.97 

Pacific States 0.44 0.13 

United States and Territories 0.48 0.35 



It will be seen that the increase in the production of peas and beans in all the States and Terri- 
tories more than keeps up with the increase in population. It was eleven quarts to each inhabitant 
in 1850, and a little over fifteen quarts to each person in 1860. 

In the New England States there were three and three-quarters quarts of peas and beans to 
each inhabitant in 1850, and four and three-quarters quarts in 1860. 

In the middle States there were three and three-quarters quarts in 1850, and seven quarts 
in 1860. 

In the western States there were four quarts in 1850, and only three quarts in 1860, showing a 
decrease in the production of peas and beans of 25 per cent, in proportion to population. 

In the southern States there were nearly a bushel of peas and beans to each person in 1850, and 
over a bushel and a peck in 1860. 

It will be observed that there is a decided increase in the production of these crops in all the 
different sections except at the west The farmers on the rich land of this section have not yet realized 



Ixxviii 



INTRODUCTION. 



the necessity of raising peas and beans as renovating crops, while viewed merely as grain crops, it is 
doubtless found that the cereal grains are more profitable. 

IRISH POTATOES 
Bushels of Irish potatoes produced tn 1860. 



STATES. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maiyland 

Massachusetts . . 

Michigan ... 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

New Hampshire 
New Jersey... . 

New York 

North Carolina . 

Ohio 

Oregon 



BUSHELS. 



491, G46 

418,010 
1, 789, 463 
1, 833, 148 

377, 931 
18, 766 

303, 789 
5, 540, 390 
3, 866, 647 
2| 806, 720 

296, 335 
1, 756, 531 

294, 655 
6,374,617 

1, 264, 429 
3,201,901 
5, 261, 245 

2, 565, 485 
414, 320 

1, 990. 850 

4, 137, 543 

4,171,690 

26, 447, 394 

830, 565 
8, 695, 101 

303, 319 



STATES. 



Pennsylvania.. 
Rhode Island . . 
South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Wisconsin . — 



Total, States 



TBRBITOBIBS. 



District of Columbia. 

Dakota 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Mexico 

Utah 

Washington 



BUSHELS. 



11, G87, 467 
542, 909 
226, 735 

1, 182, 005 
174, 182 

5, 253, 498 

2, 292, 398 

3, 818, 309 



110,629,993 



Total, Territories. 



Aggregate 



31, 693 

9,489 

162, 188 

5,686 

5,223 

141,001 

163, 594 



518, 874 



111,148,807 



There were raised in the States and Territories in 1850, 65,797,896 bushels of Irish potatoes ; 
and in 1860, 111,148,867 bushels. 

The following table shows the amount of Irish potatoes raised in the New England States in 
1860 as compared with 1850: 



I860. 

Connecticut 1, 833, 148 

Maine 6, 374, 617 

Massachusetts 3, 201, 901 

New Hampshire 4, 137, 543 

Rhode Island 542, 909 

Vermont 5, 253, 498 



Total 21, 343, 616 



1850. 

2, 689, 725 

3, 436, 040 

3, 585, 384 

4, 304, 919 
651, 029 

4,951,014 

19,618,111 



In Connecticut there is a great falling off in the production of this crop, while in Maine the crop 
has nearly doubled since 1850. There is a slight falling off in Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and 
Rhode Island. 



INTRODUCTION. Ixxix 

Taking the New England States as a whole, the crop has increased trom 19,618,111 bushels in 
1850 to 21,343,616 bushels in 1860. 

The following table shows the amount of Irish potatoes raised in the middle States in 1860, as 
compared with 1850 : 

I860. 1850. 

New York 26, 447, 394 15, 398, 368 

Pennsylvania 11, 687, 467 5, 980, 732 

New Jersey 4, 171, 690 -3, 207, 236 

Delaware 377, 931 240, 542 

Maryland 1. 264, 429 764, 939 

District of Columbia 31. 693 28, 292 

Total 43, 980, 604 25, 620, 109 

The production of Irish potatoes has increased somewhat in all the middle States since 1850; but 
it is only in New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey that there is any marked increase. In New 
York the crop has risen from fifteen million bushels in 1850 to twenty-six million bushels in 1860; 
and in Pennsylvania the crop has increased from less than six million bushels in 1850 to over eleven 
and a half million bushels in 1860. 

Taking the middle States as a whole, the crop of Irish potatoes has increased from about twenty- 
five and a half million bushels in 1850 to nearly forty-four million bushels in 1860. 

The following table shows the quantity of Irish potatoes raised in the western States in 1860 as 
compared with 1850: 

I860. 1850. 

Ohio 8, 695, 101 5, 057, 769 

Indiana 3, 866, 647 2, 083, 337 

Michigan 5, 261, 245 2, 359, 897 

Illinois 5,540,390 2,514,861 

Wisconsin 3, 818, 309 1, 402, 077 

Minnesota 2, 565, 485 21, 145 

Iowa 2, 806, 720 276, 120 

Missouri 1, 990, 850 939, 006 

Kentucky 1, 756, 531 1, 492, 487 

Kansas 296. 335 

Nebraska 162, 188 

Total 36, 759, 801 16, 146, 699 

Minnesota and Iowa show an enormous increase in the production of Irish potatoes since 1850, 
while all the western States show a decided gain in amount. 

The crop has increased from a little over sixteen million bushels in 1850, to thirty-six and three 
quarter million bushels in 1860. 

The following table shows the amount of Irish potatoes raised in the southern States in 1860 as 
compared with 1850: 

I860. 1850. 

Virginia 2,292,398 1,316,933 

North Carolina 830, 565 620, 318 

South Carolina 226, 735 136, 494 

Georgia 303, 789 227, 379 

Alabama 491, 646 246, 001 

Louisiana 294, 655 95, 632 

Texas 174, 182 94, 645 

Mississippi 414, 320 261, 482 

Arkansas * 418, 010 193, 832 

Tennessee 1, 182, 005 1, 067, 844 

Florida 18, 766 7, 828 

Total 6, 647, 071 4, 268, 388 



Ixxx INTRODUCTION. 



V 



The State of Maine raises nearly as many Irish potatoes as all the southern States. Virginia and 
Tennessee raise more Irish potatoes than the other southern States combined. The crop decreases as 
we go south, while the sweet potato takes its place. 

Thq^ following table shows the amount of Irish potatoes raised in the Pacific States in 1860 as 
compared with 1850: 

I860. 1850. 

California .- 1, 789, 463 9, 292 

Oregon 303, 319 91, 326 

New Mexico i . . . 6, 223 3 

Washington 163, 594 

Utoh 141, 067 43, 968 

Total 2, 402, 600 144, 589 



The following table shows the quantity of Irish potatoes raised in the diflferent sections of the 
United States in proportion to population : 

I860. 1850. 

New England States 6.80 7.19 

Middle States 5.28 3.88 

Western States 3.58 2.66 

Southern States 0.73 0.58 

Pacific States 4.15 0.80 

United States and Territories 3.53 2.83 

It will be seen that New England raises more Irish potatoes in proportion to population than any 
other section. There is, however, a slight decrease in the crop in proportion to population since 1850, 
being a little over seven bushels to each person in 1850, and six and three-fourth bushels to each 
person in 1860. 

In the middle States the crop has increased from three and three-fourth bushels in 1850 to five 
and one-fourth bushels in 1860, to each inhabitant. 

In the western States the quantity of potatoes raised in proportion to population is far less than 
in the New England and middle States. In 1850 there were raised about two and a half bushels to 
each person, and in 1860 three and a half bushels. 

In the Pacific States the production of Irish potatoes, in proportion to population, has increased 
enormously. In 1850 only about three-fourth bushel' of potatoes were raised to each inhabitant; 
while in 1860 the crop exceeded four bushels to each person. 

The whole United States and Territories raised about two and three-quarter bushels of potatoes 
to each inhabitant in 1850 and three and a half bushels in 1860. 

Minnesota raises moi:e potatoes, in proportion to population, than any other State in the Union. 
In 1850 she raised nearly four bushels to each person, and in 1860 nearly fifteen bushels. 

Maine also raises a large crop of potatoes, in proportion to population. In 1850 she produced 
nearly six bushels to each person, and in 1860 over ten bushels. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Ixxxi 



SWEET POTATOES. 



BuaheU of sweet potcUoea produced in the United States in 1860. 



STATES. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky . . . . . 

Louisiana 

Maine , 

Maryland . . . . . 
Massachusetts .. 

Michigan , 

Minnesota . 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

New Hampshire 
New Jersey.... 
New York . . . . , 
North Carolina. 
Ohio 



BUSHKLS. 



5, 439» 917 
1,566,540 

214, 307 

2,710 

142,213 

1,129,759 

6. 508, 541 
306, 154 
299, 516 

51, 362 

9,965 

1, 057, 557 

2, 060, 981 

1,435 

236, 740 

616 

38, 492 

792 

4, 563, 873 

335, 102 

161 

1, 034, 832 

7,529 

6, 140, 039 

304, 445 



STATES. 



Oregon 

Pennsylvania. . 
Rhode Island . . 
South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Wisconsin .... 



Total, States 



TBliRITORIBS. 



District of Columbia 

Dakota 

Nebraska * 

Nevada 

New Mexico 

Utah 

Washington 



Total, Territories 



Aggregate 



BUSHELS. 



335 

103, 187 

946 

4, 115, 688 

2, 604, 672 

1, 846, 612 

623 

1,960,817 

2,396 



42, 088, 854 



5,606 



168 
200 
180 



18 



6,172 



42, 095, 026 



The crop of sweet potatoes in the States and Territories in 1850, was 38,268,148 bushels, and in 
1860, 42,095,026 bushels. Taking all the States and Territories, there were 1.66 bushels of sweet 
potatoes raised in 1850 to each inhabitant, and in 1860 1.33 bushels. The great bulk of the crop is 
raised in the southern States. 

The following table shows the amount raised in these States in 1860, as compared with 1850 2 

I860. 1850. 

Alabama 5, 439, 917 5, 475, 204 

Arkansas . v 1, 566, 540 788, 149 

Florida 1, 129. 759 757, 226 

Georgia 6, 508, 541 6, 986, 428 

Louisiana • 2, 060, 981 1, 428, 453 

Mississippi 4,563,873 4,741,795 

North Carolina 6, 140, 039 5, 095, 709 

South Carolina 4,115,688 4,337,469 

Tennessee 2,604,672 2,777,716 

Texas 1,846,612 1,332,158 

Virginia 1,960,817 1,813,634 

Total 37,937,439 35.533,941 

11 



Ixxxii 



INTRODUCTION. 



It will be seen that of the thirty-eight million bushels produced in the United States in 1850, the 
southern States raised thirty-five millions, and nearly thirty-eight millions in 1860 of the forty-two 
millions raised in the whole country. 

Taking all the southern States, there were 4.87 bushels of sweet potatoes raised to each inhabitant 
in 1850, and in 1860 4.16 bushels, showing a slight decrease in proportion to population. Considerable 
attention has of late years been given to raising sweet potatoes in the New England, middle, and west- 
ern States. 

Connecticut, which raised only eighty bushels in 1850, produced 2,710 bushels in 1860. 

Delaware produced 65,443 bushels in 1850, and 142,213 bushels in 1860. 

Maine, which was unreported in 1850, produced 1,435 bushels in 1860. 

Michigan, which produced 1,177 bushels in 1850, produced 38,492 bushels in 1860. 

New Jersey, which produced 508,015 bushels in 1850, produced 1,024,832 bushels in 1860. 

Wisconsin, which produced 879 bushels in 1850, produced 2,396 bushels in 1860. 

Illinois, which produced 157,433 bushels in 1850, produced 306,154 bushels in 1860. 

For the production of sweet potatoes in the other States we would refer to the tables. Since the 
cessation of commercial intercourse with the southern States the cultivation of sweet potatoes in the 
northern States has received considerable attention, and were the census taken at this time it would 
doubtless be found that the crop in these States is very much larger than it was in 1860. 

DAIRY PRODUCTS. 



Butter and cheese — Pounds of. 



-, 1860. 



States. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Connecticat — 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Llassochusctts . 

Miebigon 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missoun , 

New Hampsbiro 

Now Jersey 

New York 

Nortb Carolina. 



Batter. 



6, 028, 478 
4, 067, 556 
3, 095, 035 
7,6w^0,9]2 
1,430,502 
408,855 
5, 439, 765 

28, 052, 551 

18,306,651 

11,953,666 
1 , 093, 497 

11,716,609 
1,444,742 

11,687,781 
5, 265, 295 
8. 297, 9:« 

15, 503, 482 
2, 957, 673 
5, 006, 610 

12,704,837 
6,956,764 

10,714,447 

103,097,280 

4,735,495 



Cbeeso. 



15.923 

16,810 

1,343,689 

3,898,411 

0,579 

5,280 

15,587 

1,848,557 

605, 795 

918,635 

29,045 

190, 400 

6,150 

1,799,862 

8,342 

5, 294, 090 

1,641,897 

199,314 

4,427 

259, 633 

2, 232, 092 

182, 172 

48, 548, 289 

51,119 



States. 



Obio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rbode Island 

Soutb Carolina 

Tennesseo 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Total 

TERRITORIES. 

District of Columbia 

Dakota , 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Mexico 

Utab 

Wasbington 

Total 

Aggregate 



Butter. 



48, 543, 162 

1,000,157 

58,653,511 

1,021,767 

3, 177, 934 

10,017,787 

5,850,583 

15, 900, 359 

13,464,722 

13,611,328 



458,827,729 



18,835 

2,170 

342,541 

7,700 

13,259 

316,046 

153,092 



853, G43 



459,681.372 



Cbeese. 



21,618,893 
105,379 

2,508,556 

181,511 

1,543 

135, 575 

275, 128 

8, 215, 0:« 
280,852 

1,104,300 



103, 548, 868 



12,342 

37,240 
53,331 
12,146 



115,059 



103, 663, 927 



The total production of butter in the United States and Territories in 1850 was 313,345,306 
pounds, and in 1860 459,681,372 pounds. Of cheese, 105,535,893 pounds in 1850, and 103,663,927 
pounds in 1860. 

There is a considerable increase (about fifty per cent.) in the production of butter, but not so in 
cheese. There was nearly two million pounds more cheese produced in 1850 than in 1860. 



INTRODUCTION. 



XXXUl 



The following table shows the amount of butter and cheese made in the New England States in 
1860, as compared with 1850 : 



States. 


BUTTER. 


CHEESE. 




I860. 


1850. 


I860. 


1850. 


Coxmecticnt 


7,620,912 

11,687,781 

8,297,936 

6, 956, 764 

10,211,767 

15, 900, 359 


6,498,119 
9,243,811 
8,071,370 
6,977,066 
995,670 
12,137,980 


3,898,411 
1,799,862 
5, 294, 090 
2, 232, 092 
181,511 
8, 215, 030 


5,363,277 


Maine -.- 


2, 434, 454 


Massachusetts 


7, 088, 142 


New HamDshire --- 


3, 196, 563 


Rhode Island 


316,508 


Vermont 


8,720,834 






Total 


51.485,519 


43, 924, 006 


21,620,996 


27,119,778 





The production of butter in the New England States, has, in round numbers, increased from less 
than forty-four million pounds in 1850, to over fifty-one million pounds in 1860. On the other hand, 
the production of cheese has decreased from over twenty-seven millions in 1850, to less than twenty- 
one and three-fourths millions in 1860. 

Vermont produces more butter and also more cheese than any other New England State. Maine 
stands next in the production of butter, but produces less cheese than either Massachusetts, Connecticut, 
or New Hampshire. 

The following table shows the amount of butter and cheese made in the middle States in 1860, 
as compared with 1850: 



states. 



Now York 

Pennsylvania 

New Jersey 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Colnmbia 



Total. 



BUTTER. 



1860. 



103,097,280 

58,653,511 

10,714,447 

1,430,502 

5, 265, 295 

18,835 



179,179,870 



1850. 



79, 766, 094 

39, 878, 418 

9, 487, 210 

1,055,308 

3, 806, 160 

14,872 



CHEESE. 



1860. 



48, 548, 289 

2,508.556 

182, 172 

6,579 

8,342 



134, 008, 062 



51,253,938 



1850. 



49,741,413 

2, 505, 034 

.T65,756 

3,187 

3,975 

1,500 



52, 620, 865 



The product of butter in the middle States has increased from one hundred and thirty-four mil- 
lion pounds in 1850, to one hundred and seventy-nine million pounds in 1860. 

New York makes nearly one -fourth of all the butter made in the United States, and more than 
one-third of the cheese. 

Pennsylvania comes next in the product of butter. She made over fifty-eight and a half million 
of pounds in 1860, against less than forty million in 1850. Although Pennsylvania, after New York, 
supplies more butter than any other State, she produces comparatively but little cheese. 

The following table shows the amount of butter and cheese made in the western States in 1860, 
as compared with 1850 : 



States. 



Indiana . . . 
Illinois . . . 

Iowa 

Michif^an . 
Minnesota. 
Missouri . . 

Ohio 

Kentucky . 
Wisconsin 
Kansas . . . 
Nebraska . 



Total. 



BUTTER. 


CHEESE. 


1860. 


1850. 


1860. 


1850. 


18,306,651 


12,881,535 


605, 795 


624,564 


28,052,551 


12,526,543 


1,848,557 


1,278,225 


11,953,666 


2,171,188 


918,635 


209,840 


15,503,482 


7,065,878 


1,641,897 


1,011,492 


2,957,673 
12,704,8:57 


1. 100 


199, 314 
259,033 




7,8:m,:j59 


203, 572 


48,543,162 


34, 449, 379 


21,618,893 


20,819,542 


11,716,009 


9,947,523 


190, 400 


213, 954 


13,611,328 


3, 033, 750 


1,104,300 


400,283 


1,093,497 
342,541 




29, 045 






12, 342 








^04, 785, 997 


90,511/2:^ 


ti.MJ^'.HIl 


•21,762,172 



IxxxiT 



INTRODUCTION. 



Ohio is the principal dairy State of the west. She makes neariy one-third of all the butter pro- 
duced in the western States, and over seventy-five per cent, of all the cheese. 

Illinois stands second in the western States in the production of butter, making about twenty- 
eight million pounds in 1860, against twelve and a half million in 1850. 

Indiana stands third among the western States, and produced over eighteen million pounds in 
1860, against less than thirteen million in 1850. 

Wisconsin shows a marked increase in this production. She has increased from three and a half 
million pounds in 1850, to thirteen and a half million pounds in 1860. 

Minnesota shows even greater progress in butter-making. From eleven hundred pounds in 1850, 
she increased to nearly three million pounds in 1860. 

The cheese product of the west is exceedingly small. Leaving out Ohio, the western States do 
not produce seven million pounds of cheese. Vermont produces more cheese than ail the western 
States together, exclusive of Ohio. 

The following table shows the amount of butter and cheese made in the southern States in 1860, 
as compared with 1 850 : 



States. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

Florida 

Georgia , 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

North Carolina, p 
South Carolina.. 

Tennessee 

Tf>xas 

Virginia 

Total 



BUTTER. 


ClIEESE. 


1860. 


1850. 


I860. 


1850. 


6, 028, 478 


4,008,811 


15,923 


31,412 


4,067,556 


1,854,239 


16, 810 


30,088 


408, b55 


1 371,498 


5,280 


18,01i 


5. 439, 765 


4, 640, 559 


15,587 


46,976 


5,006,610 


4,:M6,234 


4,427 


21,191 


1,444,743 


683,069 


6,153 


1,957 


4,735,495 


4,140,290 


51,119 


95,921 


3, 777, 934 


2,981,850 


1,543 


4,970 


10, 017, 787 


8, 139, 585 


135, 575 


177,681 


5, 850, 583 


2, IU4, 900 


275, 128 


95,299 


13,464,722 


11,089,359 


280,852 


436,292 


59,642,527 


44, 606, 394 


808,397 


959,802 



The amount of butter made in the southern States has increased from forty-four and a half million 
pounds in 1850, to nearly sixty million pounds in 1860. 

The cheese product in the southern States is exceedingly light, and has fallen off since 1850. 

The following table shows the amount of butter and cheese made in the Pacific States in 1860, 
as compared with 1 850 : 



S^tAtAM Aiitfl T^mritAriAA 


» 

BUTTER. 


CHEESE. 


\ 


1800. 


1850. 


I860. 


1850. 


California 


3, 095, 035 

1,000,157 

13, 259 

153,092 

316, 046 


705 

211,464 

111 


1,343,689 

105, 379 

37,240 

12, 146 

53,331 


150 


OrefiTon 


36,960 


New Mexico - 


5,848 


IVashincrton ...... .. 




Utah 


83,309 


30,998 






Total 


4,577,589 


295,589 


1,551,785 


73,976 





The production of butter, as of every other agricultural product, has advanced in California with 
astonishing rapidity. In 1850 only 705 pounds were produced; while in 1860 California produced 
over three million pounds of butter, and over one and a quarter million pounds of cheese. She made 
nearly sixty-eight per cent, more cheese than all the southern States. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Ixxxv 



The following table shows the amount of butter and cheese made in the different sections of the 
country in proportion to population : 





BUTTER. 


CHEESE. 




J 860. 


1850. 


1860. 


1850. 


Now Ensrland States 


16.42 

21. 50 

16.08 

6.55 

7.92 

14.62 

_^ 


16.10 
16.08 
J4.33 
6.12 
1.65 
13.51 


6.89 
6.15 
2.78 
0.09 
2.70 
3.29 


9.94 


Biliddle States 


7.94 


Westom States 


3.92 


Southern States 


0.13 


Pacific States 


0.47 


United States and Territories . . 


4.11 



It will be seen that the States and Territories raised about thirteen and a half pounds of butter 
to each inhabitant in 1850, and fourteen and five-eighths pounds in 1860, showing an increase of one 
and one-eighth pound to each person. In cheese, however, the production has not kept pace with the 
population. It has fallen off over three-fourths of a pound to each person. Cheese does not enter as 
largely into the dietary of the United States as in most other countries, and small as is the amount 
produced — less than four pounds to each inhabitant — it more than meets the demand, leaving a con- 
siderable balance for exportation. 

The production of butter in the New England States more than keeps pace with the increase in 
population. Over sixteen pounds of butter is produced to each person. 

In the middle States twenty-one and a half pounds of butter is made to each person. In 1850 it 
was only sixteen pounds, showing a very remarkable increase. 

The western States produced about fourteen pounds to each person in 1850, and sixteen pounds 
in 1860, also showing a decided increase. 

In the southern States, too, the production of butter keeps pace with the population. The amount 
made, however, is small, only six and a half pounds to each inhabitant. 

The Pacific States, which produced only a little over one and a half pound of butter to each per- 
son in 1850, produced nearly eight pounds in 1860. 

In cheese, all the different sections, with the exception of the Pacific States, show a marked decline 
as compared with population. The New England States, which produced nearly ten pounds of cheese 
to each inhabitant in 1850, produces less than seven pounds in 1860. It will be observed, however, that 
New England still produces more cheese in proportion to population than any other section. 

The middle States have fallen off from nearly eight pounds of cheese to each person in 1850, to 
about six pounds in 1860. 

The Pacific States have increased their cheese product from less than half a pound to each per- 
son in 1850, to nearly three pounds in 1860. 

Since the census was taken, the production of cheese, especially in the great dairy districts of 
New York, has greatly increased. The " cheese factory " system which was introduced a few years 
ago has been stimulated into an astonishing development by the high price of cheese caused by the 
high premium on gold and sterling exchange. The cheese made in these factories is generally of better 
quality than that hitherto made in private dairies, and pains have been taken to adapt it to the wants of 
the European market. The cheese is sent to England, and, being sold for gold, the price in this coun- 
try increases with the premium on gold and sterling exchange. At the time of this writing, (Novem- 
ber, 1864,) cheese in New York sells for twenty-two cents per pound. In 1859 the highest price of 
cheese in New York at the same period was eleven cents per pound; in 1860 eleven and a half cents, 
and in 1861 seven and a half cents. Cheese is now more than double the average price obtained before 
the war. The effect of these high prices, as we have before remarked, is seen in the increased atten- 



Ixxxvi 



INTRODUCTION. 



tion puid to the manufacture of cheese, and especially to the general introduction of the ** factory 
system." 

The leading idea of the factory system is this : Farmers with a few cows, to avoid the expense 
of the necessary buildings, and to introduce the best apparatus for the manufacture of cheese, unite to 
send their milk every morning to a certain point., where it is converted into cheese, and each farmer 
receives his proportion (or the money received for it) according to the quantity of milk he has 
furnished. 

At the factory a- competent person is employed to attend to the business, and the cheese is made 
on the most approved principles. Hitherto the system has worked to the mutual advantage of ail 
concerned. Whether it will be found to work equally well when cheese falls to its normal price (or 
about half what it brings at present) remains to be seen. 

WOOL. 



Pounds of wool produced in t/ie United Slates in 1860. 



STATES. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts . . 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina . 
Ohio 



POUNDS. 



775, 117 

410, 382 

2, 683, 109 

335, 896 

50, 201 

59, 171 

946, 227 

1.989.567 

2,552,318 

660, 858 

24, 746 

2, 329, 105 
290, 847 

1, 495, 060 
491,511 
377, 267 

3, 960, 888 

20, 388 
665, 959 

2, 069, 778 
1,160,222 

349, 250 

9, 454, 474 

883, 473 

10, 608, 927 



STATES. 



Oregon 

Pennsylvania.. 
Rhode Island.. 
South Carolina 
Tennessee . . . . 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Wisconsin . . . . 



Total, States 



TKRRITORIBS. 



District of Columbia. 

Dakota 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Mexico 

Utah 

Washington 



Total, Territories 



Aggregate 



POUNDS. 





219, 


012 


4, 


752, 


522 




90, 


699 




427, 


102 


1. 


405, 


236 


1, 


493. 


738 


3. 


118. 


950 


2, 


510, 


019 


1, 


Oil, 


933 


■ 

59, 


673, 


952 



100 



3,302 

330 

492, 645 

74, 765 

19, 819 



590, 961 



60,264,913 



The total amount of wool raised in the States and Territories in 1850 was 52,516,959 pounds; 
in 1860, 60,364,913 pounds ; and in 1840 was 35,802,114 pounds. In other words, the amount 
of wool increased from 1840 to 1850 about 16,750,000 pounds; and from 1850 to 1860, 7,750,000 
pounds. 



INTRODUCTION. Ixxxvii 

The following table shows the amount of wool produced in the New England States in 1860, as 
compared with 1850 : 

I860. 1850. 

Connecticut 335, 866 497, 454 

Maine 1,495,060 1,364,034 

Massachusetts 377, 267 585, 136 

New Hampshire 1. 160, 222 1, 108, 476 

Rhode Island 90,699 129,692 

Vermont 3, 118, 950 3, 400, 717 

Total 6, 578, 064 7, 085, 509 

In 1850 there were over 7,000,000 pounds of wool produced in the New England States, and 
6,500,000 pounds in 1860, showing a decrease of 500,000 pounds. 

Vermont mised nearly half the wool produced in the New England States. From 1850 to 1860, 
however, the amount of wool produced in this State has fallen off more than 275,000 pounds. 

Maine stands next, in the New England States, to Vermont, as a wool-growing State. In 1850 
she produced 1,364,034 pounds of wool, and 1,495,060 pounds in 1860, showing an increase of over 
100,000 pounds. 

New Hampshire stands third, and in this State, also, there is a slight increase from 1850 to 1860. 

In Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island, as well as in Vermont, the produce of wool has 
fallen off since 1850. 

The following table shows the amount of wool raised in the middle States in 1860 as compared with 
1850: 

I860. 1850. 

New York 9, 454, 474 10, 071, 301 

New Jersey 349, 250 375, 396 

Pennsylvania 4, 722, 522 4, 481, 570 

Maryland 491,511 477,438 

Delaware 50,201 57,768 

District of Columbia 100 525 

Total 15, 098, 058 15, 463, 998 

This is a falling off in the amount of wool produced in the middle States since 1850 of nearly 
375,000 pounds. 

New York produces about two-thirds of all the wool grown in the middle States. In 1850 she 
produced 10,071,301 pounds, and 9,454,474 pounds in 1860, or over 500,000 pounds less than in 1850. 

Pennsylvania produced 4,486,570 pounds in 1850, and 4,752,522 pounds in 1860, or an increase of 
over 250,000 pounds. 

The following table shows the amount of wool grown in the western States in 1860, as compared 
with 1850 : 

1660. 1860. 

Ohio ; 10, 608, 927 10, 196, 371 

Indiana 2, 552, 318 2, 610, 287 

Michigan 3, 960, 888 2, 043, 283 

Illinois 1, 989, 567 2, 150, 113 

Wisconsin 1, 01 1. 933 253, 963 

Minnesota 20, 388 85 

Iowa 660, 858 373, 898 

Missouri 2, 069, 778 1 , 627, 164 

Kentucky 2, 329, 105 2, 297, 433 

Kansas 24, 746 

Nebraska 3, 302 

TotAl 25, 231, 810 21, 552, 597 



IxxxvHi INTRODUCTION. 

In 1850 the western States produced 21,552,597 pounds of wool, and 25,231,810 pounds in 1860, 
or an increase of nearly 4,000,000 pounds. Ohio is the greatest wool-growing State in the west. She 
produced over ten and a half million pounds in 1860, or about half a million pounds more than in 1850. 

Michigan is the next largest wool-growing State in the west She produced about 4,000,000 
pounds in 1860, against 2,000,000 in 1850. 

Indiana stands third, producing two and a half million pounds, showing a very slight decrease since 
1850. 

Kentucky stands fourth, with a small increase since 1850. 

Missouri and Illinois come next, the former representing an increase of twenty-five per cent, 
while the latter shows a small decrease since 1850. 

The following table shows the amount of wool grown in the southern States in 18 (iO, as compared 
with 1850 : 

I860. 1850. 

Virginia 2,510,019 2,860,765 

North Carolina 883,473 970,738 

South Carolina 427,102 487,233 

Georgia 946,227 990,019 

Alabama 775.117 657,118 

Louisiana 290,847 109,897 

Texas 1,493.738 131.917 

Mississippi 665,959 559,619 

Arkansas 410.382 182,595 

Tennessee 1,405,236 1,364,378 

Florida 59,171 23,247 

Total 9,867,271 8,337,526 



It will be seen that the production of wool in the southern States increased from 8,337,526 pounds 
in 1850, to 9,867,271 pounds in 1860. 

Virginia, Texas, and Tennessee are the largest wool-growing States in the south. In Texas the 
production of wool increased from 131,917 pounds in 1850, to 1,493,738 pounds in 1860. 

The following table shows the amount of Wool grown in the Pacific States in 1860, as compared 
with 1850: 

I860. 1850. 

OaUfomia 2,683,109 5,520 

Oregon 219, 012 29, 686 

New Mexico 492, 645 32, 901 

Washington 19, 819 

Utah 74, 765 9, 2?2 

Total 3, 489, 350 77, 329 



The increase in the Pacific States is enormous. From 77,329 pounds in 1850, the production of 
wool in these States increased to 3,489,350 pounds in 1860. 

California, it is thought, will soon be one of the largest wool-producing States in the United 
States. Indeed, Ex-Governor Downey writes this office under date of June 4, 1863, " We must 
have now nearly 3,000,000 head of sheep in California, and the quality of the wool is annually im- 
proving. From the mildness of our climate, and richness of pasture, our State will show at the next 
census a wool product equal to that of the whole United States at present" 



INTRODUCTION. 



Ixxxi: 



The following table shows the amount of wool produced in the different sections of the United 
States in 1850 and 1860, as compared with population : 

J860. 1850. 

Now England States 2.09 2.59 

Middle States 1.81 2.33 

Western States 2.46 3.41 

Southern States 1.08 1.01 

Pacific States 6.04 0.43 

United States and Territories 1.92 2.26 

It will be seen that the Pacific States is the only section in which the production of wool has more 
than kept pace with the population. These States have increased from less than half a j^ound of wool 
to each person in 1850, to over six pounds in 1860. 

In all the other sections the production of wool in proportion to population has decreased since 
1850, excepting the southern States, where there is a slight increase. 

The New England States stand next as wool* producers ; but here, too, the growth of wool does 
not keep pace with the increase in population. It was 2.59 pounds to each person in 1850, and only 
2.09 pounds in 1860. 

In the middle States the growth of wool in 1850 was 2.33 pounds to each person, and in 1860 
only 1.81 pound. 

Leaving out the Pacific States, the highest production of wool in proportion to population was in 
the western States. It has fallen ofi*, however, from 3.41 pounds in 1850 to 2.46 pounds in 1860. 

In the southern States the growth of wool to each person was 1.01 pound in 1850, and 1.08 
pounds in 1860, showing an increase of about one ounce to each inhabitant. 

Taking all the States and Territories, the amount of wool raised in 1850 was a little over two and 
a quarter pounds to each inhabitant and in 1860 less than two pounds. 

FLAX. 

Flax produced. 



States. 



Alabama 

Arkansas , 

California 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

M^ue 

Maryland 

Massachusetts . . 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

New Hampshire. 

New Jersey 

Now York 

North Carolina. . 



1850. 



18C0. 



Flax. 



Flax. 



Pounds. 
3,921 
12,291 



Pounds, 

111 
3,821 



17,928 

11,174 

50 

5,337 

160,063 

584, 469 

62,660 



2,100,116 



1,187 
8,112 



3,303 

46,235 

97,119 

30,226 

1,135 

728,234 



17,081 

35,686 

J, 162 

7,152 



665 
627, 1(>0 
7,652 
182,965 
940, 577 
593, 796 



2,997 

14, 481 

165 

4,128 

1,983 

50 

109,837 

1,347 

48,651 

1,518,025 

216,490 



States. 



Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania. . 
Rhode Island. . 
South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Wisconsin . — 



Total. 



TERRITORIES. 



District of Columbia 

Dakota 

Nebraska 

Nevada ; 



New Mexico . 

Utah 

Washington 

Total.. 



1850. 



Flax. 


Flax. 


Pounds, 


Pounds, 


446,932 
640 


682,423 
162 


530,307 

85 

332 


312,368 


344 


368,131 

1,048 


164, 294 
115 


20,852 

1,000,450 

68,393 


7.007 

487,808 

21,644 


7,709,126 


4,715,802 



550 



Aggregate. 



r»n 



I860. 



4,343 



7, 709, 676 



4,343 



4, 720, 145 



12 



xc INTRODUCTION. 

The amount of flax produced in the States and Territories in 1850 was 7,709,676 peunds, and in 
1860 4,720,145 pounds. In other words, the production of flax has fallen oflT almost one half since 1850. 

Since the commencement of the war flax culture has received increased attention, owing to the 
scarcity of cotton, and it is not improbable that, were the census taken now, it would be found that the 
flax crop was at least as great as in 1850. The climate of the northern States is admirably adapted to 
the growth of flax, and all that is needed to make it a highly remunerative crop is the introduction of 
machines for dressing the fibre and preparing it for market. Great improvements have recently taken 
place in the machines for this purpose, and there can be no doubt that flax will be much more exten- 
sively cultivated. 

The foUovnng table shows the amount of flax grown in the New England States in 1860, as com- 
pared with 1850: 

I860. 1850. 

Connecticut 1, 187 17, 92S 

Maine : 2, 997 17, 081 

Massachusetts 265 1, 1G2 

New Hampshire , 1, 347 7, 052 

Vermont ... - 7, 007 20, 852 

Rhode Island 85 



Total 12, 703 04, 7G0 



The amount of flax raised in the New England States has fallen off from 64,760 pounds in 1850, 
to 12,703 pounds in 1860. 

Vermont is the largest flax-producing State in New England, but even in this State the crop has 
fallen off from 20,852 pounds in 1850, to 7,007 pounds in 1860. 

The following table shows the amount of flax grown in the middle States in 1860, as compared 
with 1850 : 

I860. 1850. 

New York 1, 518, 025 940, 577 

New Jersey 48, 651 182, 965 . 

Delaware 8, 112 11, 174 

Maryland 14. 481 35, 686 

Pennsylvania 312, 368 530, 307 

Total 1, 901, 637 1, 700, 709 



In New York the crop of flax increased from 940,577 pounds in 1850, to 1,518,025 pounds in 1860. 

In Pennsylvania, on the other hand, there was a falling off in the production of flax from 530,307 
pounds in 1850, to 312,368 pounds in 1860. 

In New Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland, the crop of flax has also decreased since 1850. 

The following table shows the amount of flax produced in the western States in 1860, as compared 
with 1850: 



Ohio 

Indiana. .. 
Michigan . 
Illinois . . . 
Wisconsin 
Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri . . 
Kentucky 
Kansas . . . 
Nebraska . 



Total 



1860. 


1850. 


882, 423- 


446, 932 


97, 119 


584, 469 


4,128 


7,162 


48, 235 


160, 063 


21, 644 


68, 393 


1.083 




30. 226 


62, 660 


109, 837 


627, 160 


728, 234 


2, 100, 116 


1, 135 


. 








1,924,964 


4, 056, 945 



\ 



INTRODUCTION. xci 

It will be seen that there is a great falling ofF in the production of flax in the western States, 
where over four million pounds of flax was raised in 1850, and less thaii two million pounds in 1860. 

Kentucky, in 1850, was decidedly the largest flax-producing State in the country, raising nearly 
one-third of all the flax grown in the United States. The returns for 1860 show an astonishing 
diminutioii in the growth of flax in this State. From over two million pounds in 1850, the production 
of flax is less than three-quarters of a million in 1860. 

Ohio is now the largest flax-producing State in the west. From 446,932 pounds in 1850, she has 
increased to 882,423 pounds in 1860. 

On the other hand, Indiana and Missouri, which produced a large crop of flax in 1850, have, like 
Kentucky, fallen off to an astonishing degree. Missouri, which produced 627,160 pounds in 1850, 
now produces only 109,837 pounds; and Indiana, which produced 584,469 pounds in 1850, produces 
only 97,119 pounds. 

The following table shows the amount of flax grown in the southern States in 1860, as compared 
with 1850 : 

Alabama 

Arkansas 

Florida ' 

Georgia 

Loaisiana 

Mississippi 

North Carolina 216, 490 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 164, 294 

Texas 

Virginia ....:. 487, 808 



1860. 


1850. 


Ill 


3,921 


3,821 


12, 291 




50 


3,303 


5,387 


50 


665 


16, 490 


593, 796 


344 


333 


54, 294 


368.131 


115 


1, 048 


87, 808 


1,000,450 



Total 876, 336 1, 986, 072 



The production of flax in the southern States has fallen off more than one-half since 1850. 

Virginia is the principal flax-producing State in the south. She raises more flax than all the other 
southern States. The amount of flax raised in Virginia has fallen off from one miUion pounds in 1850, 
to less than half a million pounds in 1860. 

North Carolina and Tennessee are the only other southern States in which flax is grown to any extent. 

The following table shows the amount of flax grown in the Pacific States in 1860, as compared 
with 1850 : 

I860. 1850. 

California 

Oregon 162 040 

New Mexico 

Utah 4, 343 550 

Washington 

Total 4,505 1,190 



In California there was no flax reported either in 1850 or 1860. 
In Oregon there was produced 640 pounds in 1850, and only 162 pounds in 1860. 
In Utah the production of flax increased from 550 pounds in 1850, to 4,343 pounds in 1860. 
The following table shows the amount of flax in ounces grown in the different sections in 1860 
and in 1850 in proportion to population : 

18C0. 1850. 

New England States 0.06 0.33 

Middle States 3.68 4 25 

Western States 3.00 10.29 

Southern States 152 4.09 

United States and Territories 2.37 5.31 



XCli 



INTRODUCTION. 



In 1850 there was less than five and a half ounces of flax raised in the whole States and Terri- 
tories to each inhabitant, and in 1860 less than two and a half ounces to each person. 

The New England States raised one-third of an ounce to each person in 1850, and only six-hun- 
dredths of an ounce in 1860. 

The middle States produced 4.25 ounces in 1850 to each inhabitant, and 3.68 ounces in 1860. 

The western States produced over ten ounces to each inhabitant in 1850, and only three ounces ih 1860. 

The southern States produced over four ounces in 1850 to each person, and only 1.52 ounces in 1860. 

As we have before remarked, there can be little doubt that since the census was taken, there has 
been considerable increase in the growth of flax; but making full allowance for this probable increase, 
the production of flax in the United States, with a climate admirably adapted for its growth, is exceed- 
ingly small. The principal cause of this is doubtless owing to the high price of labor, which renders 
the preparation of the crop more expensive than it is in other countries from which our imports of 
flax are derived. If the machines recently introduced for dressing flax shall prove as eflScient as present 
experience indicates, the production of flax, stimulated by the high price of cotton, will greatly increase. 

FLAX-SEED. 
BusheU ofjlashteed produced in tlie United States in 1860. 



STATES. 



Alabama . . 
Arkansas . . 
Galifomia. . 
Connecticut 
Delaware - . 
Florida 



Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky . . — 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts . . 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

New Hampshire 
Now Jersey . — 
New York . . . . . 
North Carolina . 
Ohio 



BUSHELS. 



68 

545 



109 
2,126 



96 

8,670 

119,420 

5,921 

11 

28, 875 



419 

1,570 

7 

341 

118 

3 

4,056 

30 

3,241 

56,991 

20, 008 

242, 420 



\ 

STATES. 



Oregon 

Pennsylvania.. 
Khbde Island.. 
South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Wisconsin 



Total, States 



TERRITORIES. 



District of Columbia 

Dakota 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Mexico 

Utah , 

Washington 



Total, Territories 



Aggregate 



BUSHELS. 



6 

24, 193 



313 
9,362 



331 

32, 691 

4,256 



5G6. 802 



33 



30 



Q5 



566, 867 



We have not space to go into a detailed examination of the production of flax-seed in the different 
sections. We may remarli, however, that Ohio produces more flax-seed than any other State. Indiana 
stands next. 

The States and Territories in 1850 produced 562,312 bushels of flax-seed, and 566,867 bushels 
in 1860; shpwing an increase of only a little over four thousand bushels. 



INTRODUCTION. 



xciii 



The high price of linseed oil, as well as of linseed oil-cake during the war, will doubtless stimu- 
late the growth of flax for seed as well as for the fibre. American oil-cake finds a ready market in 
England at high prices ; but it would seem that so valuable a food might be used on our own farms 
with decided advantage. It is not only highly nutritious for cattle and sheep, but the manure derived 
from the animals eating it is more than twice as valuable as that from animals fed on Indian corn. 
Our farmers have not yet learned to appreciate the full value of manures, and it is rare that the question 
of the relative value of manures from different foods is taken into consideration in determining what 
particular sustenance it is best to give our farm stock. 

In this connexion we would call particular attention to the following table prepared by John B. 
Lawes, the well-known English scientific agriculturist, showing the value of manure made from a ton 
(2,000 pounds) of different foods : 



Description of food. Value. 

1. Decorticated cotton-seed cake $27 86 

2. Rape cake 21 01 

3. Linseed cake , 19 72 

4. Malt dust 18 21 

/>. Lentils 16 51 

6. Linseed 15 65 

7. Tares 15 75 

8. Beans 15 75 

9. Peas 13 38 

10. Locust beans 4 81 

11. Oats 7 40 

12. Wheat 7 08 

13. Indian com 6 65 



Description of food. Value. 

14. Malt $6 65 

15. Barley 6 32 

16. Clover hay 9 64 

17. Meadow hay 6 43 

18. Oat straw 2 90 

19. Wheat straw 2 68 

20. Barley straw 2 25 



21. Potatoes 



1 50 



22. Mangolds 1 07 

23. Swedish turnips - 

24. Common turnips 

25. Carrots 



91 

86 
86 



This table deserves to be profoundly studied by every farmer. Mr. Lawes has been engaged for 
many years in experiments on this subject, and we have no doubt that the table correctly states the 
relative value of the manures obtained from the different foods ; that is to say, if the manure obtained 
from the consumption of a ton of meadow hay is worth $6 43, that made from a ton of clover hay is 
worth $9 64, or half as much again; and this is true everywhere. The estimates are based on the value 
of manure in England, and are undoubtedly correct; but of course the figures are only true relatively 
where manures of all kinds are of less value, as is the case in the newer sections of this country. 

It will be seen that the manure made from a ton of linseed cake is estimated at $19 72; while 
from a ton of Indian corn it is estimated at only $6 65. 

It must be borne in mind that these are gold values. At the present time the value of the manures 
in our currency would be more than doubled. If these few remarks should be the means of calling 
the attention oiF American farmers to this important branch of rural economy much good will be ac- 
complished. 

COTTON. 

The amount of ginned cotton raised in the United States in 1860 was 5,387,052 bales, of 400 
pounds each, or 2,154,820,800 pounds. 

In 1850 there was 2,445,793 bales of cotton raised in the United States, or less than half the 
amount produced in I860. 



XCIY 



INTRODUCTION. 



The following table will show the amount of ginned cotton, in bales of 400 pounds each, raised in 
the different States in 1860, and also in 1850: 



I860. 

MiBBiBsippi 1, 202, 507 

Alabama 989, 955 

Louisiana 777, 738 

Georgia 701, 840 

Texas 431, 463 

Arkansas 367, 393 

South Carolina 353, 412 

Tennessee 296, 464 

North Carolina 145, 514 

Florida 65, 153 



1850. 
484, 292 
564, 429 
178, 737 
499, 091 

58, 072 

G5, 344 
300, 901 
194, 532 

50, 545 



Missouri — 
Virginia . - . , 

Illinois 

Utah 

Kansas — . 
New Mexico 



1860. 

41, 188 

12, 727 

1,482 

136 

61 

19 



ISC-O. 



3,947 



Total 5,387,052 



2, 445, 793 



45, 131 

We have here omitted a few States which produced small quantities of cotton in 1850, but which 
are unreported in 1860. But the total amount is given correctly. 

Mississippi produces more cotton than any other State. This State alone raised nearly half as 
i^ much cotton in 1860 as th& whole United States in 1850. 

Alabama comes next, and then Louisiana, Georgia standing fourth, though but little behind her 
sister States. 

These four States, Mississippi, Alabama, Louisiana, and Georgia, produced 3,672,040 bales of 
cotton, while all the other States produced only 1,715,012 bales. 

Texas, Arkansas, and South Carolina come next in the order named. 

Tennessee and North Carolina stand eighth and ninth ; the two together, however, produce less 
cotton than the new State of Texas. 

RICE. 

Pounds of rice produced in the United States in 1860. 



STATES. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Florida 

Greorgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts . . 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi . . . . 

Missouri 

New Ilampshirc 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina . 
Ohio 



POUNDS. 



493, 465 

16, 831 

2,140 



223, 704 
52, 507, 652 



6, 331, 257 



716 

3,286 

809, 082 

9,767 



STATES. 



Oregon 

Pennsylvania.. 
Khode Island.. 
South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Wisconsin . — 



POUNDS. 



Total, States 



TERBITORIBS. 



7, 593, 976 




District of Columhia 

Dakota 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Mexico 

Utah 

Washington 



119,100,528 
40. 372 
26. 031 



8, 225 



187, 167, 032 



Total, Territories 



Aggregate 



187, 167, 032 



/ 



INTRODUCTION. 



xcv 



The cultivation of rice is confined to a very few States. South Caitolina and Georgia produced in 
1860 171,608,180 pounds; and the total product of all the States was only 187,167,032 pounds. • In 
1850 these same States produced still more — the two together giving 198,881,304 pounds ; but the 
production of rice was greater in 1850 than in 1860 in nearly all the States, making the tolal 
215,313,497 pounds. Of this. South Carolina in 1850 produced 159,930,613 pounds, and in 1860 
119,100,528 pounds. Mississippi, which in 1860 produced only 809,082 pounds, in 1850 raised 
2,719,856 pounds; and Alabama decreased still more, producing 2,312,352 pounds in 1850, and only 
493,465 pounds in 1860. Florida, in 1850, produced 1,075,090 pounds; but in 1860 only 223,704. 
The only States that increased in production, were Georgia, North Carolina, and Louisiana, 

HOPS. 

Pounds of hops produced in the United States in 1860. 



STATES* 



POUNDS. 



STATBS. 



POUiNDS. 



Alabama .. 
Arkansas . . 
California.. 
Connecticut 
Delaware . . 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 



507 
146 
80 
959 
414 



Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Dilaine 

Maryland 

iiiassachuBetts . . 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina . 
Ohio 



199 

7,254 

27, 884 

2,078 

197 

5,899 

27 

102, 987 

2,943 

111,301 

60, 602 

132 

248 

2,265 

130, 428 

3, 722 

9, 671, 931 

1,767 

27, 533 



Oregon 

Pennsylvania - 
Rhode Island.. 
South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Wisconsin 



Total States 



493 

43, 191 

50 

122 

1,581 

123 

038, 67? 

1 0, 024 

135, 68'^ 



10,991,351 



TEBBITORIES. 



District of Columbia. 

Dakota 

Nebraska - , 

Nevada 

New Mexico 

Utah 

Washington 



Total, Territories 



Aggregate 



15 



41 



545 
44 



645 



10,991,996 



The total production of hops in the United States in 1850 was 3,497,029 pounds; and in 1860 
10,991,996 pounds, showing a remarkable increase in the cultivation of this crop. 

New York produces nearly all the hops raised in the United States. In 1850 this State produced 
over two and a half million pounds, while all the other States and Territories produced less thsn one 
million pounds; and in 1860 New York produced over nine and a half million pounds, while all the 
other States and Territories produced less than one and a half million pounds. 

Next to New York, Vermont raises more hops than any other State, producing 638,677 pounds 
in 1860, against 288,023 pounds in 1850. 

In this country, as in England, the cultivation of hops is confined to a comparatively small area. 
New York raises over eight-tenths of all the hops produced in the United States ; and in this State 



xcvi 



INTRODUCTION. 



the bulk of the crop is raised in a few counties. The county of Otsego produces 3,507,069 pounds ; 
Madison, 1,520,657 pounds; Schoharie, 1,441,648 pounds; Oneida, 838,460 pounds; Herkimer, 
707,910 pounds; Montgomery, 515,584 pounds. These six counties in New York produce over eight 
and a half million pounds of hops, out of a total crop of eleven millions in the States and Territories. 



TOBACCO. 



PauJuU of tobacco prodticed in the United Slater in 1860. 



STATES. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts . . 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi . • . . 

Missouri 

New Hampshire 
New Jersey. - - . 

New York 

North Carolina . 
Ohio 



POUNDS. 



232, 914 
989, 980 

3,150 
6, 000, 133 

9,699 
828. 815 
919, 318 

6, 885, 262 

7, 993, 378 
303, 168 

20, 349 

108, 126, 840 

39, 940 

1,583 

38, 410, 965 

3, 233, 198 

121, 099 

38, 938 

159, 141 

25, 086, 196 

18, 581 

149, 485 

5, 764, 582 

32, 853, 250 

25, 092, 581 



STATES. 



Oregon 

Pennsylvania . 
Rhode Island . 
South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Wisconsin .... 



POUNDS. 



Total, States . 



TERRITORIES. 



District of Columbia 

Dakota 

Nebraska 

Nevada , 

New Mexico 

Utah 



405 

3, 181, 586 

705 

104, 412 

43, 448, 097 

97, 914 

12,245 

123, 968, 312 

87, 340 



434, 183, 561 



15, 200 

10 

3,636 



Washington 



Total, Territories 



Aggregate 



7,044 



10 



25, 900 



434, 209, 461 



The amount of tobacco raised in the States and Territories in 1850 was 199,752,655 pounds; and 
in 1860 434,209,461 pounds, showing an increase of nearly 220 per cent. 

Of this amount Virginia produced in 1860 123,968,312 pounds, and Kentucky 108,126,840 pounds. 
In other words, these two States produced in 1860 more than half the tobacco grown in the United States. 

In 1850 Virginia raised 56,803,227 pounds, and Kentucky 55,501,196 pounds, or 112,304,423 
pounds together. In other words, in 1850, out of a total product of tobacco of less than two hundred 
million pounds in the States and Territories, these two States produced over one hundred and twelve 
million. It will be seen, too, that the increase in the crop of tobacco in these two States since 1850 is 
over 100 per cent., which, considering the magnitude of the crop in 1850, is very remarkable. 



N 



INTRODUCTION. xcvii 

The following table shows the quantity of tobacco grown in the New England States in 1860, as 
compared with 1850 : 

I860. 1860. 

Connecticut 6, 000, 133 1. 267, 624 

Maine 1, 583 

Massachusetts 3, 233, 198 138, 246 

New Hampshire 18, 581 50 

Rhode Island 705 

Vermont 12, 245 



Total 9, 266, 445 1, 405, 920 



In 1850 the amount of tobacco raised in the New England States was less than one and a half mil- 
lion pounds, while in 1860 it was over nine and a quarter million pounds — an increase of over 500 per cent. 

Of the nine and a quarter million pounds raised in the New England States, Connecticut produced 
six million, and Massachusetts over three and one-fitlh million. 

The following table shows the amount of tobacco grown in the middle States in 1860, as compared 
with 1850 : 

I860. 1850. 

New York 5, 764, 582 83, 189 

New Jersey 149, 485 310 

Pennsylvania 3, 181, 586 912, 651 

Maryland 38, 410, 965 21, 407, 497 

Delaware 9, 699 

District of Columbia 15, 200 7, 800 

Total 47. 531, 517 22, 411, 447 



Maryland produced nearly twenty-one and a half million pounds of tobacco in 1850, while all the 
other middle States produced only about one million pounds. In 1860 this State produced nearly 
thirty-eight and a half million pounds, while the other middle States produced over nine million. New 
York and Pennsylvania stow a remarkable increase in the tobacco crop. New York has increased from 
83,189 pounds in 1850, to over five and three-fourth million pounds in I860. The increase in Penn- 
sylvania is by no means so great, but is nevertheless quite striking. 

The following table shows the amount of tobacco raised in the southern States in 1860, as com- 
pared with 1850: 

I860. 1850. 

Alabama 232, 914 164, 99a 

Arkansas 989, 980 218, 936 

Florida 828, 815 998, 614 

Georgia 919, 318 423, 924 

Mississippi 159. 141 49, 960 

North Carolina 32, 853, 250 11, 984. 786 

South Carolina 104,412 74,285 

Louisiana 39, 940 26, 878 

Tennessee 43, 448, 097 20, 148, 932 

Texas 97, 914 66, 897 

Virginia 123, 968, 312 56, 803, 227 

Total 203. 642, 093 90, 961, 429 



Virginia, Tennessee, and North Carolina are the three principal tobacco-growing States in the 

south. These three States produce two hundred million pounds of the two hundred and three and a 

half million pounds raised in the southern States. 

13 



xcviii INTRODUCTION. 

The foUowiDg table shows the amount of tobacco raised in the western states fn 1860, as com- 
pared with 1850 : 

I860. 1850. 

IlHnois 6, 885, 262 841, 394 

Indiana * 7, 993, 378 1, 044, 620 

Iowa 303, 168 6, 041 

Kansas 20, 3 49 

Kentucky 108, 126, 840 55, 501, 196 

Michigan 121, 099 1, 245 

Missouri 25, 086, 196 17, 113, 784 

Ohio 25, 092, 581 10, 454, 449 

Wisconsin 87, 340 1, 268 

Minnesota 38, 938 

Nebraska 3, 636 

Total 173, 758, 787 . 84, 963, 997 



Next to Kentucky, Ohio and Missouri are the greatest tobacco-growing States in the west. The 
crop has also increased largely in these States since 1850. Indiana and Illinois come next, the former 
producing nearly eight million pounds, and the latter nearly seven million pounds. 

The following table shows the amount of tobacco grown in the Pacific States in 1860, as compared 
with 1850: 

I860. 1850. 

OaHfomia 3, 150 1, 000 

Oregon : 405 325 

New Mexico 7, 044 8, 467 

Utah 70 

Washington 10 

Total 10, 609 9, 862 



/ 



But little tobacco is raised on the Pacific coast, and it has increased a mere trifle since 1890. In 
fact, in New Mexico there is an actual decrease, which is true of no other State except Florida. 

The returns show that tobacco is raised in every State, and in all the Territories except Dakota 

In 1850 the amount of tobacco raised in all of the States and Territories was eight pounds to each 
inhabitant, and in 1860 about fourteen pounds. The unsettled condition of Kentucky since the com- 
mencement of the war, with the loss of almost the entire crop in Virginia, have caused a great diminu- 
tion in the supply of tobacco, and prices have advanced very rapidly. This has stimulated the cultiva- 
tion of tobacco in the northern States to an extent which it never would have attained in ordinary 
circumstances. 

The principal variety of tobacco grown in the northern States is the Connecticut seed-leaf It is 
ordinarily grown for cigar wrappers, and the larger and more perfect the leaf the more profitable is the 
crop. For smoking or chewing it is an inferior variety. In fact, it seems almost impos8i)>le to gtow 
a good quality of chewing-tobacco in the northern States. It is found much more profitable to grow 
a large, tough leaf, suitable for cigar wrappers, than to attempt to grow a smaller crop of better quality. 




INTRODUCTION. 



XCIX 



OANE SUGAR, MAPLE SUGAB, SORGHUM MOLASSES, HONEY, &c. 



Table showing the gtiantity of cane and maple sugar, and cane, maple, and sorghum molasses produced in the United States 

in 1860. 



STATES. 


Cane sugar, hogs- 
heads of 1,000 
pounds each. 


Maple sugaff 
pounds of. 


Cane molasses, 
gallons of. 


Maple molasses, 
gallons of. 


Sorghum mo- 
lasses, gallons of. 


AJftbfti&ft .-.-••....*.......•. ... 


176 


228 

3,077 


85,115 


124 

6 

2,277 


55,653 

115,604 

55& 


ArkaiiBas 


CalifomiA 






Gonnectioat 




44,259 




www 

395 


Delaware 






1,613 


Florida i 


1,669 
1,167 




436,357 
546,749 




Qeorffia 


991 

134,195 

1,541,761 

315,436 

3,742 

380,941 


20 

20,048 

292,908 

11,405 

2 

140,076 


103,490 
806,589 
881,049 
1,211,512 
87,656 
356,705 


XJiinois 


Indiana 






Iowa 


« 




Kansas 






Kentucky 






I^iUiana 


281,796 


13,439,772 


Maine 


306,742 

63,281 

1,006,078 

4,051,822 

370,669 

99 

142,028 

2,255,012 

3,455 

10, 816, 419 

30,845 

3,345,508 


32,679 
2,404 
15,307 
7o, 996 
23,038 




Maryland 






907 


Massachnseits 








Michigan 






86,953 

14, 178 

1 427 


Minneeota •.---«.---,...........,.,,,..... 






Mississippi .* 


506 
402 


10, 016 
22,305 


Missouri 


18,289 

43,833 

8,068 

131,843 
17,759 

370,512 


796,111 


Naw Hfl.n]nffhire 


New Jersey 






396 


New York 




. 


516 


North Carolina 


38 


12,494 


263,475 

779,076 

315 


Oliio 


Oreffon ' 






Pennsylvania. 




2,767,336 




114, 310 


22,749 
20 


Rhode Island 






South Cartrfina 


196 
2 

5,099 


205 
115,620 






51,041 


TemiesBee 


2,830 
406,358 


74,372 


706,6(3 
112,412 


Texas 


Vermont 


9,897,781 

938,103 

1,584,451 


16,253 
99,605 
83,118 




Virginia 






221,270 


Wisconsin 






19,854 












230,982 


40,120,083 


14,963,996 


1,597,274 


6,698,181 






TERRirORIES. 




» 








Dakota 




• 






20 






122 




275 


23,497 


Nevada 


















1,950 


Utah 








40 


25,475 


















• 










122 




315 


50,942 










Astgy^taXQ 


230,982 


40,120,205 


14, 963, 996 


1,597,589 


6, 749, 123 


OO O"***' • •--• ••«-«. .... .... ..••«• a.*... 





The total amount of cane sugar produced in the United States in 1850 was 236,814,000 pounds ; 
and in 1($60, 230,982,000 pounds, showing a slight decrease in the last decade. 



\ 



\ 



INTRODUCTION 



Louisiana produces over two hundred and twenty-one million of the two hundred and thirty mil- 
lion pounds raised in the whole United States. 

Texas produced over five million pounds of cane sugar in 1 860, being the greatest "feugar-growing 
State after Louisiana. 

Of maple sugar there was produced in 1850, in the whole United States and Territories, 34,253,436 
pounds ; and in 1860, 40,120,205 pounds, or an increase of nearly six million pounds. 

Of this amount New York and Vermont produced more than half; the former producing nearly 
eleven million pounds, and the latter nearly ten million pounds. 

Michigan stands third, producing four million pounds. Ohio produces over three millions ; Penn- 
sylvania two and three quarter millions; New Hampshire two and a quarter millions ; Wisconsin and 
Indiana each one and a half million ; Massachusetts and Virginia about one million pounds each. For 
the amount raised in the other States we would refer to the foregoing table. 

The article known as maple sugar is made from the sap of the Acer Saccharinum^ or sugar maple, 
(known also as rock maple,) one of the most symmetrical and beautiful of American forest trees. It 
is found in nearly every State of the Union, but is most abundant between the parallels of 43° and 46°. 
The process of making the sugar may be briefly described as follows: As soon as the sap begins to 
flow in the spring, which is usually from the 1st to the 15th of March, the trees are " tapped" by 
boring one or two holes of half an inch in diameter and two inches deep, in each tree, and from fifteen 
to twenty-four inches above the ground. Into these holes are inserted hollow wooden plugs, called 
''quills," which conduct the sap into wooden troughs or pails placed beneath. Sometimes the orifice is 
made with a heavy, curvilinear chisel, which is driven into the sap-wood with a wooden mallet, and a 
wooden spout, properly prepared, is inserted to carry oflf the sap. The careless use of the axe in tap- 
ping, is frequently indulged to the great injury of the trees and to their premature destruction. The 
sap, ordinarily, runs only in the day-time and after frosty nights, commencing as soon as it begins to 
thaw in the morning, and ceasing as soon as it begins to freeze towards evening. Each tree will yield 
from one to four gallons of sap in twenty-four hours. Cold -and dry winters, with frosty nights and 
Warm, sunny days during the "sugaring season," are most favorable for the production of sap. The sap 
is collected from the troughs and placed in sheet-iron pans of about eight inches deep, four feet wide 
and eight to twelve feet long, set on brick arches, (kettles were formerly used for the purpose.) A 
brisk boiling is kept up in the pans for twelve or fifteen hours, fresh sap being occasionally added, 
when the whole reaches the consistency of "sirup," in which form much of it is used for domestic 
purposes. The sirup is then strained and put in kettles holding from eight to ten gallons each, where 
it is again kept boiling for about two hours. (The best makers pour into each kettle-full of sirup 
about one pint of new milk to assist in clarifying.) During this process the impurities rise to the sur- 
face and are carefully skimmed off*. When the sirup has boiled suflRciently to "grain" well, it is al- 
lowed to partially cool, (stirring constantly,) and is then poured into pans or moulds, when it becomes 
the "maple sugar" of commerce. On the average, twenty quarts of sap will make one pound of sugar, 
and each tree will produce from three to four pounds of sugar annually. Very large trees will produce 
eight to ten pounds. The sugaring season usually lasts from four to six weeks, and until the buds of 
the tree begin to swell vigorously, when the sap diminishes in quantity and quality. 

Of sorghum molasses the product was 6,749,123 gallous. 

It ia an interesting fact, as showing how rapidly a plant can be distributed through the country, 
that we have returns of sorghum molasses from twenty-eight out of the thirty-four States reported. 

The high price of sugar and molasses since the war has stimulated the cultivation of sorghum to 
to an unusual degree. The drought of 1863 in the west, followed by an unusually severe frost before 
the plants were ripe, destroyed the sorghum crop of 1863. Had the season been favorable, a large 



• • • • • 



/ 



INTRODUCTION. ci 

» 

amount of sorghum molasses would have been produced, as there was a larger area planted than ever 
before. The disastrous effect of the drought and early frost served to discourage many from planting 
in 1864 who would otherwise have engaged in the business. 

Sugar has not been made to any extent from sorghum, and thus far the diflBculties in the way of 
its manufacture, adverted to in our prions reports, have not been overcome. 

BEET SUGAR. 

Within the last three years the price of sugar has doubled, and- it is not improbable that the pres- 
ent high price will be maintained for some time to come. 

Many trials have been made to manufecture an indigenous sugar, but, unhappily, the experiments 
have not been made to any extent on the proper vegetable. The sorghum has been tried and proves 
valuable for sirup, but the great difficulty in making sugar has not been overcome, and the high price, 
of this article continues. 

We have been surprised that the cane has not yet been, to some extent, supplanted by the beet 
which involves no trials for experiments, as this plant has been cultivated successfully for a long period 
in France for this purpose, and the products obtained cannot be rivalled in beauty or exceeded in 
quality by the product of the cane. 

The attempts which have been made to manufacture sugar from beets in this country have, as a 
general rule, till a year or two past, proved unsuccessful, probably owing to the fact that the experi- 
ments were tried on a small scale, with the rudest machinery. In France it is found that individual 
farmers cannot successfully manufacture sugar from the beet. It is properly a manufacturing, and not 
an agricultural process, one requiring a larger capital than most farmers are willing to invest. The 
better method would be to establish factories and encourage farmers to raise the beets at established 
prices per ton. In this way, with improved machinery, and the adoption of the more recent processes 
of manufacture, we see no reason why beet sugar cannot be produced in this country with great profit 
and advantage both to the manufacturer and the farmers. The climate of the southern and western 
States is well adapted to the growth of the beet, and as large crops can be grown here as in France. 
M. de Lavergne, in his recent work on French agriculture, states that the average production of beet- 
roots in the department of the Nord (where nearly half of all the sugar made in France is produced) 
is sixteen tons per acre. By actual trial it has been found that 120,000 pounds of beet-root will pro- 
duce 8,400 pounds of sugar, or seven per cent., and 5,030 pounds of molasses. At this rate an acre ot 
beets of sixteen tons would make 2,240 pounds of sugar, besides molasses. 

The industry of beet sugar, so far as concerns the vegetable, is essentially agricultural, and this 
country would appear to combine all the conditions of success. 

Beet-root sugar was formerly made in occasional instances in different parts of the northern States, 
but never in such a quantity as to find a place in the returns of the census. Within the last two or 
three years some attention has been given to the cultivation of the sugar-beet in Ohio and in Illinois. 
And there seems to be no doubt that sugar can be made in this country from the beet with consider- 
able profit at present prices. 

In addition to the sugar and molasses, there is another important item of profit — ^the leaves of the 
beets and the refuse pulp. Both can be used as food for cattle, and it must be borne in mind that as 
nothing is removed but sugar, all the manurial elements of the crop are left for the farm. The cultiva- 
tion of the beet-root, therefore, is one of the very best methods of increasing the fertility of the farm. 
On this point M. de Lavergne remarks : 

"It was feared, in the first instance, that the cultivation of the sugar-heet would lessen the production of cattle and wheat 
by occupying the best land. But this fear was ill-founded, at least relative to the best cultivated regions. It is now demon- 
strated that the manufacture of sugar, by creating a new source of profit, contributes to increase the other products of the soil. 
The extraction of the saccharine matter deprives the root of only part of its elements. Its pulp and foliage supply the animals 



V 



cu INTRODUCTION. 

with an ftbnadanee of food ; and the retorns of the sngar-irorks enable them to add commercial manttrea, which indefinitdy 
increase the fertility of the soil. In 1855 the city of Valenciennes, the principal seat of the mannfactore^ was able to inscribe 
upon a triumphal arch these significant words : ' Produce of wheat in the arondissement before the manufacture of sugar, 
353,000 hectolitres, (961,173 bushels;) nui^ber of oxen, 700. Produce of wheat since the manufacture of sugar, 431,000 
hectolitres, (1,158 256 bushels;) number of cattle, 11,500/" 

The pulp or solid residue amounts to about twenty per cent of the entire root. When divested 
of the j uice it still contains two or three per cent, of saccharine matter, and is greedily eaten by cattle 
and pigs, which fatten rapidly upon it It is said not to be good, however, for milch cows. Ordinary 
beets and mangel-wurzel contain sugar, but the Silesian beets alone are cultivated for this purpose. By 
judicious selection and culture, varieties have been obtained which contain much more sugar than the 
ordinary variety. In obtaining this result, however, the size of the root has been reduced. M. Knauer, 
of Germany, has produced a variety which he names the imperial beet-root, which contains seventeen 
and a quarter per cent of sugar. This improvement places the beet on a par with the cane as a sugar- 
plant, while the cultivator of the beet has several important advantages over the West India and 
Louisiana planters. The cultivation of the sugar-cane occupies from twelve to fifteen months, and it 
must all be manu&ctured in a few days, or great loss ensues. On the other hand, the beet requires but 
about four months to arrive at maturity, and then it cau be stored and manipulated at leisure. We 
would earnestly recommend this subject to men of capital, and that the business may not be recklessly 
undertaken we have obtained from Professor H. Dussauce, an enlightened French chemist, at present 
residing in this country, an account of the beet cultivated for sugar, and the process of manufacture in 
France, which we subjoin. 

OF THE BEET-ROOT. 

The presence of sugar in the beet was observed by Margraff, and Achard, of Berlin, attempted 
the extraction of this sugar on a large scale ; but it was only during the period of the continental % 
system that the manufacture of sugar from the beet acquired such perfection in France as made it 
profitable. The beet so generally cultivated at the present time is derived from the beta vulgaris. 
The two principal varieties of this root are the red beet, which has been grown for a very long time 
in kitchen gardens, and the white beet. Between these two there are numerous varieties, having a 
flesh color of various intensity. The seeds of the same plant, in fact, frequently produce varieties of 
decidedly different shades of color. The red and the white beet, however, appear to be the most 
constant, and the intermediate varieties are the result of crosses. 

The first has a large root, which grows in great part above the ground. It is a very hardy plant, 
and has been cultivated for a very long time in various parts of the continent as food for cattle, and is 
now very common. The root which has been preferred for the manufacture of sugar is conical, of a 
rose color without, and its concentric internal layers are also colored ; but it appears that the white 
beet of Silesia is the more productive. The beet thrives in almost all kinds of soils, provided they be 
sufiiciently manured. In Alsace (east of France) it succeeds in light and in strong argillaceous soils 
indifferently. Another valuable quality which this root possesses is that of succeeding in the most 
dissimilar climates. It is grown to advantage both in the north and south of France. 

The beet is sown at once in the field, or in beds, and transplanted. The latter method appears 
now to obtain a decided preference, inasmuch as it leaves plenty of time for the preparation of the soil 

In a piece of ground well broken up by delving or ploughing, and highly manured, the seed is 
sown in lines or drills as soon as the spring frosts are no longer to be apprehended. The transplanting 
in the east of France takes place about the middle of May, and even in the beginning of June. The 
plants are generally set about 15 inches apart. In the north the beet harvest does not begin before the 
end of September, and generally ends in the course of October. The gathering is delayed as long as 
possible, inasmuch as the root increases visibly to the very end of the season. But gathering the beet 



^ 



INTRODUCTION. fiii 

aj^ a veiy late period in those countries where winter grain has to follow this crop is attended with 
more than one disadvantage. -Without speaking of the difficulties that are incidental to wet seasons, a 
late seed time is generally unfavorable for wheat. To meet this difficulty Boussingault advises to take 
up the beets at the period when it becomes necessary to prepare the land for winter seed ; that is to 
say, more than a month before the present general harvest of the root. In doing so he relied upon the 
interesting fact ascertained by Peligot in the course of his chemical researches, viz : that the composition 
of the beet is identical at every age. In this premature or anticipated beet harvest a less weight of root 
is of course gathered than would have been obtained at a later period ; but the nutritious power of these 
roots are the same as they would ever have been. The grand questions to be determined were, 
whether the root would keep or not, and whether the cattle would eat them from the pile as freely as 
from the field. All this was ascertained in the course of the winter; the beet kept perfectly, and the 
cattle eat it as freely as ever. The procedure to be adopted to secure a crop of beets of average weight 
some considerable time before the usual period is simply to transplant earlier, but more closely, with 
less space between the drills. If experience decides in favor of this method, a late and unfavorable seed 
time for winter grain will be completely obviated. 

The beet which grows above the ground is best gathered with the hand ; such as grow under 
ground require to be loosened by running a plough along the drill. In Alsace it is the custom to take 
away the leaves, and to trim the roots upon the ground ; the refuse thus obtained constitutes a con- 
siderable mass of manure, which it is well to plough in immediately. 

Co9t of beet culture for two and a half atrrett of good land in France. 

Rent, taxes, interest $23 00 

Manure 26 00 

Two ploaghings and two harrowiuga 17 20 

Seeding 3 60 

Weeding and delving 7 00 

I^Jgging aiid cartage ^ 7 20 

84 00 



The production varies between sixty and ninety thousand pounds, and, consequently, the price of 
one thousand pounds is from 95 cents to $1 40. The value of the leaves used as food for cattle saves 
some accessary expenses. The leaves falling during the vegetation and the small roots left in the 
ground represent about 9,600 pounds of manure. The leaves taken from the root vary from thirty to 
thirty-six thousand pounds. These products are worth from $10 to $12. 

In France the product of each 110 pounds weight of beet is estimated at 4.56, or somewhat more 
than four and a half pounds of white sugar. The amount of loss in the manufacture may be conceived 
from the actual composition of the beet, which, by the process followed by Peligot to exhaust the dry 
root by boiling it with alcohol of moderate density, appears to contain from 4 to 6, up to 9, 10, 11, and 
nearly 12 per cent, of sugar. The analysis of Peligot has been confirmed by the experiments of Bra- 
connat, who found the white beet of Silesia to have a very complex composition, as the following table 
shows : 

Water 83.5 

Sugar 10.5 

Oellolose and pectose 0.8 

Albumen, casein, and other neutral nitrogenized matters 1.5 

Malic and pectic acids, gummy and fatty matters, aromatic and coloring matters, es- 
sential oil, &c., &c 3.7 

100.0 



^ 



civ 1 N T R D U G r I O N 

On an average, the analysis of Peligot would lead us to conclude that the beet contained, in 100 
parts — 

Water 87.0 

Matters soluble in water, (sugar) 8.0 

Matters unsoluble in water 5.0 



100.0 



From which it appears that no more than about two-fiflhs of the sugar contained in the beet-root 
is extracted. As in crushing the cane, so in squeezing the rasped pulp of the beet, a part of the loss 
is owing to a certain quantity of sugar being left in the express-pulp. In fact, with the presses, whilst 
from 60 to 70 per cent, of juice is obtained, the root actually contains 95 per cent. The loss here, 
however, is of less consequence than in the cane, the trash of which is used for fuel, whilst the pulp 
of the beet serves as food for cattle. The pulp indeed is found to possess very nearly the same amount 
of nutritive power as the root which produces it. 

One of the considerations which is of the highest importance in connexion with the production of 
sugar from the beet is inherent in the difficulty of preserving the root after it is full grown. Gathered 
at the end of autumn, the root suffers no less from severe frost than it does from mild, open weather; 
frost destroys its organization, and in mild winters vegetation continues, at the expense of the sugary 
principle which had been formed during the growth. If the beet actually contains at every period of 
its existence the same quantity of sugar, there would, probably, be a great advantage in not waiting for 
the period of complete maturity, by sowing somewhat thicker than wont, any difference of weight would 
probably be made up, and then there would be no risk of loss in keeping. 

The quantity of beet gathered from a given extent of land necessarily varies with the soil, the 
pains bestowed upon the crop, and the quantity of manure that has been used The following are a 
few particulars from official documents : ^ 

Produce per acre. 

Tons. Cwt. Qrs. Lbe. 

Dopartmcnt of the pas dc Calais 12 17 4 

" North 14 6 1 23 

Cher 15 11 1 



(( It <( 



But in other departments the produce is considerably smaller; so that the average for the whole 
of France has been estimated at not more than ten tons, nine hundred weight, one quarter, and thirteen 
pounds per acre; an jfverage which approaches very closely to that obtained by Boussingault on his 
own farm during a period of seven years. 

Assuming four and six-tenths pounds of sugar to be obtained from every 110 pounds of beet, 
the produce, in sugar, from an acre in the course of seven months will amount to nine hundred weight, 
three quarters, and twenty-two pounds. An acre of land in sugar-cane yields in fourteen months 
fifteen hundred weight, one quarter, and ten pounds. 

To manage one acre of land under beet-root, 45.6 days of a man and 14.1 of a horse was the 
amount of labor expended. A domain of 360 acres in the south is worked by 150 negroes, which, 
reckoning the time that the crop is on the ground at fourteen months, would bring the number of days' 
labor by a man to 177 per acre. 

Such an expenditure of labor must, in the nature of things, absorb the greater part of the profits, 
aud it was shown that the cost of cultivation and manufacture of cane-sugar was equal to the value of 
the produce. Still the cane presents one considerable advantage over the beet — namely, that of fur- 
nishing the fuel necessary to the boiling, an advantage which will be better understood when it uj 
known that in the manufacture of every 100 pounds of beet-sugar the consumption of coal amount-s U« 
twenty-two pounds. 



\ 



\ 



tt 



INTRODUCTION. cv 

The importance of the fabrication of sugar can be seen in the following table, which intl'cates the 
production of this substance throughout the world : 

Annual production. 

BengaJes, China, Siam 200, 000, 000 poundg. 

English coiuuies 440, 000, 000 " 

Spanish « 650, 000, 000 

Dutch ♦' 160,000,000 

Swedish and Danish , 20, 000, 000 " 

French colonies ^. ., 220,000,000 " 

France* 303,000,000 " 

Belgium 12,000,000 " 

Brazil 350, 000, 000 

United Statest 420, 000, 000 

Gennany 304,000,000 " 

Bussia 70,000,000 " 

Totalf 3,149,000,000 






EXTRACTION OF SUGAE FROM THE BEET. 

In SO important a fabrication we cannot enter into all the particulars, but give an account of the 
different processes followed in French manufactures. 

The beets are taken out of the ground when they have acquired their full growth, and are care- 
fully separated from those which have been injured by the operation. The beets are made into heaps 
in the field, and covered with leaves until there is danger of frost, when they must be housed or buried 
in pits. The upper part of the root at the starting point of the stalk is cut off, because this portion is 
harder and contains but little sugar. 

The beets, after being cleansed and washed, are thrown into a machine, which reduces them to 
as fine a pulp as possible, and breaks up the cells. The pulp is placed in woollen bags laid on each 
other, and between which metalHc plates are introduced; afler which the mass is compressed by a 
screw-press, and the juice ccoUected which flows out, and which constituted about 0.4 of the juice 
contained. The bags and plates are then placed under the platform of an hydraulic press, which is 
unscrewed after having maintained the pressure for about ten minutes, when the bags are placed two 
by two between two plates, and again still more powerfully compressed In this manner 75 to 80 per 
cent, of beet-root juice may be extracted, only about fifteen parts being left in the pulp. 

As the juice soon changes, it is essential to raise it as quickly as possible to a high temperature, in 
order to prevent fermentation, and to saturate with some lime the free acids, which would soon convert 
a portion of the sugar into glucose. For this purpose the juice on leaving the press is conveyed into 
a double-bottomed boiler, heated by steam, and the temperature is rapidly raised from 140° to 158° ; 
afterwards it is conveyed into another boiler, also heated by steam, where the desiccation or treat- 
ment with lime is efiected. Hydrated lime is usually made by pouring on quicklime ten times its 

The fabrication of beelHrogar in France since 1828 to 1886 has raised from 5,880,000 pounds to 90,000,000. From 1837 to 1847 it oscil- 
lated between sixty-two and one hundred and slz mUlions. Since that time the prodnction has yaried between one hundred and twenty-four and 
one hundred and fifty-four millions. In 1866 France produced 184,000,000, and in 1858, 303,067,000. 

1 Louisiana alone produced, in its 1,400 factories, 280,000,000 pounds of raw sugar, and more than 150,000,000 gallons of molasses. 

:( If to this sum we add the quantities consumed in the East Indies and other parts of the world, not enumerated in the above table, wo find 
the quantity to amount to 5,100,494,000 pounds, thus classified : 

Cane-sugar 2,900,000,000 

Beet " 960,000,000 

Maple «* 40,494,000 

Palm *« 200,000,000 



5,100,494,000 



u 



cvi INTRODUCTION. 

weight of boiling water, and when the lime is entirely slacked, passing it over a metallic sieve, 
which arrests the grains of sand and the now decarbonated portions. The juice is first heated to 167^ 
in the desiccating boiler, the milk of lime is then added, and the whole is stirred to render the mixture 
homogeneous ; the temperature is raised to 212^, the supply of steam being cut off when ebullition 
commences. The lime combines with the free acids, the albuminous subgtanf**».s. the fatty and coloring 
matters, producing insoluble compounds, effecting at the same time a kind of clarification by carrying 
down with the insoluble compounds organic remains which were suspended in the juice. A thick scum 
having formed on the surface of the liquid, the latter is kept from boiling in order to prevent its rup- 
ture by the bubbles of steam. The proportion of lime added varies with the nature of the beet, and 
with their freshness, only three pounds for one thousand pints of juice being used in the beginning of 
the season, and with fresh beets, which quantity is gradually increased, and frequently reaches ten 
pounds before the close of the season. An excess of lime remains in the liquor, and forms a deli- 
quescent compound with a portion of the sugar. In some factories it has been endeavored to saturate 
it with a proper quantity of acid. 

When the operation is terminated, the liquor is drawn off and filtered through animal charcoal ; 
the filters used for this purpose being large sheet-iron cylinders, having a false bottom pierced with 
holes like a colander. A cloth is extended over the bottom, over which is spread very coarsely pow- 
dered animal chalk, added in successive layers until it fills the cylinders to within one and a half foot 
of the top, when another cloth is laid upon it, and is covered by another metallic plate pierced with 
holes ; each filter receiving from 6,000 to 8,000 pounds of charcoal. The filters should be kept con- 
stantly filled with fluid, which is easily done by means of a stop-cock. After this process, by which 
the juice loses a portion of its coloring matter, and the lime in excess, which adheres to the charcoal, it 
is conveyed as rapidly as possible into the concentrating boilers, which are generally shallow, and are 
heated by a circulation of a light pressure of steam through copper tubes arranged over their bottoms. 
The juice is raised to a temperature of 70° in 10 or 12 minutes. The workman judges by indications 
understood by experience, if it is properly concentrated, or if the hailing is completed. During the 
ebullition, which terminates at a temperature of 266° to 275°, a considerable portion of the sugar is 
altered, and to diminish the loss the evaporation must be effected as rapidly as possible. This opera- 
tion has been greatly improved by boiling in vacuo — that is, in close boilers, heated by steam, and 
brought into communication with worms and receivers, in which a vacuum is made. When ebullition 
takes place at a lower temperature, the quantity of sugar changed is much smaller. 

When the sirup is properly boiled, it is collected in a cooler, which generally receives the products 
of five or six boilings, and its temperature then falls to about 176°. Crystallization then commences; 
but as soon as any crystals form they are detached from the sides and the sirup stirred to bring them 
again into suspension. When the temperature has fallen to 130° or 122° the sirup is poured into 
large conical moulds of metal or baked clay, resting on the point, which is furnished with a hole pre- 
viously stopped with a plug of wet muslin. The moulds are ranged on long benches with openings, 
through which the escaping fluids fall into zinc gutters, whence they flow into reservoirs. The tem- 
perature of the room containing the moulds should be about 86°. Crystallization is completed in about 
24 or 36 hours, when the plug is removed from the opening in the mould, and the point of the loaf 
pierced with an awl so as to draw off the molasses, which is again concentrated even further than the 
original sirup, and crystallized in moulds. When the molasses is too highly colored, as happens 
sometimes, it is diluted with a sufficient quantity of water, filtered through animal chalk, concentrated, 
and recrystallized. The sirup which drains from the second sugar is frequently subjected to the same 
process for a third time, but the crystallization then requires a great length of time. 

When 'the sugar has drained sufficiently, the loaves are loosened — that is, the moulds are inverted 
and the loaves detached by gentle blows ; afler which they are placed in the wareroom, protected from 
dampness. This is raw beet sugar, which requires refining before being fitted for consumption. 



INTRODUCTION. 



evil 



BEFINING. 

The process of refining beet-sugar is similar to that of the cane. We give below the different 
proportions of substances obtained by refining : 

One hundred pounds of raw beet-sugar being refined^ gizr the following. 



Qaalltj of the raw sugar. 



Line fourth .... 
Fourth common 
Fourth ordinary 

Good fourth 

Clarified 



fl9 

O 



OQ 





S 








^ i: 


# 


Hs S> 


p. 


O 


a 


n * 





c 


1-3 


GQ 






52 
54 

56 
60 
70 



15 


67 


16 


70 


17 


75 


18 


78 


16 


66 



15 
14 
12 
10 
5 



S 

CB 

s 



18 
16 
13 
12 
9 



COST OF THE MANUFACTURE OF BEET-SUGAR. 

Ckfst of producing six hundred thousand pounds of sugar. 

Ten million pounds of beet-roote cost 

Labor 

Fuel 



Lime— animal black 

Ten per cent, on cost of machinery. . . 

Five per cent, on cash capital 

Rents, repairs, and other contingencies 



$13, 000 


4,200 


3,600 


2.400 


3,000 


,500 


4,950 



From which deduct one hundred and twenty thousand pounds of molasses, $2, 160 
Residue, pulp, &c 2, 490 



31, 650 



4,650 



Cost in the factory 



27. 000 



Two hundred pounds in the factory, cost. 

Handling, storage, &c 

Duty 



9 00 

3 00 

9 90 

21 90 

Price varies from S22 to $28, say $24 ; profit, $2 1 0. 

Showing, on six hundred thousand pounds, a profit of $6, 300, or $1 05 per hundred pounds. 
Time occupied, one hundred days. 

The cost of producing cane-sugar in this country has generally been estimated at about $3 50 
per one hundred pounds. 

These statements will enable our readers interested in this subject to realize the practicability of 
making beet-sugar with profit, especially under the new and unfortunate condition of our country. It 
is not probable that the prices of an article, the use of which is so general, will very soon fall so low as 
to render the manufacture of sugar from the beet a precarious or hazardous business. 

Since the foregoing was prepared we find an editorial article on beet-sugar in the "Journal of 
Commerce," of New York, of November 11, 1864, which concludes as follows: 

"Beet-sugar is a novelty in this country, but an old story in Europe, where it is manufactured in immense quantities, and 
daily used on the tables of millions of people. It is sucrose — possessing all the properties of cane-sugar. The white Sih^sian 
beet is considered the best, containing a larger proportion of saccharine matter, and a less amount of injurious salts than any 
other kind. Fresh beet-roots yield from six to seven per cent, of sugar. The method of manufacture is very simple. The 
beets are cut or rasped into fine pieces, and the juice is then pressed out, or obtained by infusion. Lime-water is added to make 
it alkaline ; the excess of lime is subsequently removed by a current of carbonic acid gas ; the liquid filtered, evaporated and 
crystallized precisely like cane-sugar. Small experiments in the manufacture of beet-sugar have been made in this country 
with some success. To make it a reasonably cheap product, however, extensive tracts of land, and large outlays for machinery 
and labor arc required. 

" The public will encourage every effort that may be made in this region of discovery and enterprise. The present high 
prices of sugar afford a good opportunity for talent and capital to develop our latent saccharine resources." 



• •• 



cviu 



INTRODUCTION 



HONEY. 

or honey, there was produced in 1860 in the United States 23,366,357 pounds, but little over half 
the amount of maple sugar. 

New York produces 2,369,751 pounds, and North Carolina 2,055,969 pounds. These two States 
produce more honey than any of the others. Kentucky stands third, producing about 1,750,000 pounds. 
Missouri and Tennessee rank next, producing over 1,500,000 each. Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Ohio 
each produce nearly 1,500,000 pounds. Illinois and Indiana each produce about 1,250,000 pounds. 
No other States than these mentioned, produce one million pounds. 

The census of 1850 did not give the amount of honey separately from beeswax. The total amount 
of honey and beeswax produced in the United States in 1850 was 14,853,790 pounds, and in 1860 
24,689,144 pounds, showing an increase of over 60 per cent The proportion of honey to beeswax is 
about one pound of beeswax to seventeen and three-quarters pounds of honey. 

DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 



States. 



Alabama 

Ai'kansas , 

California 

Connecticut . . . 

Dolaware 

Florida « 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts . 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

New Hampshire. 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina . 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania... 
Rhode Island . . . 
South Carolina. . 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Wisconsin 



I 






127,063 
140, 198 
160, 610 
33,276 
16,562 
13, 446 
130,771 
563,736 
520,677 
175,088 
20,344 
355,704 
78, 703 
60,637 
93,406 
47,786 
136, 917 
17,065 
117, 571 
361,874 
41,101 
79,707 
503,725 
150,661 
625, 346 
36,772 
437,654 
7,121 
81,125 
290,882 
325,698 
69,071 
287,579 
1 16, 180 



Total States 



I 



S 

a 

S 
s 

I 



111,687 
57,358 
3,681 
82 
2,294 
10,901 
101,069 
38,539 
28,893 
5,734 
1,496 
117,634 
91,762 
104 
9,829 
108 
330 
377 
110,723 
80,941 
10 
6,362 
1,553 
51,388 
7,194 
980 
8,832 
10 
56,456 
126, 315 
63,334 
43 
41,015 
1,030 



6,224,056 



1,138,103 



I 



a 

s 

o 

bo 

.9 

-a 



88,316 
78,707 
26,204 
47,939 
9,530 
7,361 
74,487 
90,380 
117,687 
56,964 
21,551 
106,999 
60,358 
79,792 
34,524 
38,221 
61,686 
27,568 
105,603 
166,588 
51,512 
10,067 
121,703 
48,511 
63,078 
7,469 
60,371 
7,857 
22,629 
102,158 
172, 492 
24,639 
97,872 
93,652 



2,204,^5 



o 



I 



230,537 
171,003 
2a5,4a7 

98,877 

22,595 

92,974 
299,688 
522,634 
363,563 
189,802 

28,550 
269,215 
129,662 
147, 314 

99,463 
144, 492 
179, 543 

40,344 
207,646 
345,243 

94,880 

138,818 

1, 123, 634 

228,623 

676,585 

53, 170 
673,547 

19,700 
163,938 
249, 514 
601,540 
174,667 
330,713 
203, 001 



8,516,872 



I 



3 
•3 

o 



454,543 
318,089 
948, 731 

95,091 

25,596 
287,725 
631,707 
970,799 
588,144 
293,322 

43,354 
457, 845 
326,787 
149,827 
119,254 

97,201 
238,615 

51,345 
416,660 
657, 153 
118,075 

89,909 
727,837 
416, 676 
895,077 

93,492 
685,575 

11,548 
320.209 
413,060 
2, 761, 736 
153, 144 
615,882 
225,207 



14; 699, 215 






CU 

J 



370,156 
202,753 

1,088,002 

117, 107 

18,857 

30,158 

512, 618 

769, 135 

991,175 

259,041 

17,569 

938,990 

181,253 

452, 472 

155,765 

114,829 

1,271,743 
13,044 
352,632 
937,445 
310, 534 
135,228 

2,617,855 
546, 749 

3, 546, 767 
86,052 

1,631,540 
32,624 
233,509 
773, 317 
753,363 
752, 201 

1,043,269 
332,954 



21,590,706 



I 



1,748,321 
1,171,630 

456,396 
75,120 
47,848 

271,742 
2, 036, 116 
2,502,308 
3,099,110 

934,820 

138,224 
2,330,595 

634,525 
54,783 

387,756 
73,948 

372,386 

101,371 

1,532,768 

2,354,425 

51,935 

236,069 

910, 178 
1,883,214 
2,251,653 

81,615 

1,031,266 

17, 478 

965,779 
2, 347, 321 
1,371,532 

52,912 
1,599,919 

334,055 

33, 459, 138 



rNTRODUCTION. 



dx 



Domestic animals — ^Gontinaed. 



Territoriefl. 



Distnct of Colombia . 

Dakota 

Nebraska 

Neyada 

New Mexico 

Utah 

Washington 

Total Territorios 
Aggregate 



I 



(S 



641 

84 

4,449 

541 

10,066 

4,565 

4,772 



25, 118 



6,249,174 



a 



a 

1 

s 



122 
19 
469 
134 
11,291 
851 
159 



13,045 



1,151,148 



•I 



o 
g 



'3 
I 



G9 

348 

12,504 

620 

25,266 

9,168 

2,571 



50,636 



2,254,911 



s 

I 



639 

286 

6,995 

947 

34,369 

11,967 

9,660 



64,863 



8,581,735 



I 



1 
I 

I 



198 

167 
17,608 
3,904 
29,094 
12,959 
16,228 



80,158 



14, 779, 373 



In 

I 
J 

CO 



40 

193 

2,355 

376 

830,116 

37,332 

10, 157 



880,569 



22,471,275 



I 



.§ 



1,099 

287 

25,369 

3, 571 
10, 313 

6,707 

6,383 



53,729 



33,512,867 



In our review of the tables of live-stock we have confined ourselves to the official returns, which 
include for the most part the domestic animals connected with the agriculture of the country. By 
such a course only can we institute those comparative examinations from which alone can be determined 
the progress or decline of any interests involved in the census. The amount of live-stock scattered 
throughout cities and large towns, which escaped the official record, was known to be very considerable 
in the aggregate; and, to be enabled to arrive at some close approximation thereof, we directed each 
of the census takers to make return of the numbers of animals in his district believed to have been 
omitted on hia schedules. The summary of these returns will be found in a table at page 192, the 
details of which may safely be added to the numbers in the official tables immediately preceding to 
those of the several State tables, and to those given in the present commentary, by such as desire to 
arrive at the fullest numbers for 1860, while they should be excluded from exhibits from which we 
would prepare comparative statements. To have embodied the numbers of the table referred to with 
the official return, or to have included them in this review, would have lessened the means of com* 
parison, and led to erroneous conclusions as to the progress of this branch of agricultural production, 
having been omitted, as they were, in the previous census. 

HOBSES. 

* There were in the States and Territories 4,336,719 horses in 1850, and 6,249,174 m 1860. 
The following table shows the number of horses in the New England States in 1860, as compared 
with 1850 : 

I860. 1850. 

Connecticut 33, 276 26, 879 

Mame 60, 637 41, 721 

New Hampshire 41, 101 34, 233 

Massachusetts 47, 786 42, 216 

Rhode Island 7, 121 6, 168 

Vermont 69, 071 61, 057 

Totol 258, 992 212, 274 



Vermont has more horses than any other New England State. Maine comes next, and then in 
order succeed Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Connecticut. There were 212,274 horses in the 
New England States in 1850, and 258,992 in 1860, showing an increase of nearly 47,000. 



» INTRODUCTION. 

The following table shows the numberof horses in the middle States in 1860, as compared with 1850 : 

I860. 1850. 

New York 503, 725 447, 014 

New Jersey 79, 707 63, 955 

PcnnsjlvaDia 437, 654 350, 398 

Delaware 16, 562 13, 852 

Maryland 93, 406 75, 684 

District of Colombia 641 824 

Total 1, 131, 695 951, 727 

#There are a little over 1,000,000 horses in the middle States. New York has about 500,000 and 

Pennsylvania only about 60,000 less than New York. Maryland has about 93,500, and New Jersey 
nearly 80,000. 

The following table shows the number of horses in the western States in 1860, as compared with 1850: 

I860, 1850. 

IllinoiB 563, 736 267, 653 

Indiana 520, 677 314, 299 

Iowa -. 175, 088 38, 536 

Kansas 20, 344 

Kentucky 355, 704 315, 682 

Michigan 136, 917 58, 506 

Minnesota 17, 065 860 

Missouri 361, 874 225, 319 

Ohio 625, 346 463, 397 

Wisconsin 116, 180 30, 179 

Nebraska 4, 449 

Total 2, 897, 380 1. 714, 431 



There were 1,714,431 horses in the western States in 1850, and 2,897,380 in 1860, an increase 
of over 1,000,000. Ohio has more horses than any other western State, or 625,346. Illinois and 
Indiana have each over 500,000 ; Missouri 361,874, and Kentucky 355,704. These five States have 
over 2,500,000 horses, while all the other western States have less than 500,000. 

The following table shows the number of horses in the southern States in 1860, as compared with 
1850: 

I860. 1860. 

Alabama 127, 063 128, 001 

Arkansas 140, 198 60, 107 

Florida 13, 446 10, 848 

Georgia 130, 771 151, 331 

Louisiana 78, 703 89, 514 

Mississippi 117. 571 115, 460 

North Carolina 150. 661 148. 693 

South Carolina 81,125 97,171 

Tennessee 290. 882 70, 636 

Texas 325, 698 76, 760 

Virginia 287, 579 272, 403 

Total 1, 743, 697 1. 421, 014 



There are less than one and three-fourths million horses in the southern States. Of these over 
one-sixth are in Texas, and nearly one-sixth in Tennessee. Virginia stands third, having 287,579 
horses. There are more horses in Texas, Tennessee, and Virginia, than in all the other southern 
States together. 



INTRODUCTION. cxI 

The following table shows the number of horses in the Pacific States in 1860, as compared with 1850: 

I860. 1850. 

California 160, 610 21, 719 

Oregon 36, 772 8, 046 

New Mexico JO, 066 5, 079 

Uteh « 4, 565 2, 429 

Washington 4, 772 

Total 216. 785 37, 273 

There are 216,785 horses in the Pacific States. Of this number California has 160,610. 
The following table shows the number of mhabitants to each horse in the different sections of the 
United States in 1860 and in 1850; 

I860. 1850. 

New England States 12.10 12.85 

Middle States 7.36 2.96 

Western States 354 2.50 

Southern States 5.33 5.04 

Pacific States 2.54 4.79 

United States and Territories 5.03 5.34 

In the United States there were in 1850 one hundred horses to every 534 inhabitants, and in 1860 
one hundred horses to every 508 persons. 

In the New England States there were only one hundred horses to every 1285 inhabitants in 
1850, and one hundred horses to every 1210 inhabitants in 1860. In other words, the increase in the 
number of horses in the New England States has fully kept pace with the increase in population. 

In the middle States there were 696 persons to every one hundred horses in 1850, and 736 in 
1860. The increase in the number of horses does not keep pace with the increase in population. It 
will be seen, however, that there are nearly double the number of horses in proportion to population 
in the middle States than in the New England States. 

In the western States there were in 1850 one hundred horses to every 250 inhabitants, and in 1860 
one hundred horses to every 354 inhabitants. In 1850 every family of five persons, on the average, in 
the western States owned a team ; since then the increase in the population has been much greater than 
the increase in the number of horses. Even now, however, there are two horses to every seven inhabitants. 

In the southern States there is about one horse to every five inhabitants. 

There are more horses in the Pacific States, in proportion to population, than in any other section. 
There are now about two horses to every five persons, or about the same proportion as there was in 
the west in 1850. There are now nearly double the number of horses in the Pacific States in pro- 
portion to population than there was in 1850. 

ASSES AND MULES. 

The total number of asses and mules in the States and Territories in 1860 was 1,151,148 ; and in 
1850, 559,331, showing an increase of over 100 per cent. 

The following table shows the number of asses and mules in the New England States in 1860, 
as compared with 1850 : 

I860. 1850. 

Maine 104 55 

New Hampshire 10 19 

Vermont 43 218 

Massachusetts 108 34 

Rhode Island -• 10 J 

Connecticut 82 49 

Totol 357 376 

There were but 376 asses and mules in the New England States in 1850; and small as is this 
number, there were even still less in 1860, or only 357. 



cxii INTRODUCTION. 

In 1850 Vermont had 218, but in 1 860 only 43. In Massachusetts, on the other hand, there were 
34 in 1850, and 108 in 1860. In Maine, Rhode Island, and Connecticut, there is also an increase. 
But it is very evident that the mules are not a favorite working animal in the New England States. 

The following table shows the number of asses and mules in the middle States in 1860, as com- 
pared with 1850: 

I860. 1850. 

New York 1, 553 963 

Pennsylvania 8, 832 2, 259 

New Jersey 6, 362 4, 089 

Delaware 2, 29 4 791 

Maryland 9, 829 5, 644 

District of Columbia 122 57 

Total 28, 992 13. 803 

There were in the middle States 13,803 asses and'mules in 1850, and 28,992 in 1860, an increase 
of over 100 per cent. Maryland, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey employ mules to a considerable extent, 
but as yet in New York they have not generally been introduced, though they are on the increase. 

In Pennsylvania and New Jersey they are used principally in the mining districts; while Mary- 
land adopts, to some extent, the southern system of agriculture, in which mules are more generally 
used than at the north. 

The following table shows the number of asses and mules in the western States in 1860, as com- 
pared with 1850: 

I860. I860. 

Indiana 28, 893 6, 699 

Illinoia 38, 539 10, 573 

Ohio 7, 194 3, 423 

Michigan 330 70 

MisBouri 80, 941 41, 667 

Kentucky 117, 634 65, 609 

Wisconsin 1, 030 156 

Iowa 5, 734 754 

Minnesota 377 14 

Kansas 1, 496 

Nebraska 469 

Total 282, 637 129, 865 

There were in the western States, in 1850, 129,865 asses and mules, and in 1860, 282,637, show- 
ing an increase of over 115 per cent. Kentucky has more mules than any other western State, and 
Missouri comes next. These two States have more than titmice as many asses and mules as all the 
other western States. In Illinois and Indiana mules are being extensively introduced, and the same 
is true of Iowa. 

The following table shows the number of asses and mules in the southern States in 1860, as com- 
pared with 1850 : 

I860. I860. 

Alabama Ill, 687 59, 895 

Arkansas 57, 358 11, 559 

Florida 10, 910 5, 002 

Georgia 101, 069 57, 379 

Louisiana 91, 762 44, 849 

Mississippi 110, 723 54, 547 

North Carolina 51, 388 25, 259 

South Carolina 56, 456 37, 483 

Tennessee 126, 335 75, 303 

Texas 63, 334 12, 463 

Virginia 41,015 2 1 , 483 

Total 822, 047 405, 222 



INTRODUCTION. cxiii 

There were in the southern States in 1850 405,222 asses and mules, and 822,047 in 1860. If 
we add Kentucky, Missouri, and Maryland to the southern States, we then have 1,030,451; while all 
the other States and Territories have only 120,697 asses and mules. 

The following table shows the number of asses and mules in the Pacific States in 1860, as com- 
pared with 1850: 

i860. 1850. 

California 3, 681 1, 666 

Oregon 980 420 

New Mexico 11, 291 8, 654 

Utah 851 325 

WaBhington 159 

Total 16, 962 11, 065 



Asses and mules are used to a considerable extent in the Pacific States, but more especially in 
New Mexico. 

In all the States and Territories there were in 1850 one ass or mule to every 41 inhabitants; and 
in 1860 one to every 27 inhabitants. 

In the middle States there was one to every 480 inhabitants in 1850, and one to 298 in 1860. 

In the western States there was one to every 48 inhabitants in 1850, and one to 36 in 1860. 

In the southern States there was one to every 18 inhabitants in 1850, and one to every 11 inhabi- 
tants in 1860. 

In the Pacific States there was one to every 16 inhabitants in 1850, and only one to every 32 in 
habitants in 1860. 

In all the sections except the New England and Pacific States, the increase in asses and mules 
has been much greater than the increase in population. 

It is claimed that a good, well-bred mule will do as much work as a horse, while it can be kepi 
at one-third less expense. Mules are liable to fewer diseases than horses, and will bear ill treatment 
better. For careless hands they are more profitable than horses, and the high prices which they 
bring, and the rapidly increasing demand for them, shows that the prejudice against them is not as 
great as formerly. The active life of a mule is about double that of horses. They require less than 
half the expense for shoeing. It is claimed that an average lot of mules can be disposed of more 
readily and at better prices than an average lot of horses; and that, as they cost less to feed, and can 
be worked a year earlier, they are a more profitable stock to raise. 

WORKING OXEN. 

The total number of working oxen in the States and Territories, in 1850, was 1,700,744, and in 
1860, 2,254,911 ; an increase of 32 per cent. 

The following table shows the number of working oxen in the New England States in 1860, as 
compared with 1850: 

I860. 1850. 

Connecticut 47, 939 46, 988 

Rhode Island 7,857 8,189 

Massachusetts 38, 221 46, 111 

Vermont 42, 639 48, 577 

New Hampshire 51, 512 59, 027 

Maine 79, 792 83, 893 

Total 267,960 292,785 



Excepting Connecticut, the number of working oxen has decreased in all the New England States 
since 1850. There were 292,785 in 1850, and only 267,960 in 1860— a decrease of 24,825 in ten years. 
15 



cxiv INTRODUCTION. 

The following table shows the number of working oxen in the middle States in 1860, as compared 
with 1850: 

I860. 1850. 

New York 121, 703 178, 909 

New Jersey 10, 067 12, 070 

Penneylvania 60, 371 61. 627 

Delaware 9, 530 9, 797 

Maryland 34, 524 34, 1 35 

District of Columbia 69 104 

Total 236, 264 296, 542 



In the middle States also there is a decrease of 60,278 working oxen since 1850. Of this de- 
crease 57,206 is in the State of New York. 

The following table shows the number of working oxen in the western States in 1860, as com- 
pared with 1850: 

I860. 1850. 

Illinois 90,380 76.156 

Indiana 117, 687 40, 221 

Micbigan 61,686 55,350 

Missouri 1 66, 588 1 12, 168 

Ohio 63,078 65,381 

Iowa 56, 964 21, 892 

Wisconsin 93,652 42,801 

Minnesota 27, 568 655 

Kansas 21, 551 

Kentucky 108, 599 62, 274 

Nebraska 12, 594 

Total i 820, 347 476. 898 



Here we have a decided increase since 1850 — ^an increase of over 70 per cent. There is an 
increase of working oxen in every western State except Ohio, where there is a decrease of over 2,303, 
Ohio, in its agriculture, approximates more closely to the middle than to the western States, and the 
fact that there is a decrease in the older States shows, what we may well suppose to be the case, that 
oxen are found more useful in a new country than in one where a higher system of agriculture is adopted 

The following table shows the number of working oxen in the southern States in 1860, as com- 
pared with 1850: 

I860. 1850. 

Alabama 88, 316 66, 961 

Arkansas 78, 707 34, 231 

Florida 7, 361 5, 794 

Georgia 74, 487 73, 286 

Mississippi 105, 603 83, 485 

Louisiana 60, 358 54, 968 

North Carolina 48, 511 37, 309 

South Carolina 22, 629 20, 507 

Tennessee : 102, 158 86, 255 

Texas , 172,492 51,285 

Virginia 97, 872 89, 513 

Total 858, 494 603, 594 



There is an increase of working oxen in each one of the southern States. There were in the 
aggregate 858,494 in the southern States in 1860, against 603,594 in 1850, an increase of over 40 per cent 



INTRODUCTION. 



cxv 



The following table shows the number of working oxen in the Pacific States in 1860, as com 
pared with 1850 : 

I860. 1850. 

California 1 26. 004 4,780 

Oregon 7, 469 8, 114 

New Mexico 25, 266 12, 257 

Washington Territory 2, 571 

Utah 9.168 



Total 70.478 



5,266 
30, 417 



There is a greater increase in the Pacific States than in any other section — ^an increase of nearly 
130 per cent Oregon shows a slight decrease, while California has increased from 4,780 in 1850, to 
26,004 in 1860. There is also a marked increase in New Mexico, though far less than in California. 

The following table shows the number of working oxen to each hundred inhabitants in the 
different sections, and also in the States and Territories: 

I860 1850. 

New England States 8 10 

Middle States 2 4 

Southern States 9 8 

Western States 8 7 

Pacific States 12 16 

United States and Territories 6 7 

In the New England States there were ten working oxen to each hundred inhabitants in 1850, 
and only eight in 1860. 

In the middle States there were four in 1850, and only two to each hundred inhabitants in 1860. 

In the western States there were seven in 1850, and eight in 1860. 

In the southern States there were eight in 1850, and nine in 1860. 

In the Pacific States there were sixteen in 1850, and twelve in 1860. 

In the States and Territories there were seven working oxen to every hundred inhabitants in 
1850, and six in 1860. 

The Pacific States have more working oxen in proportion to population than any other section. 
The southern States come next, then the western and New England States, where the number is the 
same, and the middle States come last, where there is only one-fourth as many as in New England and 
the west. 

MILCH cows AND OTHER CATTLE. 

The number of milch cows in the States and Territories, in 1860, was 8,581,735, against 6,385,094 
in 1850 — an increase of over 33 per cent. 

Of "other cattle," not including working oxen, there were in 1860 14,779,373, against 10,293,069 
in 1850 — an increase of over 43 per cent. 

The following table shows the number of milch cows and of "other cattle" in the New England 
States in 1860, as compared with 1850 : 



States. 



Maine 

New Hampshire 

y ennont 

Bfassachusetts . . 
Rhode Island... 
ConDecticut 

Total 



Milch cows. 



I860. 



147, 314 

94,880 

174,667 

144, 492 

19,700 

98,b77 



C79, 930 



1850. 



133,556 

94,277 

14G, 128 

130,099 

18,098 

85.461 



608, 219 



Other cattle. 



I860. 



149,827 

118,075 

153, 144 

97,201 

11,548 

95,091 



624,886 



1850. 



125,890 
114,606 
154, 143 

83,284 
9,375 

80,226 



567,524 



CXVl 



INTRODUCTION. 



There were 679,930 mUch cows in the New England States in I860, against 608,219 in 1850; 
showing an increase of over 70,000. Of " other cattle," not including working oxen, there were 624,886 
in 1860, against 667,524 in 1850, showing an increase of over 40,000. 

Milch cows have increased about 14,000 in Maine, 14,400 in Massachusetts, 13,400 in Connecticut, 
and over 28,500 in Vermont. 

In " other cattle " there has been a slight falling off in Vermont. It is evident that the dairy is 
attracting more attention in this State than feeding cattle for beef. In Maine, on the other hand, there 
is an increase of about 24,000 ; in New Hampshire, an increase of about 3,500 ; in Rhode Island, au 
increase of about 2,2(;0 ; in Massachusetts, an increase of about 14,000 ; and in Connecticut, an increase 
of nearly 15,000. 

The following table shows the number of milch cows and " other cattle " in the middle States in 
1860, as compared with 1850 : 



States. 



New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsjlyania 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia 

Total.... 






MUch 


cows. 


Other cattle. 


1860. 


1850. 


1860. 


1850. 


1,123,634 

138, 818 

673,547 

22,595 

99,463 

639 


931,324 

118,736 

530,224 

19,248 

86,856 
813 


727,837 
69,909 

685,575 
25,596 

119,254 
196 


767,406 
80,445 

562,195 

24,166 

98,595 

123 


2,058,696 


1,687,201 


1,648,369 


1,532,930 



The total number of milch cows in the middle States in 1860 was 2,058,696, against 1,687,201 in 
1850 ; an increase of oyer 370,000. More than half the milch cows of the middle States are in the 
State of New York. This was also the case in 1850. 

Pennsylvania has but little over half as many milch cows as New York, but the rate of increase 
is as great since 1850 as in the latter State. 

Of" other cattle" there were 1,648,369 in the middle States in 1860, against 1,532,930 in 1850, 
showing an increase of over 115,000. In New York there has been a decrease in this class of stock 
of about 40,000, while in Pennsylvania there is an increase of over 123,000. 

The following table shows the number of milch cows and " other cattle " in the western States in 
1860, as compared with 1850 : 



StatOT. 



Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Missouri 

Michigap 

Minnesota 

Wisconsin 

Nebraska 

Ohio 

Total 



Milch cows. 



Other cattle. 



1860. 



522,634 
363,553 
189,602 

28,550 
269,215 
345,243 
179, 543 

40,344 

203, 001 

6, 995 

676,585 



2, 825, 465 



1850. 



1660. 



294,671 

284,554 

45,704 



247, 475 
230,169 

99,676 
607 

64,339 



544,499 



970,799 
588,144 
293,322 

43,354 
457, 845 
657, 153 
238,615 

51,345 
225,207 

17,608 
895, 077 



1,811,694 4,438,469 



1850. 



541,209 

389,891 

69,025 



442,763 

449, 173 

119,471 

740 

76,293 



749, 067 



2, 837, 632 



INTRODUCTION. 



cxvn 



There were 2,825,465 milch cows in the western States in 1860, against 1,811,694 in 1850; 
showing an increase of more than 1,000,000, or over 55 per cent. Minnesota has increased from 607 
in 1850 to over 40,000 in 1860; Iowa, from less than 46,000 to nearly 190,000 in the same period. 

Of "other cattle," there were 4,438,469 in the western States in 1860, against 2,837,632 in 1850 — 
an increase of more than 1,600,000, or over 56 per cent. Iowa has increased from 69,000 to over 
293,000, and Minnesota from only 740 to 51,000. Wisconsin from 76,000 to 225,000. Kansas, which 
was unreported in 1850, gives over 43,000 in 1860. 

The following table shows the number of milch cows and " other cattle " in the southern States in 
1860, as compared with 1850 : 



States. 



Milch cows. 



1860. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

Geor^a 

Florida 

Louisiana 

Mississippi 

North Carolina . 
South Carolina.. 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Virginia 

Total 



230,537 
171,003 
299,688 
92,974 
129,662 
207,646 
228,623 
163,938 
249, 514 
601,540 
330,713 



2, 705, 838 



1850. 



227,791 
93, 151 
334,233 
72,876 
105, 576 
214,232 
221,799 
195,244 
250,456 
217,811 
317, 619 



2, 248, 788 



Other cattle. 



1860. 



454,543 
318, 089 
631,707 
287,725 
326,787 
416,660 
416,676 
320, 209. 
413, 060 
2,761,736 
615,882 



6, 963, 074 



1850. 



433,263 
165,320 
690,019 
182,415 
414,798 
436,254 
434,402 
563,935 
414,051 
661,018 
669,137 



5, 064, 612 



"There were 2,705,838 milch cows in the southern States in 1860, against 2,248,788 in 1850— an 
increase of over 457,000, or about 20 per cent. There has been a slight decrease in the number of 
milch cows in Georgia, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Tennessee. While Texas has increased from 
less than 218,000 in 1850 to over 600,000 in 1860; Arkansas hos also increased from 93,000 to 
171,000. There has been a slight increase in all the other southern States. 

Of "other cattle," there were in the southern States 6,963,074 in 1860, against 5,064,612 in 1850; 
being an increase of nearly 2,000,000, or nearly 40 per cent , being double the percentage increase in 
milch cows. 

The most remarkable increase is in Texas There were 2,761,736 in 1860, against 661,018 in 
1850, or an increase of over 2,000,000. With the exception of Texas, and Florida, and Alabama, and^ 
Arkansas, there has been a decrease of this class of cattle in all the southern States. Next to Texas, 
Georgia has more cattle than any other southern State ; Virginia coming next. 

The following table shows the number of milch cows and " other cattle " in the Pacific States in 
1860, as compared with 1850: 



States. 


Milch 


cows. 


Other cattle. 


1860. 


1850. 


186o! 


1K)0. 


CalifomiA __- ...... ...... .... .... 


205,407 
53,170 
34,369 

. 11,967 
9,660 


4, 280 

9,427 

10, 635 

4,861 


948,731 
93,492 
29,094 
12,959 
16, 228 


253,599 


Orecfon --.- 


24,188 


New Mexico . . ... ...... ...... 


10,085 


Utali 


2,489 


WiifthiticrfiiTi 'PfTTifftrv 










Total 


314,573 


29, 203 


1,100,504 


290, 361 







GXVlll 



INTRODUCTION. 



There were 314,573 milch cows in the Pacific States in 1860, against 29,203 in 1850, being an 
increase of over 97.5 per cent. The main increase is in California. 

Of " other cattle " there were 1,100,504 in 1860, against 290,361 in 1850, or an increase of nearly 
300 per cent. 

The following table shows the number of milch cows and " other cattle " to every 100 persons in 
the difierent sections, and in the whole United States and Territories : 



New England States 

Middle States 

Western States 

Southern States 

Pacific States 

United States and Territories 



Milch cows. 



1860. 



i850. 



21 
24 
27 
29 

56 
27 



22 
25 
28 
30 
16 
27 



Other cattle.' 



1860. 



19 
19 
45 
75 
199 
47 



1850. 



20 
23 
43 
69 
106 
44 



It is somewhat remarkable that the number of milch cows, in proportion to population, should be 
precisely the same in 1860 as in 1850 in all the States and Territories. By reference to the table 
(page Ixxxv,) showing the amount of butter and cheese produced, in proportion to population, it will be 
seen that there were 17.62 pounds of butter and cheese to each inhabitant in 1850, and 17.97 pounds 
in 1860. 

In the New England States there were 21 cows to each 100 persons in 1860, against 22 in 1850. 

In the middle States there were 24 milch cows to each 100 persons in 1860, against 25 in 1850. 

In the western States there were 27 milch cows to each 100 persons in 1860, and 28 in 1850. 

In the southern States there were 29 milch cows to every 100 persons in 1860, against 30 in 1850. 

In the Pacific States there were 56 milch cows to each 100 persons in 1860, against 16 in 1850. 

From the smallest number of cows in 1850, in proportion to population, the Pacific States have 
risen to the highest in 1860. There are now more than two cows to every family of five persons, and 
yet, as will be seen by the table showing the amount of butter in proportion to population, there is less 
than eight and three-quarter pounds of butter, and a little over three pounds of cheese produced to 
each person. 

Of "other cattle" there were in the New England States 20 head to each 100 persons in 1850, 
tind 19 head in 1860. 

In the middle States there were 23 head in 1850, and 19 head in 1860. 

In the western States there weje 43 head in 1850, and 45 head in 1860. 

In the southern States there were 69 head in 1850, and 75 head in 1860 

In the Pacific States there were 106 head in 1850, and 199 in 1860. 

In the whole United States and Territories there were 44 head to every 100 persons in 1850, and 
47 head in 1860. 

It will be observed that there are far more cattle, in proportion to population, in the Pacific States, 
than in any other section. The southern States come next. The western States stand third ; the 
number in which, however, is far less, in proportion to population, than in the southern States. 

In the middle and New England States in 1860, the numbers are precisely the same — 19 head in 
both cases. 

There are more than twice as many cattle, in proportion to population, in the western States than 
in the middle and New England States; and in the southern States nearly four times as many. 

In the New England and middle States the number of cattle, in proportion to population, has 
decreased since 1850, and, what is somewhat remarkable, more in the middle States than in the New 
England States. 

* Meiining cattle not euuaicruteil as "milch cows" or **worklug oxen." 



INTRODUCTION. 



CXIX 



Taking the western, New England, and middle States together, the increase in the number of 
cattle has not kept pace with the increase in the population ; but it is more than probable that from 
the introduction of improved breeds, which mature earlier and fatten more readily, there has been 
no falling oif in the supply of beef, in proportion to population, since 1850. 

The following table shows the amount of butter and cheese obtained from each cow in the dif- 
ferent sections in 1860, as compared with 1850, and in the whole United States and Territories : 





Butter. 


Cheese. 


Total butter and cheese. 




1860. 


1850. 


1860. 


1850. 


1860. 


1850. 


New England States 

Middle States 


75 
87 
58 
22 
15 
53 


72 
80 
49 
19 
10 
49 


32 
25 

10 

5 
12 


44 
31 
13 

2* 
16 


107 
112 
68 
22 
20 
65 


IIG 
111 


Western States 

Southern States. . .......... 


62 

19 


Pacific States 


m 

65 


United States and lerritoriefl. 



Taking the whole United States and Territories together, there were 53 pounds of butter obtained 
from each cow in 1860, against 49 pounds in 1850; and of cheese, 12 pounds in 1860, and 16 pounds 
in 1850. ' Of butter and cheese together, there were 65 pounds from each cow in 1860, and precisely 
the same amount in 1850. 

When we consider that a good cow, properly fed, will produce 500 pounds of butter and cheese in 
a year, these figures do not appear favorable. 

In the New England States 75 pounds of butter was obtained from each cow in 1860, and 72 in 
1850; and of cheese, 32 pounds in 1860, against 44 pounds in 1850; showing an increase of three 
pounds of butter to each cow, and a decrease of twelve pounds of cheese. The total product of butter 
and cheese being 116 pounds in 1850, and only 107 pounds in 1860 — ^a falling ofi'of nine pounds per cow. 

In the middle States there were 87 pounds of butter obtained from each cow in 1860, against 80 
pounds in 1850. 

Of cheese there were 25 pounds in 1860, and 31 in 1850. 

In the middle States, as in the New England States, there is a falling off in the production of 
cheese per cow, but not quite as great as the increase in butter. The total amount of butter and cheese 
being 112 pounds in 1860, against 111 in 1850; being an increase of one pound per cow. 

In the western States there were 58 pounds of butter obtained from each cow in 1860, against 
49 in 1850; showing an increase of nine pounds per cow. 

Of cheese there were 13 pounds per cow in 1850, and only 10 pounds in 1860; a decrease of three 
pounds per cow. 

The total product of butter and cheese was 68 pounds per cow in 1860, against 62 pounds in 
1850; an increase of six pounds per cow. 

In the southern States there were 22 pounds of butter obtained from each cow in 1860, against 
19 pounds in 1850. 

Of cheese there were 6 ounces per cow in 1850, and only 5 ounces per cow in 1860. 

In the Pacific States there were 15 pounds of butter obtained from each cow in 1860, against 10 
pounds in 1850, and 5 pounds of cheese in 1860, against 2 J in 1850. The total product per cow, of 
butter and cheese, being 20 pounds in 1860, against 12^ in 1850. 



THE CATTLE DISEASE.— P^ro Pneumonia. 



This disease, so fatal in Europe, appeared in this country in 1859. It was brought to Massa- 
chusetts by three cows imported from Holland. The disease soon spread, and many valuable herds 



cxir INTRODUCTION. 

were decimated. Great alarm was felt, not only in the New England and middle States, but through- 
out the west. A special session of the legislature of Massachusetts was called, and $100,000 
appropriated for the employment of measures calculated to arrest the spread of the disease. The most 
important of which was, in brief, as follows : Cattle which are infected, or have been exposed to in- 
fection, shall be enclosed in a suitable place and kept isolated ; the expense of their maintenance to be 
defrayed, one-fifth by the town and four-fifths by the State. The cattle may be killed at the discre- 
tion of the constituted authorities, and their value paid to the owners. The same authorities may also 
prohibit the departure of cattle from any enclosure, and also exclude cattle therefrom. They can also 
prohibit the passage of cattle through the town or city, or of bringing them into it. All cattle that are 
diseased or have been exposed to the infection, to be marked on the rump with the letter P ; and no 
animal so branded shall be sold or disposed of without the consent of the authorities. All who know, 
or have reason to suspect, of the existence of the disease among their cattle must give notice of the 
fact to the authorities. 

In addition to the local authorities, three persons are appointed as commissioners, to examine into 
the nature of the disease, to attend the hospitals or quarantine stations, and to make a report of them 
fjo the governor and council. These measures were eminently successful ; the disease was speedily 
arrested, and, from all we can learn from the official accounts, not more than 500 animals died from the 
disease. In addition to this, 657 animals that had been exposed to contagion were killed, but on post- 
mortem examination found to be sound ; 185 animals were killed that proved to be diseased. One fact 
seems to be clearly established, that the disease is contagious, and the only sure preventive is to isolate 
the affected cattle. 

The disease is not entirely new in this country. It broke out in the herd of E. P. Prentice, esq., 
of Mount Hope, near Albany, New York, in 1854. Sixteen animals were affected, fourteen of which 
died. The disease does not seem at that time to have spread in the neighborhood, and this case at- 
tracted no general attention until it broke out in Massachusetts in 1859. 

SHEEP. 

The total number of sheep in the United States in 1860 was 22,471,275, against 21,723,220 in 
1850; showing an increase of only 748,055. 

The following table shows the number of sheep in the New England States in 1860, as compared 
with 1850 : 

I860. 1850. 

Connecticut - 117. 107 174, 181 

Maine 452, 472 451, 577 

Massachusetts •. 114, 829 188, 651 

New Hampshire 310, 534 384, 756 

Rhode Island , 32, 624 44, 296 

Vermont 752, 201 1, 004, 122 

Total 1, 779, 767 2. 247, 583 

The total number of sheep in the New England States was 2,247,583 in 1850, and 1,779,767 in 
1860, showing a decrease of 467,816. In 1850 Vermont had 1,004,122 sheep, and in 1860 752,201, 
being a decrease of 251,921. Maine had 456,577 in 1850, and 452,472 in 1860, showing an increase 
of nearly one thousand. Maine is the only New England State in which there has been any increase 
since 1850. It may be interesting to mention that Vermont had 1,681,819 sheep in 1840, so that since 
that date the number of sheep in this State has fallen off more than one-half. In Maine also, though 
there has been a slight increase since 1850, there is a marked decrease since 1840, at which time there 
were 649,264 sheep, against 452,472 in 1860. In New Hampshire there has been an equally great 
falling off since 1840. In Connecticut the decrease is still greater. In the aggregate the number of 



INTRODUCTION. cxxi 

sheep in the New England States has fallen off from 3,442,081 in 1840, to 2,247,583 in 1860, and to 
1,779,767 in 1860. In other words, the number of sheep in the New England States has fallen off 
nearly one-half since 1840. 

The following table shows the number of sheep in the middle States in 1860, as compared with 1850: 

I860. • 1850. 

Delaware 18, 857 27, 503 

Maryland 155, 765 177, 902 

New York 2, 617, 855 3, 453, 241 

New Jersey 135, 228 160, 488 

Pennsylvania 1, 631 , 540 1^ 822, 357 

District of Columbia 40 150 

Total 4, 559, 285 5, 641, 641 

The total number of sheep in the middle States in 1850 was 5,641,641, and 4,559,285 in 1860, 
showing a decrease of 1,082,356. 

In 1840 there were 7,402,851 sheep in the middle States, showing a decrease from that time to 
1860 of nearly three million. In New York in 1840 there were 5,118,777 sheep, in 1850 3,453,241, 
and 2,617,855 in 1860. 

The following table shows the number of sheep in the western States in 1860, as compared with 1850:* 

I860 1850. 

Illinois 769, 135 894, 043 

Indiana 991, 175 1, 122, 493 

Iowa 250, 041 149, 960 

Kansas 17, 569 

Kentucky 938, 990 1, 102, 091 

Michigan 1, 271, 743 746, 435 

Minnesota 13, 044 80 

Missouri 937, 445 762, 511 

Ohio 3, 546, 767 3, 942, 929 

Wisconsin 332, 954 124, 896 

Nebraska 2, 355 

Total 9, 071, 218 8, 845, 438 

In 1850 there were 8,845,438 sheep in the western States, and 9,071,218 in 1860, showing an 
increase of about 225,000. In 1840 there were in the western States 4,574,747 sheep, showing that 
while the increase has been slight since 1850, it has been very large since 1840, precisely the reverse 
of that which has taken place in the New England and middle States. In Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, 
and Ohio, there has been a decrease in the number of sheep since 1850. The increase has been 
confined to the newer States. 

The following table shows the number of sheep in the southern States in 1860, as compared with 1850 : 

I860. I860. 

Alabama 370, 156 371, 880 

Arkansas 202,753 91,256 

Florida 30, 158 23, 311 

Georgia 512, 618 560, 435 

Missisbippi 352, 632 304, 929 

North Carolina 546, 749 595, 249 

South Carolina 233, 509 285, 551 

Tennessee 773, 317 811, 591 

Texas 753, 363 100, 530 

Louisiana 181, 253 110, 333 

Virginia 1, 043, 269 1, 310, 004 

Total 4, 999, 777 4, 565, 069 

16 



cxxii INTRODUCTION. 

In 1850 there were 4,565,069 sheep in the southern States, and in 1860 4,999,777, showing an 
increase of 434,708. In 1840 there were in the southern States 3,512,767 sheep, showing an increase 
since that time of nearly 1,500,000. 

In Georgia, North Carolina, South Carohna, Tennessee, and Virginia, there was a decrease in the 
number of sheep between 1850 and 1860. As a general rule it may be said that the number of sheep 
has declined in all the older States since 1850. 

The following table shows the number of sheep in the Pacific States in 1860, as compared with 
1850: 

I860. I860. 

California 1, 088, Q02 17, 574 

Oregon .• 86, 052 15, 382 

New Mexico 830. 1 16 377, 271 

Utah 37, 332 3, 262 

Waehington 10, 157 

Total 2. 051, 659 413. 489 



In 1850 the total number of sheep in the Pacific States was 413,489, and in 1860 2,051,659; 
showing an increase of 1,638,170. California alone has increased 1,000,000. 

Taking the New England, middle, and western States together, the total number of sheep in 1850 
was 16,734,662, and in 1860 15,410,270, showing a decrease in the aggregate number of sheep in these 
States of 1,324,392. The increase has been in the Pacific and southern States. 

The following table shows the number of sheep to each 100 inhabitants in the different sections, 
and in the whole United States and Territories in 1860, as compared with 1850 : 

I860. 1850. 

New England States 56 82 

Middle States 53 58 

Western States 88 140 

Southern States 54 62 

Pacific States^ 371 231 

United States and Territories 71 93 

In 1850 there were 93 sheep to every 100 persons in the States and Territories, and 71 in 1860. 
In the middle States there were 58 sheep to each 100 persons in 1850, and 53 in 1860. 
In the New England States there were in 1850 82 sheep to each 100 persons, and 56 in 1860. 
In the western States there were to each 100 inhabitants 140 sheep in 1850, and 88 sheep in 1860. 
In the southern States there were to each 100 inhabitants 62 sheep in 1850, and 54 sheep in 1860. 
In the Pacific States there were 231 sheep to each 100 persons in 1850, and 371 sheep in 1860. 

AMOUNT OF WOOL PER SHEEP. 

The following table wiU show the amount of wool from each sheep in the different sections, and 
in the whole United States and Territories, in 1850 and in 1860 : 

I860. I860. 

New England Stotes 3.62 lbs. 3.15 lbs. 

MiddleStates 3.28 " 2.74 " 

Western States 2.82 " 2.43 " 

Southern States 1.95 " 1.82 ** 

Pacific States 1.68 " 0.18 

United States and Territories 2.68 " 2.41 



(I 



In 1850 the amount of wool in the United States and Territories was 2.41 pounds per sheep, 
and in 1860 2.68 pounds, showing an increase of 0.27 pounds per sheep, or a little over one-quarter of 
a pound per sheep. 



INTRODUCTION. cxxiii 

In the New England States the amount per sheep in 1850 was 3.15 pounds, and in 1860 3.62, 
an increase of 0.57 pound, or over half a pound per sheep. 

In the middle States the amount of wool per sheep in 1850 was 2.74 pounds, and in 1860 3.28, 
an increase of 074 pound, or nearly three-quarters of a pound per sheep. 

In the western States the amount of wool per sheep in 1850 was 2.43 pounds, and in 1860 2.82 
pounds, an increase of 0.39 pound, or about six ounces per sheep. 

In the southern States the amount of wool per sheep in 1850 was 1.82 pound, and in 1860 1.95 
pound, an increase of 0.13 pound, or about two ounces per sheep. 

In the Pacific States the amount of wool per sheep in 1850 was only 0.18 pound, or less than three 
ounces. In 1860 the amount had increased to 1.68 pound, showing that vast improvements have taken 
place in sheep husbandry in the Pacific States. This has been brought about principally by the intro- 
duction of sheep from the Atlantic States and from Australia. 

It will be observed that more wool is obtained per sheep in the New England States than in any 
other section; the middle States coming next, then the western, then the southern, and lastly the Pacific. 
The increase of wool per head has been greatest in the Pacific States, or over one pound and a half per 
head. The middle States show the next greatest increase, or about three-quarters of a pound per sheep. 
The western States come next, or about six ounces per sheep. The southern States show the smallest 
increase, or only two ounces per sheep. 

It may be well to observe that the improvement which has taken place in the New England and 
middle States in the weight of wool has been obtained, it is believed, to a certain extent, at the expense 
of quality. It is claimed by the manufacturers that there is more oil or grease in the fleeces than for- 
merly ; and it is a fact that they pay more for Ohio and other western wool than for that of the middle 
and New England States. Vermont wool is usually quoted at five cents per pound less than Ohio wool. 

SWINE. 

There were in the States and Territories 30,354,213 swine in 1850, 33,512,867 in 1860, showing 
an increase of over 3,000,000. 

The following table shows the number of swine in the New England States in 1860, as compared 
with 1850: 

I860. 1850. 

Connecticut 75, 120 76, 472 

MasBachusettB 73, 948 81, 119 

Maine 54, 783 54. 598 

New Hampshire 51, 935 63. 487 

Rhode Island 17, 478 19, 509 

Vermont 52, 912 66, 296 

Total 326, 176 361, 481 



There were ia the New England States in 1850 361,481 swine, and in 1860 326,176, showing a 
decrease of 35,310 head. 

There has been a decrease in all the New England States except Maine, where there is an 
increase of about two hundred. 

The following table shows the number of swine in the middle States in 1860, as compared with 1850: 

I860. 1850. 

New York 910, 178 1, 018, 252 

New Jersey 236, 089 250, 370 

Pennsylvania 1, 031, 266 1, 040, 366 

Delaware 47, 848 56, 261 

Maryland 387, 756 352, 911 

District of Columbia 1 , 099 1 , 635 

Total 2, 614, 236 2, 719, 795 



cxxiv INTRODUCTION. 

There were 2,719,795 swine in the middle States in 1850, and 2,614,236 in 1860; a decrease of 
over 105,000 head. There is a slight increase in Maryland ; all the other States have decreased. In 
New York alone there is a decrease of over 100,000 head. Pennsylvania has more swine than any 
other middle State. 

TKe following table shows the number of swine in the western States in 1860, as compared with 1850: 

I860. 1850. 

Illinois 2, 502, 308 1, 915, 907 

Indiana 3, 099, 110 2, 263, 776 

Iowa 934, 820 323, 247 

Kansas 138, 224 

Kentucky 2, 330, 595 2, 891, 163 

Missouri 2, 345, 425 1, 702, 625 

Michigan 372, 386 205, 847 

Minnesota 101, 371 734 

Ohio 2, 251, 653 1, 964, 770 

Wisconsin 334, 055 159, 276 

Nebraska 25, 369 

Total , 14, 435, 316 11, 427, 345 

There were in the western States 11,427,345 swine in 1850, and in 1860 14,435,330, showing an 
increase of over three million. 

There has been an increase in every western State except Kentucky, in which State there has 
been a falling off in the number of swine of over half a million. 

Indiana has more swine than any other State in the west, or, in fact, of the United States, having 
3,099,110, against 2,263,776 in 1850. 

Illinois stands next, having 2,502,308 head in 1860, against 1,915,907 in 1850; an increase of over 
half a million. 

Missouri stands next, having 2,345,425, against 1,702,625 in 1850; showing an increase of nearly 
forty per cent. 

Kentucky had more swine in 1 850 than any other western State, and more than any other in the 
United States except Tennessee. She has now, however, about 15,000 less than Missouri. 

Iowa shows a remarkable increase in the number of swine, having 323,247 in 1850, and 934,820 
in 1860; an increase of nearly 200 per cent. 

Minnesota has increased from 734 in 1850, to 101,371 in 1860; an increase of 100,000. 

The following table shows the number of swine in the southern States in 1860, as compared with 1850: 

I860. 1850. 

Alabama 1, 748, 321 1, 904,^540 

Arkansas 1, 171, 630 836, 727 

Florida 271, 742 209, 453 

Georgia 2, 036. 116 2, 168, 617 

Louisiana 634, 525 597, 301 

Mississippi 1, 532, 768 1, 582, 734 

North Carolina 1, 883, 214 1, 812, 813 

South Carolina 965, 779 1, 065, 503 

Tennessee 2, 347, 321 3, 104, 800 

Texas 1, 371, 532 692, 022 

Virginia 1, 599, 919 1, 829, 843 

Total 15,562,867 15,804,353 

There were in the southern States in 1850 15,804,o5i} swine, and in 1860 15,562,867, showing a 
decrease of nearly 250,000 head. 



INTRODUCTION. cxxv 

Tennessee, Georgia, Nortb Carolina, Virginia, Mississippi, and Texas, are the largest hog-producing 
States in the south. Adding Kentucky and Missouri to the southern States, it will be seen that there 
are 20,238,887 head of swine, while in all the other States and Territories there are only 13,273,980. 

The following table shows the number of swine in the Pacific States in 1860, as compared with 1860 ; 

1860. 1850. 

California 456, 396 2, 77C 

Oregon 81, 615 30, 2^5 

New Mexico 10,313 7,314 

WashiDgtou 6, 383 

Utah 6, 707 914 



Totol 561, 414 41, 239 

There were 561,414 swine in the Pacific States in 1860, against 41,23.9 in 1850, showing an 
increase of over twelve hundred per cent. 

California has increased from less than three thousand in 1850, to nearly a half million in 1860. 

The following table shows the number of swine in the different sections, and in the United States 
and Territories, to each hundred inhabitants, in 1850 and in 1860 : 

1860. 1850. 

New England Statea 10 13 

Middle States 31 41 

WeBtemStatee 149 181 

Southern Slatee 175 215 

Pacific States 101 23 

Slates and Territories 106 131 

In the New England States there were thirteen head of swine to each hundred inhabitants in 
1850, and only ten in 1860. 

In the middle States there were, in 1850, forty-one to each hundred inhabitants,and thirty -one in 1860. 

In the western States there were one hundred and eighty-one to each hundred inhabitants in 1850, 
and one hundred and forty-nine in 1860. 

In the southern States there were two hundred and fifteen to each hundred inhabitants in 1850, 
and one hundred and seventy-five in 1860. 

In the Pacific States there were, in 1850, .twenty-three to each hundred inhabitants, and one 
hundred and one in 1860. 

In all the sections, except the Pacific States, the increase in the number of swine has not kept 
pace with the increase in population. 

It will be observed that there are more swine in the southern States, in proportion to population, 
than in any other section. There are in the south eight and three-quarters pigs to each family of five 
persons. 

The western States have the next largest proportion of swine. There are nearly seven and one- 
half to each family of five persons. 

The Pacific States have the next largest proportion, or a little over five to each family. 

In the middle States there are only about three to ten persons, and in the New England States 
only one to ten persons. 

In the western States there are nearly five times as many swine, in proportion to population, as in 
the middle States, and fifteen times as many as in the New England States. 

In the United States there were one hundred and thirty-one swine to each hundred inhabitants 
in 1850, and one hundred and six in 1860. 

This falling otl' in the number of swine, in proportion to population, may be accounted for by the 
mcreased facilities for the transportation of grain, and its consequent relative advance in price. Pigs 
call be multiplied so rapidly that, as soon as it is more profitiible to feed grain to swine than to sell it- 



CXXVl 



INTRODUCTION. 



the supply of pork will be quite equal to the demand. In the New England and middle States pork, 
up to the present winter, (1864— '65,) has rarely commanded a price at which marketable grain can be 
fed to swine with a profit Under the best system of feeding, it requires seven bushels of Indian com 
to make one hundred pounds of pork ; and, as the freight from the west is much less on the hundred 
pounds of pork than it is on the seven bushels of com, (say 420 pounds,) and as hitherto the Atlantic 
cities have been the principal market, it is more profitable for the western farmers to feed their grain 
to pigs than it is for the farmers of the middle and New England States. In other words, the farmers 
of these States are subjected to a more severe competition from the west in the production of pork than 
in the production of grain. During the present winter grain has been so high in the west that there 
has been less difference in favor of the western farmer in fattening pork, as compared with the eastern 
farmer, and the result has been a much higher price . in the Atlantic States than ever before known. 
For the first time in many years it has been quite profitable to fatten pigs on marketable grain in the 
middle and New England States. The fact is an interesting one, as sustaining the views expressed in 
the former part of this article in regard to the difficulties under which the farmers of the Atlantic States 
labor in the production of beef, pork, wool, and other articles on which, in proportion to value, the 
freight is comparatively light, and, as a consequence, the difficulty of making manure and increasing the 
fertility of the soil. 

VALUE OF LIVE STOCK. 



Value of live stock in the United States in 1860. 



STATES. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Connecticut. . . . 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinob 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts . . 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina. 
Ohio 



VALUE. 



$43, 

22, 
35, 

11. 

3, 

5, 
38, 
72, 
41, 
22, 

3, 
61, 
24, 
15, 
.14, 
12, 
23, 

3, 
41, 
53, 
10, 
16, 
103, 
3J, 
80, 



411,711 
096, 977 
585, 017 
311,079 
144, 706 
553, 356 
372, 734 
501, 225 

855, 539 
476, 293 
332, 450 
868, 237 
546, 940 
437, 533 
667, 853 
737, 744 
714,771 
642, 841 
891, 692 
693, 673 
924, 627 
134, 693 

856, 296 
130, 805 
384, 819 



STATES. 



Oregon 

Pennsylvania.. 
Rhode Island . . 
South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 



Virginia. . 
Wisconsin. 



Total States 



TERRITORIES. 



District of Columbia 

Dakota 

Nebraska 

Nevada , 

New Mexico 

Utah 

Washington 



Total Territories. 



Aggregate 



VALUE. 



$5, 946, 255 
69, 672. 726 
2, 042, 044 
23, 934, 465 
60,211,425 
42, 825, 447 
16,241.989 
47, 803. 049 
17,807,375 



1, 080, 758, 386 



109, 640 

39, 116 

1, 128. 771 

177, 638 
4, 499, 746 
1, 516, 707 
1, 099, 911 



8, 571, 529 



1, 089, 389, 915 



The aggregate value of live stock in the States and Territories in 1850 was $545,180,516, andiu 
1860 $1,089,329,915, showing an increase of $545,149,399, or over one hundred per cent. 



I N T R O D t J C T I N . cxxvii 

The following table shows the value of live stock in the New England States in 1860, as compared 
with 1850: 

I860. 1850. 

Connecticut $11, 311, 079 $7, 467, 490 

Massachusetts 12, 737, 744 9, 647, 710 

Maine l.*^, 437, 533 9, 705, 726 

New Hampshire 10, 924, 627 8. 871, 901 

Rhode Island 2, 042, 044 1 . 532, 637 

Vermont 16, 241 , 989 12, 643, 228 

Total 68, 695, 016 49, 869, 692 

In round numbers the value of live stock in the New England States was $50,000,000 in 1850, 
and $68,000,000 in 1860, or an increase of $18,000,000, or 36 per cent. 

Vermont stands first in the value of live stock, but not first in increase since 1850. Maine, 
which is second in the value of live stock, is first in the increase since 1850, having increased nearly 
$5,000,000, while Vermont has increased less than $4,000,000. Massachusetts has increased about 
$3,000,000, and Connecticut nearly $4,000,000, and New Hampshire $2,000,000. 

The following table shows the value of live stock in the middle States in 1860, as compared with 
1850 : 

I860 1860. 

New York $103,856,296 $73,570,499 

New Jersey 16, 134, 693 10, 679, 291 

Pennsylvania 69, 672, 726 41. 500, 053 

Maryland 14, 667, 853 7, 097, 634 

Delaware 3, 144. 706 1, 849, 281 

District of Columbia 109, 640 71, 643 

Total 207,585,914 135,698,401 

The value of live stock in the middle States in 1850 was $135,698,401, and in 1860 $207,585,914, 
an increase of about $72,000,000, or 52 per cent. 

Nearly one-half the value of live stock in the middle States is in New York, being nearly 
$104,000,000 in 1860, against $73,500,000 in 1850, an increase of about 40 per cent. 

In Pennsylvania the increase is still greater, or nearly 70 per cent. 

In Maryland, however, the value of live stock has increased more rapidly than in any other middle 
State, or nearly 100 per cent. 

The following table shows the value of live stock in the western States in 1860, as compared with 
1850: 

I860. 1850. 

Illinois $72,501,225 $24,209,258 

Indiana 41, 855, 539 22, 478, 555 

Iowa 22, 476, 293 3, 689, 275 

Kentucky 61, 868, 237 29, 661, 436 

Kansas 3, 332, 450 

Michigan 23, 714, 771 8, 008, 734 

Minnesota 3, 642, 841 92, 859 

Missouri 53, 693, 673 19, 887, 580 

Ohio 80, 384, 819 44, 121, 741 

Wisconsin 17, 807, 375 4, 897, 385 

Nebraska 1, 128, 771 - 

Total 382, 405, 994 157, 046, 823 



cxxviii INTRODUCTION. 

In the western States in 1850 the value of live stock was $157,046,823, and in 1860 $382,405,99 
an increase of $225,359,171, or 143 per cent. 

We have not space to allude to the value of live stock in the different States. The table speaks 
for itself, and is worthy of careful study. Ohio shows the greatest value of live stock in 1860, and 
also in 1850. Kentucky stood second in 1850, but is third in 1860. Illinois being about $11,000 000 
in advance of her at the last census. 

Kansas, which was unreported in 1850, had to the value of $3,332,450 in 1860. 

The following table shows the value of live stock in the southern States in 1860, as compared 
with 1850 : 

I860. 1850. 

Alabama. $43, 411, 711 $21, 690, 112 

Arkansas 22, 096, 977 6, 647, 969 

Florida 5, 553, 366 2, 880, 058 

Georgia 38, 372, 734 25, 728, 416 

Louisiana 24, 546, 940 11, 152, 275 

Mississippi 41, 891, 692 19, 403, 662 

North Carolina 31, 130, 805 17, 717, 647 ^ 

South Carolina 23, 934, 465 15, 060, 0J5 

Tennessee 50, 211, 425 29, 978, 016 

Texas 42, 825, 447 10, 412, 927 

Virginia 47, 803, 049 33, 656, 659 

Total 381, 778, 601 194, 327, 756 



The value of live stock in the southern States in 1850 was $194,327,756, and in 1860 $381,778,601— 
an increase of $187,450,845, or 86 per cent. 

The following table shows the value of live stock in the Pacific States in 1860, as compared with 
1850: 

I860. 1850. 

Oalifomia $35, 585, 017 $3, 351, 058 

Oregon 5, 946. 255 1, 876, 189 

New Mexico 4. 999, 746 1, 494. 629 

Washington 1, 099, 911 

Utah 1, 516, 707 546, 968 

Total 49,147,636 7,268,844 



The value of live stock in the Pacific States in 1850 was $7,268,844, and in 1860 $49,147,636— 
an increase of $41,878,792, or 576 per cent. 

It will be observed that the increase in the value of live stock since 1850 is : 

New England States 36 per cent. 

Middle States 52 '* 

Western States 143 " 

Southern States 86 " 

Pacific States 1 576 " 

States and Territories 100 " 

RECAPITULATION. 

It may be interesting to place together in a table the amount of some of the leading products, in 
proportion to population, in 1860 and in 1850. Such a table will show at a glance the progress we 
have made since 1850. We have prepared the following table for this purpose: 



INTRODUCTION. cxx« 

Tabic thotciag the amount of the principal agricultural proJyctt in the iliffnent tectiont, and in the Slatet and Tt-rriloriet, in 
proportion to population, in 1860 as compared with 1850. 

















*" 


UNTO 


rrno 


DDCTS 


"" 


CH IN 


"■" 


"■ 
















SECTIOX5. 


Wheal. 


iDdiiu) corn. ' Bnrli^y. Kye. OaM. BDCknhsU. 


Dm 


oDd Irirt potii. 


Swdo 


poln- 


Bollgr. 






,8«,, 


1850. 


iB«., i8=a;i8ea 


1 


.«ai iBKilim !.««. I. so. !,.«..., «ai ,660. ;im 


,„'.». 


IMO. I im. IBBO. 1 1850. 


Xi'iv EneliiwI Slub-i .... 


B.^ 


BuA 




7.88 
CIO 


tS 


aio 


1.001 


8.65 
4.00 


B«A, 


all 


ftSS 


0,SI 
1.2G 


B«* 




BwL 

3.BS 
ft58 


B>M. 


B-*. 


das 

1«.M 


18.10 
6.13 


LH. Lit. 








«■"""«•"•• 








131! 


a.M 










«•—■"•">"-- 


CM 


(..3P 


l.aJ 


l.M 


'" 



This table is worthy of camful study. It will be seen that in proportion to population, taking the 
States and Territories together, there has been a slight increase in onr principal crops since 1850. Of 
wheat, Indian com, barley, rye, oats, buckwheat, and peas and beans, we raised in 1850 38.28 bushels to 
an inhabitant, and in 1860 39.15 bushels. This shows an increase in the total amount of these crops 
of nearly one bushel to each inhabitant since 1850. 

When it is remembered that our horses, cattle, sheep, swine, &c., have also increased, and that 
these animals have to be fed to a certain extent on the products named, a total increase of one bushel 
to an inhabitant is small indeed. With a country of great extent, abounding with the accumulated 
fertility of centuries, this exhibit of the products of our agriculture is not flattering. 

In the New England States the total amount of the crops named was 8.11 bushels in 1850, and 
7.y2 bushels in 1860, showing a decrease of .18 of a bushel. In the middle States they amounted to 
26.27 bushels in 1850, and 25.33 bushels in 18G0, showing a decrease of nearly one bushel. In the 
western States the crops named amounted in 1850 to 59.62 bushels to each inhabitant, and in 1860 to 
C2 96, showing an increase of over three bushels to each inhabitant. In the southern States these 
crops amounted to 38.89 in 1850, and 38.07 in 1860, showing a decrease of nearly one bushel to each 
inhabitant. In the Pacific States these crops amounted in the aggregate to 5.47 bushels to each 
inliabitant in 1850, and to 29.01 in 1860, showing an increase of twenty-three and .^half bushels to 
each person. 

There is, therefore, a decrease in all the sections except the western and Pacific States ; but the 
increase in these mo7-e. than makes up for the decrease in the New England, middle, and southern States. 

We think these figures will show the necessity of an improved system of agriculture. If in a 
period of profound peace and general prosperity our products but barely kept pace with the increase in 
population, it is certain that the same system of cultivation will not enable us to do so in a period of 
war. It is probable, however, nay, almost certain, that the high prices which farmers are now obtain- 
ing for their products will lead to a better system of agriculture. 

CATTLE AND CATTLE TRADE OF THE WEST. 

It was not long after the first settlement of the interior of Ohio before- the earlier pioneers per- 
ceived the absolute necessity for a market for the product of the soil. They had cast their lot in the 
midst of an extensive new country, where the land was eminently fertile; and the question, how could 
the product of that soil be advantageously disposed of, received their early and earnest consideration, 
The early great immigration would furnish a market for the time being, but the rapidly increasing prcH 
duction would soon outstrip this consumption, and to attempt to transport the surplus grain in ita 
primitive bulky state was out of the question. The great distance from market would require it to be 
condensed to its smallest possible compass. The article of wheat might be made into flour, and by the 
meaiis of flatboats or barges floated out of the tributaries of the Ohio river, thence down that stream 
find the Mississippi to New Orleans. This was the only practical way open, and that only, to any great 



cxxx INTRODUCTION. 

extent, for the one.product — flour; and notwithstanding the hazards and hardships to be encountered 
in that trade at an early day, the extreme scarcity of money, combined with the restless and daring 
character of the young men of that period, it was entered into with a will, and for a time the enter- 
prise was generally remunerative, and oftentimes highly so. The trials and hardships of a flatboat 
voyage to New Orleans before the days of steamboats are but little appreciated by the present genera- 
tion. To float a boat down to New Orleans was easy enough, provided they got safely out of the 
smaller streams ; but the return-trip of nearly one thousand miles by land, the greater part of the way 
through an uninhabited and almost unbroken forest, was generally made on foot, and if the freshets in 
the smaller streams did not occur until middle or late spring, these trips were oftentimes attended with 
great mortality. Nevertheless, the trade flourished, and rapidly increased, until at length, some years 
after the close of the war of 1812, the supply so far outran the demand that the business became very 
precarious, oftentimes resulting in a loss to the shipper of almost the entire cargo. The consequence 
was the price of wheat was reduced so low as no longer to be regarded as the staple product of the 
western farmer, and indeed it finally ceased for a time to be a cash article ; and it was no uncommon 
sight to see stacks of wheat rotting down in the field — twenty-five cents per bushel in store-goods or 
trade being the highest price obtainable by the farmer. 

The large bodies of rich bottom-land lying on the borders of the tributary streams of the Ohio 
were not adapted to wheat-culture, and on the Scioto river much of the land was owned by immigrants 
from the south branch of the Potomac river, Virginia, where the feeding of cattle had been carried on 
for many years in a manner peculiar to that locality, and which materially differed from the mode prac- 
ticed in Pennsylvania or further north. The cattle were not housed nor sheltered, but simply fed twice 
a day in open lots of eight or ten or more acres each, with unhusked corn with the fodder, and followed 
by hogs to clean up the neglected grains and ears ; which practice was adopted here, and is still the 
almost universal method throughout the west, having undergone but little or no material change in fifty 
years. It may be worthy of remark here, that the method of securing the corn after maturity by 
cutting off the stalks near the ground, and stacking it in the field where it was grown in stacks of from 
twelve to sixteen hills square, also originated with the feeders of cattle of the south branch, the con- 
venience and utility of which mode is made manifest by its general prevalence at the present day. 

Although the business of fattening cattle was well understood by many of the earlier pioneers, 
and to find a market for corn was an anxious thought, yet they hesitated to engage in it: By many it 
was considered that the great distance from market would render that mode of disposing of their sur- 
plus corn impracticable ; the long drive to an eastern market would so reduce the cattle in flesh as to 
render them unfit for beef; but some thought otherwise, and among the latter was George Renick, 
lately deceased, an enterprising and intelligent merchant, who, owning a considerable landed estate, 
concluded, himself) to try the experiment. Accordingly in the winter of 1804-05, he fed a lot of 
cattle and sent them to Baltimore the following spring — (the first fat cattle that ever crossed the Alle- 
ghany mountains ;) the result was a complete success. Thus was another avenue of trade practically 
opened, which for half a century contributed largely to the wealth of the Scioto valley ; and from this 
small beginning the trade increased gradually, but not rapidly, until some years after the close of the 
war, when the failure of wheat to command cash gave a great impetus to the raising and feeding of 
pattle and hogs; for, although the selling price of such stock was very low, they were the only remaining 
Pftsl^ articles of the farmer, and the cost of production was not very carefully considered. There was 
po al)«rn^tive, as he was obliged to have some money wherewith to procure the necessaries of life, pay 
taxes, &c., pn(i the business continued to increase rapidly until about the year 1850, notwithstanding 
tlje opening of the New York and Ohio canals in the mean time, had added greatly to the resources of 
the Ohio fiirmer by giving him access to a better and more reliable market, enabling him to ftell for 
cash, not only his wheat, but every other product of the soil, at much more remunerating prices than 
formerly. The completion of the great through railroads added still further to the farmer s resources* 
enabling him to diversify his pursuits, and assisted in bringing the corn-feeding of cattle, so far as Ohio 
was coycerned, to its culminating point. From his jiersonal knowledge of the business, it is the con- 



INTRODUCTION. cxxxi 

viction of the present Mr. Renick, that since then it has been on the decline. The whole number of 
cattle corn-fattened in Ohio may not have perceptibly decreased, but the home consumption, including 
the extensive barrelling, has greatly increased ; but the excess or the number sent to an eastern market 
from that region has evidently, during the last decade, fallen off, and the cattle of late years are not so 
heavy nor made so fat as formerly. Mr. Renick gives it as his opinion that cattle can no longer be 
corn-fed in Ohio for the great length of time and in the profuse manner as formerly, with profit ; 
indeed, in some of the largest feeding districts of twenty years ago the business has entirely ceased ; 
and he very much questions whether the business can be profitably carried on as a leading one with 
the farmer in any locality possessing other ordinary modem resources, when the population of that 
locality exceeds fifty inhabitants to the square mile, exclusive of populous towns, and can then only be 
done profitably in a limited way, as a secondary or attendant on other pursuits of the farmer, and then 
in a different manner from that now generally pursued. The construction of the great through rail- 
roads, which tended to diminish the feeding of cattle in Ohio, contributed largely to its wonderful 
increase in Illinois and other western States, affording them facilities for reaching an eastern market 
of which they had hitherto been almost deprived — the distance the cattle had to trnvel pfoving actually 
too great, as the pioneers at first supposed it would, from Ohio; and though the railroads also facilitated 
the transportation of fat cattle from Ohio, adding but little to the cost, and saving to the drover near or 
quite one hundred pounds of flesh, on an average, to each animal, yet, by affording quicker and at all 
times a more certain conveyance for other things as well, particularly the article of whiskey, and the 
manufacturers of that article being able to pay more for com than the cattle-feeders could possibly 
afford to do, they more than counterbalanced the advantages derived therefrom to stock-raising. Hence, 
in localities favorably situated for the sale of com, the business of feeding it to cattle has become a 
comparatively unimportant one. 

Before the era of railroads, to break the long drive, large numbers of stock or store-cattle were 
annually driven from Illinois and the west into Ohio to be fed there, and when made fat were sent to 
an eastern market; but that trade has now become almost obsolete. Formerly, too, the driving of 
stock-cattle from Ohio to Pennsylvania and the east was conducted on an extensive scale, and indeed 
that trade, during the State's gloomiest pecuniary period, ranked as one among her chief resources, 
always commanding money in hand, however low the price might be ; but that trade has also ceased, 
except to a comparatively limited extent from the northem part of the State into that of New York. 

To avoid misapprehension, let us here say, that our remarks thus far with reference to beef-cattle 
in Ohio apply only to those made fat, or mostly so, on corn, as doubtless the number of grass-fattened, 
or those that have been but slightly fed on com, has somewhat increased. Indeed, the whole business 
of fattening cattle has undergone a great change since the era of railroads. Formerly the great bulk 
of the com-fed cattle of the west, nine-tenths of which were from Ohio and Kentucky, chiefly from 
Ohio, sent to the eastern markets, arrived there between the middle of April and 1st of August, and the 
markets of New York in particular were chiefly supplied from those sources during that time, and 
grass-fattened cattlu were sent in the fall from Ohio in limited numbers, and no cattle arrived in those 
markets from the west during the winter or first month of spring; but now they are sent at all seasons 
of the year, and but few of those are so heavily corn-fed or made so fat as formerly. In a word, there 
is not near so much consumed in fattening cattle in Ohio now as there was twelve or fifteen years ago ; 
yet there are, doubtless, more cattle partially fed now than then, but grass is more relied upon to 
prepare the cattle for market. Nor is there the same occasion to make them so solidly fat as formerly, 
tor the conveyance to market by railroad is a great saving of flesh over the fonner method of driving. 

It is not to be understood that cattle are better or longer grazed than formerly, for the contrary i& 
the fact; but formerly, when the business of feeding cattle on the Scioto river was at its height, say 
from 1840 to 1850, to make an A No. 1 lot of fat cattle, the best grades were fed some ten to twenty 
bushels of com in March and April when they were three years old, and other cattle at the age of tour 
years ; they were then grazed throughout the whole summer and fall in the best manner, then fed from 
tour to five and a half •months all the corn they would eat — say full half bushel per day each betbre 



cxxxii INTRODUCTION. 

starting to market ; cattle that had no corn the previous spring were well grazed and fed from five to 
six months. Now, cattle handled as the former would begin to go to market by the 1st of July, and 
all or nearly all would be in market before the 1st day of January. Quite a common way of prosecut- 
ing the business now is to commence feeding the cattle in January or February, when less than three 
years old, on corn ia limited quantities, substituting more fodder or other rough feed, but increasing 
the quantity of corn in March or April, often to full feeding, say from twenty-five to forty bushels in 
the aggregate, per head, and these cattle will commence to be sent to market by the Ist of June, and 
by the 1st of October by far the greater portion will have gone ; comparatively few of them, perhapsi 
having been detained to be fed on corn for a month or two before starting them. Of course the quahty 
of the beef of cattle so young, and handled after this fashion, can bear no comparison with that as made 
by the former method. 

The first introduction into the west of English cattle was made by Matthew Patton, (hence the 
name given to that celebrated stock,) who removed from Hardy county, Virginia, to Kentucky, about 
the year 1794, and brought the cattle with him. Patton had obtained the ancestors of this stock of 
Mr. GoiF, of Maryland, in 1783, who had then recently imported them from England. John Patton, a 
son of Matthew, removed in 1800 from Kentucky to Chillicothe, Ohio, bringing a part of the same 
stock with him. Between that time and 1817, occasionally a few other animals were introduced, 
mostly of the same breed, but including some of an importation made by a Mr. Miller, of Maryland, 
between 1790 and 1795. These cattle, both GoiTand Miller importations, were of very large size, and 
the cows generally good milkers, and when first introduced were a fine quality of beef-cattle — bone not 
large for the size of the animal — but on account of their great growth were longer maturing than the 
common slock of the country ; but in the course of time 1?heir defects grew upon them. They became 
larger, coarser, and longer maturing, and of course harder to fatten. This change was attributed to the 
rich feed, which was probably the fact. We know that poor feed will degenerate, and it was probably 
this latter fact that led Count BufTon, the great European naturalist, to assert that all animals when 
translated from Europe to America would degenerate. The finest animal of the cow kind I have ever 
seen was of this breed; in the fall of 1819 this was six and one-half years old, and was estimated to 
weigh over 2,000 pounds, net beef His head, neck, and limbs were remarkably neat, his brisket very 
deep and broad, and he girted immediately behind the shoulders the extraordinary measure of ten feet 
ten inches, and his back and loin I certainly never have seen excelled, if equalled. I have been thus 
minute in this description, because I have seen several treatises, or rather communications on the com- 
parative excellence of the different breeds of cattle imported into this country, and all of them 
disparaging in a greater or less degree this breed of cattle. This breed proved an admirable one for 
crossing with the common stock of the country better, perhaps, than any following importation. In 

1817 Messrs. Saunders, Zugarden, and , of Kentucky, imported from England five bulls — ^three 

short horns, and two long horns — ^and eight or nine cows of the two breeds. The long horns being 
the most sightly animals, took the fancy of the people at first, and some of those having good stock of 
former importations wellnigh ruined them for the shambles by introducing the long horns among them. 
Their flesh was very dark and tough, without any admixture of fat, as a butcher's animal should have, 
and withal the cows were poor milkers. The short horns proved a valuable acquisition to the existing 
stock of the country, though the quality of their beef was perhaps no better than the Patton or Miller 
stock, nor were the cows better milkers, but their early maturity, and aptitude to fatten were qualities 
peculiarly desirable at the time, had they been properly appreciated and improved upon by the breeders 
generally. But unfortunately, in Kentucky in particular, the long horns got a pretty general dissemina- 
tion before they were entirely discarded, and a practice of somewhat indiscriminate breeding followed, 
producing about as undesirable a stock for the shambles as could well be imagined. They were very 
large, but very unsaleable, and nick-named by the butchers of the eastern cities, " red horses." There 
never was enough of the short horned breed clear of admixture in the eastern markets for their sham- 
ble qualities to be clearly established by the butchers there, though in the west it was known to be 
at least not inferior to any breed then existing. 



INTRODUCTION. cxxxiii 

But it was not until about 1832 to 1836 that a general interest for the improvement of the stock 
of cattle began to be manifested by the farmers and cattle men at large. Hitherto it had been con- 
fined chiefly to a few individuals in different localities in Kentucky, Ohio, and other western States, 
though more general in the former. But the beautiful display at the county fairs (then recently revived) 
and elsewhere of the many beautiful animals of the English improved Durhams, imported by the dif- 
ferent associations into Kentucky aod Ohio about that period, combined with the almost fabulous prices 
which they would command, contributed in no small degree towards creating the general interest on 
the subject that followed, and which resulted within a few years thereafter in a great improvement in 
the quality of the stock throughout the whole west, greater, perhaps, than would have otherwise taken 
place within a quarter of a century. Nor were the people misled by appearances this time ; for, after 
thirty years' trial, this breed, when well cared for, still maintains its English reputation of possessing^ 
in a greater degree than any other stock, all the essential qualities, such as size, neatness of form, early 
maturity, aptitude to fatten, and the marbled admixture of fat with the lean in the beef requisite to make 
both the raising and feeding more profitable, as well as furnishing to the consumer a superior quality 
of beef But the present management of these cattle, and their crosses, called " grades," is nowise cal- 
culated to sustain the hitherto high character of their beef among consumers. Apparently both feeders 
and drovers, not willing to be behindhand with the railroads, nor any other fast thing in this fast age^ 
make haste to realize and hurry oflf their half -fatted stock to market at the early age of three years, 
thereby involving an absolute waste of " raw material ;" whereas, if those same cattle were kept one 
year longer, and made ripe for the shambles, there would not only be a gain of full one-third in weight, 
but they would produce a quality of beef not excelled in any country or clime. 

The wonderful increase of late years both in the production and consumption of beef cattle in the 
United States, the one obviously keeping pace with the rapid strides of the other, has developed in 
part the capabilities of the vast western prairies, providentially provided beforehand to meet the wants 
of a great nation increasing in population and advancing in wealth and power with a rapidity wholly 
unprecedented in history. 

The original or common cattle of the west were introduced into the country from various quarters, 
the earlier immigrants from Pennsylvania, Virginia, and other States bringing a greater or less number 
of cows with them, and the Indians fiirnished a part. Of course they were a heterogeneous collection; 
yet, in the process of time, in each considerable district of country of similar formation and resources; 
where there was no efibrt made at improvement, the stock assimilated or acquired characteristic quali- 
ties peculiar to itself, and so dissimilar from other sections as to enable the experienced cattle dealer to 
readily determine, by the general appearance of the stock, the region of country in which the cattle 
were raised. In the more hilly and timbered localities the cattle were smaller, of compact build, hardy, 
healthy, and easily fatted; whereas, in the more open portions of the country, where the feed was 
abundant, the stock became larger, looser made, coarser, more subject to disease, and harder to fatten ; 
but the general effort made of late years to improve the stock by the introduction of improved breeds 
has rendered these local characteristics less distinguishable than formerly. 

The manner of raising or breeding of cattle has undergone considerable change of late years. 
Formerly, when the price of land was very low, and the range extensive, it was the general custom of 
fanners and cattle men to keep more cows than were actually necessary to supply the wants of the 
family ; indeed, many of them kept large herds of cows for the sole purpose of raising cattle. But that 
business has now, at least so far as Ohio and Kentucky are concerned, almost entirely ceased, though 
it is still carried on to a limited extent further west and south, more particularly in Texas, where, before 
the war, many individuals could count their herds by the thousand. Yet, even in Ohio and Kentucky, 
the number of cows has not decreased, but, on the contrary, doubtless has largely increased, more es- 
pecially in Ohio, where, in addition to the largely increased home consumption, the extensive cheese 
manufactories and large export of butter of late years have rendered a largely increased number of cows 
necessary. The calves of these cows are, to a considerable extent, bought up by dealers in the fall 



cxxxiv INTRODUCTION. 

who, perhaps, keep them a year, and then they pass into other hands, who, in turn, keep them another 
year, when the stock in large numbers passes into the hands of the feeders. This cannot be said to 
be the universal custom, but its practice is sufficiently prevalent to be designated as general. A 
very limited proportion of this stock is housed or sheltered during the winter, at least south of forty- 
one degrees of north latitude, unless it be the calves the first winter to some extent ; nor is it the custom 
to house any cattle even while preparing for market. They are generally fed in open lots, though 
positions sheltered from wind and storms by timber or other natural obstructions are taken advantage of 
In communicating his experience with Texas cattle, Mr. Renick writes as follows : 
" In the winter of 1853-54 I had purchased for use about 1,200 head of cattle in the northern 
part of Texas, which section of country had been to a considerable extent settled by immigrants from 
Illinois and Missouri, and who had brought their stock with them; and this stock had not yet been suffi- 
ciently intermixed with the Spanish or Opelousas cattle further south to materially deteriorate their 
original qualities ; consequently they were a much better and larger stock than I expected to see, though 
they had in some measure acquired the wild nature of the more southern stock. These cattle were 
brought to Illinois in the spring and summer of 1854 — ^the first, I believe, that ever came from Texas, 
at least in large numbers. This enterprise created quite an excitement in the northern part of Texas, 
and all my correspondents there manifested a strong desire to have this new trade continued and ex- 
tended, freely offering their best effi>rts to encourage it, as they believed it would result advantageously 
to all concerned, and promising, if successful, to send north for a better breed of cattle, as they said, 
and with truth, that they could raise cattle and deliver them in Illinois, with satisfactory profits to 
themselves, for less, by one-half, than they could be raised in that State. In anticipation of this 
trade being continued the following season, quite a large number of cattle were brought up from points 
further south, and, as was expected, the trade opened lively ; but an unforeseen difficulty exploded the 
whole business within the next two years. It was found that the southern or Spanish cattle were 
subject to an epidemic or contagious disease somewhat resembling the yellow fever in the human race, 
and so contagious did it prove that all along the track those cattle were driven the farmers lost large 
numbers of their cattle from that disease, many losing almost their entire stock within a few days. So 
serious was the loss occasioned by each drove of Texas cattle passing through, that the inhabitants of 
southwestern Missouri held conventions in divers places, and resolved that no more Texas cattle should 
pass through the country, and, by order of these conventions, armed bands or patrols were appointed, 
whose duty it was to turn back all Texas droves that migh<i attempt to pass, which they did effectually. 
Thus ended what at one time seemed a promising trade. From the short trial, however, it became 
evident that, from the inferiority of the Texas stock as beef cattle, the trade would not have resulted 
as satisfactorily as was anticipated ; the cattle were very light weighers for their size of frame, with but 
little room for improvement, and so wild as to be almost unmanageable. For oxen for the Santa Fe 
trade, or long drives over flinty roads, their hardness of hoof, their agility and endurance render them 
unrivalled ; and, though they never lose entirely their wild nature, yet, when judiciously trained, they 
become quite tractable." 

THE PORK TRADE. 

The first general violations of the levitical law prohibiting the use of swine flesh must have 
occurred in comparatively modem times, inasmuch as that article has only recently become sufficiently 
well esteemed to be introduced largely into commerce. Since, however, it has been discovered to be 
one of the most easily produced, and about the most easily preserved of all meats, but few articles of 
food have come into more general use among civilized nations. 

The raising of the hog has proved to be so well adapted to the varied systems or phases of agri- 
culture in the United States, that in nearly all parts of the country it is carried on, and the animal 
made to serve as a popular and cheap article of food. The preparation of the meat, however, for com- 
merce on a large scale, is confined mainly to those districts where Indian corn is most profitably raised^ 
and where the winters admit of the process of cure with least expense and greatest certainty. This 
trade can only flourish where the extremes of heat or cold do not prevail, and is comprised principally 



INTRODUCTION. cxxxv 

within the region of country between the 35th and 45th degrees of latitude, and within the Mississippi 
yalley. Fanners within this region have found the hog to be the best animal into which to condense 
for market a portion of the products of their farms ; the quickest to come to maturity, besides requiring 
the least skill and labor to handle, hence best adapted particularly to the use of the pioneer, and is that 
most universally relied upon for domestic consumption and profit. 

In quest of articles of cheap food, Europeans, gradually at first, more rapidly of late, have formed an 
appreciation of provisions of American cure. With increasing demand, necessarily came enlarged compe- 
tition, both amongst producers and packers, resulting in marked improvements in breeds of hogs, in their^ 
preparation for market, and in the reduction of the business of packing to a nearly perfect system, as 
well as to fixed scientific principles. Within twenty years, especially within the last decade, the whole 
packing trade has undergone improvements as marked as has been its growth. The relations of sup- 
ply and demand, though very irregular in a country so large and of such wonderful resources, have come 
to be more nearly comprehended and adjusted, so that much less risk is now incurred by the packer 
than in former years. Scarcely a particle of the animal is now wasted in the process of transformation 
into articles of food or commercial use, and the collateral trade in bristles, lard-oil, stearine, grease, 
skins, &c., has grown to be scarcely less important than the original one in food was twenty years ago. 

The number of hogs which are used in the regular commercial packing business of the country 
can only, under the present system of statistics, be approximated. For the western States, through 
the efibfts of private enterprise inaugurated in Cincinnati, it has become a matter of quite close calcu- 
lation; but for the eastern States there are no reliable data on which to base a close computation. Of 
marketable hogs, such as would average 200 pounds net, it may be fair to estimate that the number 
packed in the entire country in 1859-60, and entering into the commerce of the country, wa» 
3,000,000 head, at an aggregate prime cost of $35,000,000. The cost of packing, transportation, &'*.., 
would add to this a value of near $15,000,000, making a total of about $50,000,000 capital employed. 
So many circumstances transpire to cause a variation in one season as compared with another, in the 
prime cost of the hog and in the expense of packing, that fair averages are difficult to arrive at, and 
those who engage in the business find that the most extensive experience furnishes but few data for 
reliable precedents. In great part the business has to be prosecuted each season in the lights of intui- 
tion rather than of positive information as to what may be the best policy to pursue. These intuitions, 
however, have given those engaged in the trade as much stability of position, perhaps, as merchants 
engaged in any other line of commerce, and causes the very large capital invested in the business to 
fluctuate now compamtively little. 

The greatly increased use of lard for manufacturing oil, has made for it a relatively higher price 
than for other parts of the hog, in which the discovery of petroleum and its rapid adoption as a luminating 
and lubricating material seems to have produced no essential change. This fact can only be accounted 
for by the well-sustained demand for candles made from stearine, enabling manufacturers to keep lard- 
oil in constant competition with all similar articles, and to find their profit in the stearine. The future 
of the trade promises a growth rapid as the past. An increasing manufacturing population and con- 
stant large augmentation of laboring force from foreign emigration, the yearly increasing acceptability 
of American packed provisions as articles of cheap food in foreign countries, all unite in assuring a 
consumption that will grow in equal pace with the production, and maintain for the pork trade its 
prominent position among the great commercial interests of the country. 

THE GRAIN TRADE OF THE UNITED STATES. 

The grain trade of the United States, viewed in all its features, is one of the chief marvels of 
modem commercial history. To trace its rise and progress would be almost to complete a record of 
the development of this entire continent, for it has been the leading agency in the opening up of seven- 
eighths of our settled territory. First, in the march of civilization, came the pioneer husbandman, and 
following close on his footsteps was the merchant; and after him were created in rapid succession our 
ocean and lake fleets, our canals, our wonderful network of railroads, and, in fact, our whole commercial 
system. 



cxxxvi INTRODUCTION. 

The grain merchant has been in all countries, but more particularly in this, the pioneer of com- 
merce, whether we refer to the ocean or the inland trade, and not till he was established could other 
commercial adventurers find a foothold. The commercial history of the United States is based mainly 
on breadstuffs — staples always marketable at some quotation wherever the human family dwells. 

The exportation of American products to foreign countries continues to form one of the chief 
characteristics of our national commerce. The development of our agricultural resources, and the 
increasing demands of Europe, particularly England, for foreign breadstuffs, seem to have continued at 
pretty regular pace. As the production of the United States increased, new and more extensive 
markets were thrown open — ^illustrating a grand design of Providence in thus developing a New World 
to feed the rapidly increasing populations of the Old, and supply homes for their redundant numbers. 
For upwards of a quarter of a century the extension of the manufacturing interests of Great Britain 
has been gradually but surely rendering that country more and more dependent upon other nations for 
the breadstuffs with which to feed her people ; and from a grain-exporting country, as she was only half 
a century since, she now finds herself in a position in which she has to import annually from nine to fif- 
teen millions of quarters of grain. Had that country twenty-five years ago been as dependent as she 
is now upon other nations, with the grain resources of that period, there would have been much suffer- 
ing among the poorer classes everywhere ; while on the other hand, without this European demand for 
the grain produced in the United States, the same inducements for opening up the fertile lands of the 
western States would not have existed. Capitalists would not have been encouraged to construct our 
immense canals, and lines of railroads, nor to have built our fleets of grain-carrying vessels to traverse 
the lakes and seas. The steady and increasing demand for American breadstuffs in Europe, however, 
greatly stimulated the production — made the unbroken and wild, yet fertile wilderness and prairie 
attractive to the agriculturists of all countries, and created a commerce for which history has few paral- 
lels. At the same time it has enriched our country beyond all calculation, enabled us to pay our 
European debts, given us an enterprising population, drawn from the industrious classes of every 
nationality, state, or kingdom in the Old World, and has endowed millions of human beings with wealth 
and the rights and privileges of free institutions. 

Commencing at an early period with the scant products of the Atlantic States, the grain trade was 
gradually pushed up the Hudson river as far as navigation would permit ; and where that ceased, the 
Erie canal commenced and carried it to the great lakes. It was on the completion of this great 
achievement that the real history of the grain trade of the United States began. Then it was that our 
" inland seas " became the highway of a commerce which has already attained a magnitude surpassing 
that of many of the oldest European nations. Then it was that the vast territory west of the lakes, 
hitherto the home of the "red man," and range for the buffalo, became the attractive field for the 
enterprising pioneers of industry and civilization, who laid the foundations of what are now seven large 
and flourishing States of the Union, peopled by a population vigorous and hardy, and well calculated to 
succeed either in the arts of peace or war. 

At the same time, the grain trade was steadily progressing up the Mississippi river into the heart 
of the west, and on whose banks were built large and flourishing cities, the great depots for nearly a 
quarter of a century for the products of the rich valley of that river. 

The grain trade has progressed, year after year, from small beginnings, till now it has become one 
of the leading interests of the country, and among the most important in its influence on the world, as 
on it depends much of the peace, happiness, and prosperity, not only of the people of the United 
States, but also of many of the kingdoms of Europe, 

THE EXPORT GRAJN TRADE. 

To demonstrate the magnitude of this trade, the following tables are appended, showing the total 
exports of grain and flour from the United States to foreign countries during the years 1862 and 1863; 



INTRODUCTION. 



CXXXVll 



Table A. 
ExporU of grain and flour from tJic United States U^ foreign countries for the year ending June 30, 1862. 



WHITHER EZPOBTED. 



Asiatic Bofsla 

RoMioa PoaiesaioDi in North America. 

Sweden and Norway 

Swedish Weit Indleii 

Danish West ludiei 

Bambnrg 

Bremen 

Other Qerman Porta 

HoUand 

Dntch West IndiM 

DatchGoiana 

Dutch Eaat Indiei 

Belgium 

En^and 

Scotland 

Ireland 

Gibraltar 

Malta 



INDIAN CORN. 



Bushels. I DoUam. 



Canada 

Other British N. Ameilcaa PoHeisioni. . 

British West Indies 

British Honduras 

British Guiana 

British Possessions in South America .. 

British P os s e ssions in AiHca 

British Australia 

British East Indies 

France on the Atlantic 

Friwott on the Mediterranean 

French North American Ponessions. . . . 

French West ladies 

French Guiana , 

French Possessions in Africa 

Spain on the Atlantic 

Canary Islands 

PhiUppine Islands 

Cuba « 

Porto Rico 

Portugal 

Madeira 

Cape de Verde Islands 

Asores 

Sardinia 

Tnscany 



3,218 

4,211 

33,106 

10,662 



23,970 

12,910 

6,738 



62,986 

8,290,142 

258,861 

5,924,793 



3,218,438 
113,077 
176, 123 



36,005 



25 

268,476 

9,260 

226 

24,168 



11.1S2 
1,600 



199,061 
1,707 



2,246 

3,164 

25,450 

8,247 



11,937 
9,591 
4,393 



35,360 

4,777,996 

161,803 

3,643,753 



1,010,243 

65.356 

138,020 



86,011 



33 

146,882 

6,700 

160 

16,301 



4.787 
1.294 



134,205 
1,286 



Turkey in 

Other Ports In Africa 

Hayti ,. 

San Domingo 

Mexico 

Central RepuhUo . . . . 

New Granada 

Veneraela 

Brasll 

Cispiatine Republic . . 
Argentine RepnbUe . . 



12 
100 



ChlU 

Peru 

Sandwich Islands 

Other Islands in the Paciflc. 

Japan 

China 

Whale Fisheries 



Total. 



5,200 

400 

346 

18,364 

300 

240 

156,685 

33,336 



INDIAN MEAL. 



Barrels. 



1,190 

22.393 

4 



10 

3.047 

310 



1,281 
206 
187 



3,964 

75.196 

106,706 

18 

10,607 

5 

20 

190 



48 
1,302 



6,346 
19,166 



6 
72 



10,904,896 



3,674 

280 

236 

14, 017 

251 

174 

124.006 

19,497 



15 
190 



Dollars. 



3,604 

72, 116 

20 



40 
9.640 
1,050 



3,972 
630 
558 



10,974 

226,305 

336.074 

54 

31,989 

16 

70 

703 



10 



155 
4,082 



90,398 
61,183 



41 

205 

39 

1 



10,387,383 



101 

407 

70 

10 



52 

760 



RTE MEAL. 



Barrels. 



234 

1,032 



1,279 



50 
1,264 



231 
126 



240 

7,637 

660 



20 



891 



Dollars. 



WHEAT. 



Bushels. 



770 
4,202 



5,100 



212 
5,146 



530 



960 

27,877 

2,449 



75 



20 



3,363 



171 

650 

134 

4 



290 



253,570 



373 

1,397 

241 

30 



70 



2,548 



305 

42,651 

3,061 

61, 119 



1,036,735 

16,868,948 

1,045,283 

4,991,974 

6,029 



4.538,472 
13.748 
15,823 



1,010 
444,048 



7.656,367 
158,198 



Dollars. 



2,191 



349 

43,177 

4,362 

78,481 



1,307,172 

19.203,403 

1,274,037 

6,082,349 

8,200 



3,801,515 
16,563 
29,209 



924 
457,666 



9, 546. 870 
909,081 



1,100 



960 

833 

5,134 



327,070 



875 



969 



778,344 



690 
13 



14,463 



1,705 



WHEAT FLOUR. 



Barrels. 



300 

1,224 

504 

3.912 

39.689 

4,614 

24,150 



1,007 

700 

6,445 



426.419 



82 



8,485 
98 



54,486 



8 
81,194 



170 



24,457 

20,513 

7,908 

5,702 

68.303 

1,966,151 

175,383 

97,912 

29,341 

180 

118,643 

605.826 

884,956 

19, 748 

06,699 

120 

27,441 

27,175 

3,198 

512,838 

13,072 

15.347 

28,376 

659 

625 

25 

751 

5,144 

12,226 

9,817 

99 

1,870 

1,220 

441 



Dollars. 



2,325 

5,842 

2,430 

21,966 

226,544 

23,909 

132, 816 



8 

30,504 



13,709 

8,617 

27 



32,295 



13, 99D 

3,883 

27 



29,777 



37,289,572 



42.573,995 



1,750 

236 

12,150 

80,474 

9,901 

46,885 

5,179 

14,061 

48,812 

37:1,303 

6,546 

34,160 

450 

50 

8,811 

1.097 

206 

17,312 

100 



129,784 

122,002 

51,206 

36,512 

360,079 

11, 033, 152 

067,159 

531, 817 

162,668 

719 

536,756 

3,199,206 

1,601,185 

118,389 

351,341 

703 

163,388 

135,657 

21,297 

2,836,150 

77,291 

82,659 

173,955 

4,543 

3,970 

153 

4,282 

84,769 

73,140 

56.638 

554 

11,522 

6,355 

8,732 



RTE, OATS. 
AC. 



Dollars. 



8,075 

1,317 

75.951 

463.455 

60.975 

282,640 

3U.0D6 

93.799 

302,769 

2,473,151 

42,910 

813, 674 

8.913 

451 

19,999 

6,832 

1,574 

123,709 

800 



4,882,033 27.534,677 



300 

105 

9,430 

^'1 

11,559 

144,356 

174,955 

7,500 

368,901 

6)596 

79 

497 

604,645 

173,380 

40,376 

4,395 



56.405 
96.804 
64,613 
1,541 
11,394 



3,256 

838,803 

5,195 

82,101 

9,897 

362 

11,023 

6,788 



405 



104,228 
5,645 
1,463 



170 
115 



4,726 
3,223 

1,441 

25,361 

3,826 

6,686 

44,775 

5,218 

2,994 

96,530 

14,948 

25,936 

4,at6 

774 



5,765 



3,364,625 



18 



CXXXYIU 



INTRODUCTION. 



rn 



Tablb B. 



Exports of grain and flour from the United States to foreign countries for the year ending June 30, l»Oi$. 



WHITHER EXPO&TED. 


INDIAir CORK. 


INDIAN MEAL. 


RTK MEAL. 


WHEAT. 


WHEAT FL0I7R. 

• 


RTE. OATS, 
AC 


• 


Bosheli. 


Dollon. 


Barreli. 


DoUan. 


BarreU 


DoUan. 


Bushels. 


Dollars. 


Barrels. 


Dollars. 


Dollars. 


Rnciilnn Pnaa«m«lmui In N. AmMrIm . _ 














3,347 


3,317 


4,339 

350 

445 

45,995 

44 

4,466 

34,264 

17,065 

7,595 

5.004 

12,828 

1,591,778 

133, 330 

69,388 

34,597 

800 

232,160 

733, :e4 

309.359 
19,614 
72,014 
44,569 
15.386 

6,090 
15,880 

5,538 

10,393 

38; 334 

950 

1,496 


21,799 

9,380 

2.406 

315,868 

370 

29,135 

207,271 

120,372 

53,219 

39,692 

66.936 

9,829,582 

789,235 

456,091 

2M,424 

'5,600 

1, 103, 171 

4,420,748 

2,072,197 

144.818 

463,184 

325,994 

84,714 

49,766 

110,225 

19.627 

60,556 

973,400 

7,067 

19,480 


9L809 


RwrMdMn And TIorwrAV - ........*.• 


3,200 
279 

5,379 
95,173 
20,556 


9,440 
190 

5,159 
97,241 
18,669 










18.809 


Swedish West liidiea 


175 

25^320 

8 


635 

109,621 

40 










ISO 


Daniiih WoAt IndlfM ■.- 


843 
339 
105 
935 
1,755 


3,547 

1,338 

385 

1,303 

7,504 






7,377 


IlflTnburff ...... .•.••«>*«-'r*i**««-rv 


6,993 

31,486 

110,348 


8,811 

40,431 

161, 186 


63,584 


Bnunfin ............................ 


173,449 


Hollnnd .r.rr.... 


25 

4,537 
75 


78 

17,984 

253 


84,551 


Dntoh Went IndlM. ................. 


30,063 
9,120 


30,777 
6,646 


4.074 


I>iiteh rtniima. 






733 


Pntch Rait IndiM 










70 


Belgium 


2,588 

5^068,967 

333,682 

5,381,688 


1,307 

3,846,404 

938^154 

3,889,801 


23 
1,762 


97 
7,140 






622,986 

20,509,071 

1,473,784 

5,342,684 


906,164 

97,654,801 

1,897,701 

7,900,306 


130. 4«5 


England 


45 


189 


198,530 


Beoilaod 


14,451 


Irelaod 


568 


2,012 






41, 9M 


Gibraltar 






9S 


Malta 




















Canada 


4,211,897 

171,984 

180,480 

3,185 

31,741 

1,000 

721 


1,692,625 

131,559 

161,375 

3.681 

99,3:)3 

900 

709 


9.474 

74.478 

103,590 

746 

8,196 

904 

365 

8 


25,521 

286,238 

408,018 

3,230 

31,983 

943 

1,615 

37 






6,512,601 

70,894 

8,441 


6,717,093 

110,333 

13,521 


119,780 


Other Britiib N. American Poaa'na. .. 
Britiih WMt Indieg 


4,320 
999 


18,630 
967 


143^330 
99^856 


Britigh Hcmdnraa ...a......^x ^.^ 


1,3M 












9.89B 


Britlih F^»ne«ioBi in AfHca 






5,483 
147,323 


11,779 
181,981 


55 


Britiah Anatralla 






134,555 


Britiih Bait Indies . . . 


95 


85 


673 


Franco on the AUantic 


73 


73 


365,636 
36,043 


541,693 
55,463 


4,577 


France on the MctdlterrfMiean r 












Fvwmch North Aminican PnnMidoni. . 


177 
22,669 


147 
19,689 


65 
1,910 


251 
8,072 






375 


French Weiilndlei 


48 


998 


2,186 


3,657 


6l90« 


Preinch Qniana .,^^. » 


230 


French PoMenloni in AiHea 






75 


360^ 












Spain on the Mediterranean 


............ 












35 


Canary Lilandi 


















1.907 

4.190 

17,039 

15,470 

50,115 

5,835 

867 

175 


11.640 

21.607 

127,989 

108.976 

347,173 

41.405 

6,506 

1,-135 


117 


Philippine Iilandf 














2,523 

4,507 

300 

563,125 

19,956 


9,498 

7,978 

2,119 

842,151 

29,937 


im 


Cuba 


170,122 

1,140 

31,909 

fl25 


141,440 

1.179 

96,348 

389 


3,769 
18,393 


14,970 
79,333 






96,860 


FortoBioo 


906 


1,015 


10,935 


Portugal _ 


4,152 


a ..^. ........ 

Madeira 










57 




1 


5 








Asorei 
















Sardinia 










» 








31708 


Tnieany 


















1,300 

6,739 

315 

27,133 

199,045 

14,067 

99,856 

4,406 

17, 816 

53,131 

408,890 


8,495 

43,201 

2,682 

204,759 

920,654 

99,879 

774,330 

97,912 

139,199 

363,650 

3,295,673 




Two Siciliei 


















29B 


TorluyinAiia 




















Other Porti in Africa 


940 

1,236 

725 

968,653 

109 

58 

133,140 

7,655 


330 

1,199 

616 

963,849 

98 

63 

120,960 

6,948 


85 

97 

268 

9,477 

6 

180 

618 

94 


369 

470 

1,190 

8,569 

98 

745 
2.321 

361 






6,315 


12,361 


l,9B3 


Haytl 


15 
10 


73 
59 


3,440 


flan IWtgiingO. ...xu. 






3.611 


Mexico 


2,500 


2.799 


350.619 


Central Bepnblio 






517 




9 

500 

15 


6 

9; 655 

90 






a494 


Venemela 


43,344 


69,536 


6,155 


BraiU 


ia9i3 


Ciiplatine Republic 






92.509 


Argentine Repablic : 






6 


98 










7,457 
9,577 

600 

2,793 

5,987 

1,222 

52,393 

170 


53,171 
19,450 

4,400 
13,390 
29,621 

7,367 
335,856 

1.500 


90,070 


Chili 










3,098 

31, 110 

690 

2,594 


5,358 

35,468 

702 

2,724 


960 


Pftrn 


m 












9B5 








1 


5 






4,210 


Other lala^b in the Piielflfl 










746 


Jap^ , 
















China 






aw 


1,429 






298,714 


233,035 


16.557 


WhiMoFliherleg 

































Total 


X«.ll?,f76 


10,599,704 


257,948 


1,013,279 


8,684 


38,067 


36,160,414 


46,754,195 


4,390,055 


96,366,069 


1,838,757 







INTRODUCTION. 



CXXXIX 



Reducing the flour and meal to bushels, the total exports of grain during the past two years, as 
given in detail in the foregoing tables, compare as follows : 



Tean. BoBhels. 

1868 i 76,309,426 

1868... 77,396,082 



Value. 

$83, 692, 812 

88, 597, 064 



Of this amount there were shipped to Great Britain and Ireland alone, for the year ending June 
30, 1862, 34,102,735 bushels, and in 1863 47,082,026 bushels.. The total value of the grain exported 
to Gh-eat Britain in 1862 was 847,916,266, and in 1863 $56,059,360. When it is taken into consid- 
oration that in 1825 the total value of the grain . and flour exported from the United States to all 
foreign countries amounted to only $5,274,241, some idea may be formed of the rapid growth and 
development of this trade. 

The progress of the early export grain trade of the country is demonstrated by the following 
table, showing the exports of grain and flour from the United States to foreign countries each year 
from 1790 to 1817 : 

Tablb C. 

Exports of flow and grain from the United States to foreign countries from 1790 to 1817. 

[Compiled from United States documents.] 



Year ending — 



Sept. 30, 1790. 
1791, 
1792. 
1793. 
1794. 
1795. 

1796. 
1797. 
1798. 
1799. 
1800. 
1801. 
1802. 

1803. 
1804. 
1805. 
1806. 
1807. 
1808. 
1809. 
1810. 
1811. 
1812. 
1813. 
1814. 
1815. 
1816. 
1817. 



Wheat. 






Bushels. 
1, 124, 458 
1,018,339 

853,790 
1,450,575 

696,797 

141,273 

31,226 
15,655 
15,021 
10,056 
26,853 
239,929 
280,281 

686,415 
127,024 

18,041 

87,784 
1, 173, 114 

87,330 

393,899 

1,752 

216, 833 

53,832 
288,535 



Wheat flonr. 



17,634 
52,321 
96,407 



Barrels* 
724,623 
619, 681 
824,464 
1,074,639 
828,405 
687,369 

725,194 
515,633 
567,558 
519, 625 
653,052 
1, 102, 444 
1, 156, 248 

1,311,853 

810,008 

775,513 

782,724 

1, 249, 819 

263,813 

846,247 

798, 431 

l,445,0ie 

1,443,492 

1,260,943 

193,274 

62, 739 

729,053 

1,479,198 



Indian com. 



Bushds. 
2,102,137 
1,713,241 
1,964,973 
1,233,768 
1,472,700 
1,935,345 

1,173,552 
804,922 
1,218,231 
1,200,492 
1,694,327 
1,768,162 
1,633,283 

2,097,608 

1,944,873 

861,501 

1,064,263 

612,421 

249,532 

522,074 

352,924 

2, 790, 850 

2, 039, 999 

1,486,970 

61,284 

130,516 

1,077,614 

387,454 



Indian com 
meal. 



Barrels. 



70,339 
52,681 
37,943 
48,834 
102,529 

Bushels. 
540,286 
254,799 
211,694 
231,226 
338,108 
919,355 
266,816 

Barrels. 

133,606 

111,327 

116, 131 

108,342 

136,460 

30,818 

57,260 

86,744 

147, 423 

90,810 

58,521 

26,438 

72,364 

89,119 

106,763 



Bye. 



Bushels. 

21,765 

36,737 

12,727 

1,305 

696 

703 

4,319 
1,331 
2,721 
1,595 
8,227 
31, 110 
2,492 

50,753 

11,515 

1,474 

614 

6,650 

530 

1,185 

1,054,252 

14,818 

82,705 

140, 136 



Rye flour. 



Barrels. 



851 
3,404 
1,702 



24,062 

14,126 

12,695 

4,034 

4.882 

Bushels. 

152,784 
36,570 
48,444 
49,269 
79,677 

392,276 
33,292 

Barrels. 
28,273 
21,779 
23,455 

18,090 

29,067 

6,167 

1,306 

5,078 

29,375 

69,839 

65,680 

2,716 

6,016 

8,373 

78,067 



Oats. 



Bushels. 
98,842 
116,634 
119,733 
78,524 
55,003 
64,335 

59,797 
38,221 
46, 475 
57,359 
57, ."MW 
100,544 
70,778 

84,497 
73,726 
55,400 
69,993 
65,277 
23,698 
20,361 
448 
211,894 
48,469 
14, 105 
6,046 
29,899 
45,889 
72,854 



Barley. 



Bushels. 



35 



30 
26 



345 
479 

4,066 
522 
432 

8,796 
485 

2,745 

5,318 

7,185 

156 

4,893 

173 

200 

6,942 

29,716 

49,707 



Buckwheat 
meaL 



Barrels. 



422 

265 
J46 
961 



Bushels. 
1,076 
286 

84 
754 

93 
1,907 
3,260 



Barrels. 



2,300 
2,237 
6,858 
4,093 



74 
2 
90 
25 
66 



60 

73 

150 



180 
20 



From 1790 to 1817, the period embraced in the foregoing table, the grain exported from the 
United States was chiefly the product of the Atlantic States. Vermont exported flour and grain of 
all kinds. New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, 



cxl 



INTRODUCTION. 



South Carolina, and Georgia, exported flour, wheat, and Indian corn — the southern States chiefly the 
latter. In fact, during that period the chief commerce of the Atlantic States consisted in the exporta- 
tion of grain to Spain, Portugal, and the West India islands; for in those days Great Britain exported 
more than she imported, as may be inferred from the fact that in 1804 the value of the grain exports 
to Great Britain amounted to only $59,120 — the nucleus of a trade that in 1863 amounted to upwards 
of fift;y-six millions of dollars. 

Before the Revolution the grain trade of the colonists constituted their chief commerce. A con- 
siderable quantity of grain was exported to the West Indies, but the principal markets were Spain 
and Portugal. The exports of wheat, flour, &c., from Pennsylvania for the years 1729, 1730, and 
1731, were as follows: 



Tears. 


Whea^ bus&els. 


Floor, barrels. 


Bread, casks. 


Value of bieadstuffs and 

• 

flax-seed exported. 


1729 


74,800 
38,643 
53,320 


35,438 
38,570 
56,639 


9,730 

9,622 

12,436 


£62,473 
57,500 


1730 


1731 


68,582 







In 1739 South Carolina exported 20,165 bushels of Indian com and peas. In 1742 the price of 
wheat in New York was 3^. 6d. per bushel. 

The following table shows the amount and value of the flour and grain exported from the United 
States to foreign countries from 1849 to 1863 : 



Table D. 
Amount and value of grain andfiour exported from the United States to foreign countriestfrom 1849 to 1863. 



(Compiled from official documents of the United States. ) 



YEAR ENDnrO— 


WHEAT. 


IVHKAT FLOUR. 


UCDIAlf CORN. 


CORN HKAL. 


BTE MEAL. 


RTK, OATS, ft 
SMAfX ORAIK. 


BiuImIi. 


Dollan. 


Baneli. 


Dollan. 


Boflhels. 


DoUan. 


Barrels. 


DoUan. 


Barreli. 


DoUan. 


DoUan. 


Jnne 30, 1649 


1,SS7.534 


1,756,848 


3,106,013 


11,280,582 


13,257,309 


7,966^369 


406^169 


1,169,625 


64,630 


316,348 


139.793 


1850 


606.661 


643,745 


1,385^448 


7,098,570 


6,595,092 


3, 892, 193 


259,442 


760, 611 


69,903 


316,076 


181, 191 


1851 


1,036,725 


1,025,733 


3,202,335 


10,584,331 


3,426.811 


1,762,549 


303,622 


632; 866 


44,152 


145,803 


ISO; en) 


1858 


2,694,540 


2.555,209 


S; 799, 339 


11,869,143 


2,627,075 


1,540,225 


181, 105 


574,380 


16,534 


64,476 


334,471 


1853 


3,890,141 


4,354,403 


3,920,916 


14,783,394 


3.274,909 


1,374,077 


212, 118 


709,974 


8,910 


34,166 


165,834 


1854 


8,036,665 


12; 490, 173 


4,032,386 


27,701,444 


7,768,816 


6,074,277 


257,403 


1,002,976 


23,634 


112,703 


576^195 


1855 


798,864 


1,329,246 


1,204,540 


10,896.906 


7,807,565 


6,961,571 


267,306 


1, 237, 122 


35,364 


236,248 


338,976 


1856 


8,154,877 


15, 115^ 661 


3, 510, 626 


29,275,148 


10,292,280 


7,622,565 


393,607 


1,175,688 


38,105 


314,563 


9,718.690 


1857 


14,570^331 


22,240,657 


3,712,053 


25,882,316 


7. 505, 318 


5,184,666 


267,504 


957,791 


37,033 


115,836 


690; 108 


1858 


8,926.196 


9, 061, 504 


3, 512, 169 


19,328.884 


4,766,145 


3.250,039 


337,637 


677.692 


14,363 


56,335 


642.764 


1859 


3,002,016 


2, 849, 193 


2,431,834 


14, 433, 591 


1,719,998 


1,323,103 


358,885 


944.269 


14,433 


60,786 


1, 181, 170 


1860 


4, 155, 153 


4,076.704 


2. 611. 596 


15,448,507 


3,314.155 


2,399,606 


333,709 


912,075 


11,433 


48,172 


1.056, 3M 


1861 


31,238,057 


38,313,694 


4,323,756 


24,645,849 


10, 678, 244 


6,890.865 


303,313 


693,003 


14, 143 


55,761 


l,l,M,5i6 


1862.. 


37,389,572 


42, 573, 295 


4, 88-3, 033 


27,534,677 


10, 904, 898 


10,387,383 


353,570 


778,344 


14,463 


54,488 


2,364,685 


1863 


36^160^414 


46^754,195 


4,390,055 


88,366,069 


16.119,476 


10,593,704 


257,948 


1,013,372 


8,684 


36,067 


1,832,757 



INTRODUCTION. 



cxli 



The fullowing is an exhibit of the aggregate value of the domestic exports of the United States 
from 1821 to 1863, with the value of the exports of breadstuffs during the same period, and the com- 
parative percentage each year of the latter to the former : 

Comparison of exports of hreadstuffs to total domestic exports. 



Years. 



1821 
1822 
1823 
1824 
1825 
1826 
1827 
1828 
1829 
1830 
1831 
1832 
1833 
1834 
4835 
1836 
1837 
1838 
1839 
1840 
1841 
1842 



5^ 

S •^ 

p 

I 



$5,092,636 
6,187,942 
6,081,926 
6,713,595 
5, 344, 752 
5, 419, 191 
5,667,948 
5,414,665 
7, 149, 355 
7,171,767 

11,908,910 
7, 142, 472 
7,009,556 
5,677,341 
6,111,164 
4, 799, 141 
4, 416, 643 
4,944,826 
8, 436, 246 

13, 535, 926 

10, 254, 377 
9, 878, 176 



S 
i . 

II 

I 



$43,671,894 

49, 874, 079 

47, 155, 408 

50, 649, 500 

66, 944, 745 

53,055,710 

58,921,691 

50,669,669 

55, 700, 193 

59, 462, 029 

61,277,057 

63, 137, 470 

70, 317, 698 

81,024,162 

101,189,082 

106,916,680 

95, 564, 414 

96, 033, 821 

103, 533, 891 

113, 895, 634 

106,382,722 

92,969,699 



«^ *S .2 
o 5 ts 

1 i 
•83 



f 



ft® 
P-i 



11.7 
12.4 
12.9 
13.3 
8. 

10.2 
9.6 
10.7 
12.8 
11.9 
19.4 
9.7 
10. 
7. 
6. 
4.5 
4.6 
5.14 
8.1 
11.9 
9.6 
10.6 



Teon. 



1843 
1844 
1845 
1846 
1847 
1848 
1849 
1850 
1851 
1852 
1853 
1854 
1855 
1856 
1857 
1858 
1859 
1860 
1861 
1862 
1863 






§^ 



^ 



$5, 249, 600 
8,931,396 
7, 445, 820 
16, 625, 407 
53, 262, 437 
22, 678, 602 
22, 895, 783 
13, 066, 509 
14,556,236 
17, 256, 803 
21.875,878 
48,383,107 
21,557,854 
56, 619, 986 
55, 624, 8.^)2 
33, 698, 490 
24,893,413 
27, 590, 298 
71,722,658 
83, 692, 812 
88, 597, 064 



a 

o . 

> .2 



o 



$77, 793, 783 
99,715,179 
99, 299, 776 
102,141,893 
1.50, 637, 464 
132,904,121 
132,666,955 
136,946,912 
196, 689, 718 
192, 368, 984 
213, 417, 697 
253, 390, 870 
246, 708, 553 
310, 586, 330 
338, 985, 065 
293,758,279 
335, 894, 385 
373, 189, 274 
228, 699, 486 
212, 920, 639 



S 6 ^ 

u ^ *^ 
S*-^ H 

Q OD 3> 

HI 
lis 



6.7 

9. 

7.4 
16.3 
35.4 
17.1 
17.2 
19.5 

7.5 
10.3 
19.1 

8.7 

8.7 
18.2 
16.4 
11.5 

7.4 

7.4 
31.4 
39.3 



The repeal of the corn laws of Great Britain in 1846, greatly encouraged the importation of grain 
into that country, and since that date the export grain trade of the United States has been steadily on 
the increase, never falling below thirteen millions of dollars in any one year, and rising as high as 
eighty-eight millions. The following table shows the ratio of increase in the value of the grain exports 
each ten years during the past forty years : 

Aggregate value of grain Percentage of inereaie 
ezporta each ten yean. each ten yean. 

From 1823 to 1833 67,842.211 

From 1833 to 1843 73, 303, 440 8.0 

From 1843 to 1853 198,594,871 170.9 

From 1853 to 1863 512,380,514 158.0 

The following tables show the exports of flour and grain from New York, Boston, Philadelphia 
Baltimore, and Portland, to foreign countries for a series of years : 

Table DD. 

Exports qfJUmr and grain Jrom Neto York to foreign countries. 

(Compiled from official docmnents.) » 

























RTK, OAT8, 




WHXAT. 


WHEAT rLOUR. 


lADUM 


CORlf. 


CORN lUAL. 


RTX MXAL. 


AND 8MAU. 


* 






















GRAIN. 


Tear ending- 


























Bniheli. 


DoUara. 


Barrelf. 


DollariL 


Bofhelg. 


Dollan. 


Barrela. 


Dollan. 


Barrel!. 


Dollan. 


DoUan. 


Jane 30,1856 


5,0^,569 


9,783,0U8 


1, 649, 471 


13,692,941 


4,012,350 


3,462,512 


69,809 


306,179 


13,105 


76.734 


2,022,358 


1857 


9, dOo, SOd 


15,160,511 


1, 735, 981 


12, 090, 512 


3.611,330 


2.596,097 


75, 424 


271,980 


9,266 


39,051 


401,693 


1856 


4,960,159 


5, 451, 491 


1,314,869 


7,017,790 


1,829,333 


1, 331, 570 


62,532 


234,945 


5.696 


21,969 


109,788 


1859 


1,390,828 


1,886,113 


965,628 


5,304,329 


527,591 


433,894 


78,477 


309,055 


5, 945 


24,7U6 


369,963 


1860 


1,880,908 


2,336,190 


1, 187, 200 


6, 639, 996 


580, 0» 


1,182,381 


86,073 


346,430 


5,010 


21,165 


484,567 


1861 


21,320,775 


27,308,226 


2,665,497 


15, 057, 256 


6,874,372 


4,7TJ,947 


94,314 


317, 765 


8,830 


34,676 


590,591 



cxiii 



INTRODUCTION. 

Tablk DD. 

EacparU of flour and grain from Boston to foreign countries, 

(Compiled from official docaments.) 

























RTE, OATS» 




WHXAT. 1 


WHEAT FLOUR. { 


INDIAN CORN. | 


CORN MEAU 1 


RTX MEAL. 


AND SMALL 


Year endinf— 


• 




















GRAIN. 




Baflhela. 


Dollarf. 


BanelB. 


DolUn. 


Baibeli. 


DoUan. 


Bomlfl. 


Dollars. 


Bonreli. 


DoOarL 


DoUan. 


Jiiae30,1856 


17,994 


35,966 


175^503 


1,555,907 


33,215 


98,561 


37,515 


168,856 


2,828 


17,637 


94.049 


1857 


3,658 


6,179 


204,807 


1,484,973 


30,914 


25,440 


27,334 


104.995 


1,550 


7,182 


22,046 


1858 


2,336 


3,491 


154,901 


955,257 


34.760 


30.112 


21,853 


86,900 


2.371 


10,458 


9.869 


1859 






150,531 


' 890,510 
1,093,130 


7,558 


7,350 


15^510 


64,450 


1.505 
1,285 


7,360 
5,780 


30,910 
29.050 


1860 


2,760 


4,730 


174,450 


7.015 


6,940 


11.144 


47,660 


1861 


16,970 


23,780 


208,518 


1,575,258 


22,054 


18,041 


16,920 


64,324 


1.706 


7,6TO 


51,940 



Table DDD. 
Exports of four tmd grain from PhiUidelphia to foreign countries, 

(Compiled from official documents.) 









" 
















RTK, OATS. 




WHEAT. 1 


WHEAT FLOUR. | 


INDIAN 


CORN. 


CORN MEAL. 


RTEMEAL. 


AND SHALL 


Year ending— 






















GRAIN. 




Bnahela. 


DoUars. 


BoBhelfl. 

* 


DoUara. 


Bushels. 


Dollars. 


Barrels. 


Dollars. 


Barrels. 


Dollars. 


Dollars. 


Jwie3ai856 


350,473 


670,554 


314.846 


2,496,968 


664.898 


454,172 


92.507 


333.419 


13.695 


73,563 


870,260 


1857 


597.942 


974.693 


296.674 


2,012,151 


912,499 


654.012 


67,870 


231,612 


11.672 


49.336 


14.533 


1858 


167,164 


215,991 


233,651 


1,293,228 


.591.965 


439,017 


41,569 


150,864 


4.738 


17,858 


8,377 


1859 


29,904 


38,002 


191.879 


1, 138, 525 


105.668 


93,273 


41,974 


165,976 


5,390 


22.554 


4.287 


1860 


127,740 


181,044 


178,688 


1,064,649 


270,815 


212,599 


46,963 


181. ITJ 


4,446 


18,488 


15,531 


1861 


1,627,845 


2,203,215 


404.813 


2,429.774 


757,704 


511,845 


41.977 


140,130 


3.186 


11.742 


22.3(8 



Table DDDD. 

Exports of four and grain from BaUimo$*e to foreign countries, 

(Compiled from official documents. ) 



















• 






RTE, OATS. 




WHEAT. 


WHEAT FLOUR. 


INDIAN CORN. 


CORN 


HEAL. 


RTE 1 


HEAL. 


AND SMALL 
























GRAIN. 




Bushels. 


Dollars. 


Barrels. 


Dollars. 


Bushels. 


Dollars. 


Barrels. 


Dollars. 


Barrels. 


Dollars. 


Dollars. 


Jii]ie3ai8S6 


274,937 


537,236 


587,993 


4,776.175 


609.878 


458,546 


50,822 


190,076 


4,367 


26,781 


1S!3,083 


1857 


969,087 


1,561,637 


541,427 


3.638,737 


562.099 


375^438 


61,589 


209,066 


4.470 


19,942 


33,970 


1856 


919.031 


308,657 


551,088 


2,909.679 


489,533 


334.576 


54,448 


196.869 


1.095 


4.033 


33.422 


1859 


60,649 


73,808 


345,891 


2,055,537 


167,690 


150,890 


58,799 


211, 131 


817 


3,475 


27.822 


1860 


15,045 


20,032 


363,493 


2,183,467 


224,052 


180,888 


51,535 


196,393 


681 


2,685 


31,569 


1861 


1,007,416 


1,563,765 


444,086 


2,e0^568 


1.015,777 


697.000 


99,399 


96,955 


341 


1.419 


18^527 



Table DDDDD. 
ExporU of four and grain from Pordand to foreign countries. 

(Compiled from official documents.) 



Year ending- 


WHEAT. 


WHEAT FLOUR. 


INDIAN CORN. 


CORN MEAL. 


RTE MEAL. 


RYE. OATS, 

AND SMALL 

GRAIN. 




Bnshels. 


Dollars. 


Barrels. 


Dollars. 


Boshels. 


Dollars. 


Barrels. 


Dollars. 


Barrels. 


Dollani. 


Dollars. 


June 30, 1856 






8.483 
3.621 
6,596 
3,706 
4,347 
95.839 


78,636 
27,468 
34.674 
21,961 
26,443 
370,596 


• 

689 
318 
938 


653 
306 
928 


660 
705 
154 
784 
712 
354 


3,081 
9,952 
536 
1,899 
3,826 
l,iJ33 


100 

29 

265 


734 
145 

1.328 


5,338 


1857 






1,464 


1856 






1,429 


1859 






113 


1860 


9.378 
506,349 

1 


9,658 
619,298 










63,197 


1851 










61,407 















INTRODUCTION. 



cxliii 



Imparts of toheaif corut andjlour into Great Britain and Ireland during the past three years. 

(Compiled from British Board of Trade returns.) 



Couutries. 


18G1. 


18G2. 


1863. 


Wheat: 
From Russia .--. 


Q,uarters, 

1,041,461 

1,027,733 

228,157 

122,248 

214,146 

180,903 

231,044 

339,811 

2,507,744 

549,525 

470,043 


Qjitarten, 

1,327,158 

1,450,484 

145,338 

93, 161 

156,701 

224,835 

390,068 

759,036 

3,724,770 

861,452 

336,267 


Qiuifters. 

1,046,378 

1,017,807 

128.155 


Prossia 

Denmark .•.•••..... .... 


MecklenberflT 


98,800 
73, 013 


HansQ Towns x,,.,...... 


France -..: 


34.034 


Turkey and Danube 

Eflrypt----- .- 


95,811 

555,290 

2.008.708 


oJ Mr •"■■■■ ••...•••••-. 

United States 


British America.... 4 

Other countrifif .......... 


483,230 
111,275 






Total wheat 


6,912,815 


9,469,270 


5,622,501 




Indian corn.—- Quarters 


3, 090, 352 


2,728,791 


2,971,872 


Flour: 
From Hanff4^ Towm...... ..*... 


1. 

CwU. 

279,609 
460,775 
3,794,865 
805,339 
812,350 


CaoCs. 

256,973 

790,040 

4,499,534 

1,108,591 

551,975 


CtDtS. 

306,216 

1,367,938 

2,531,822 

883,352 

129,648 


France ....... .......... 


United States 


British Amt^rica. ......... 


Other countries .......... 




Total Bour 


6,152,938 


7,207,113 


5,218,976 


« 





From the foregoing table it will be seen that of the imports of wheat into Great Britain and Ire- 
land during the three years named, 37.5 per cent, were from the United States, 15.9 per cent, from 
Prussia, and 15.5 per cent, from Russia. Of the imports of flour into that kingdom during the same 
period, 68.3 per cent, were from the United States, and 14.1 per cent from France. 

The following table shows the aggregate imports of wheat into Great Britain and Ireland from 
the five leading grain-exporting countries during the ten years ending with 1863 : 

From — Quarters. 

United States 12,968,574 

Prussia 8,340,202 

Russia 7,186,493 

Egypt 4,162,230 

Canada 2, 444 , 505 

The following table, furnished by our consul at Odessa, shows the total exports of grain, flour, and 
meal from Russia, one of the chief grain-exporting countries in Europe, from 1857 to 1862, inclusive: 



Wheat bushels 

Rye do-. 

Oate do.. 

Barley do.. 

Peas do.. 

Corn do.. 

Floor and meal do.. 

Linseed and rape-seed do.. 

Total bushels 



From Odessa. 


From sonthem 
ports. 


From all Bnssia. 


36, 003, 030 


94,512,072 


119,383,752 


5,645,792 


7,812,216 


53,479,296 


13,647,162 


15,958,458 


53,404,554 


11,498,028 


14, 077, 050 


24,338,544 


698,082 


698,084 


2,050,002 


12.040,842 


12, 110, 380 


13,271,592 


1,101,744 


1,868,904 


5,766,780 


7,300,086 


20,963,296 


44,583,796 


88,934,766 


168,020,560 


316,278,316 



cxliv INTRODUCTION. 

Compared with that of Russia, the grain trade of the United States is but in its infancy, and yet 
in wheat, flour, meal, and Indian corn, the exports of the United States, during the six years ending 
1862, compare favorably with those of Russia, as the following table shows : 

Total exports of trheatt com,Jl(mr^ and meal from the United States and from Russia, from 1857 to 18G2 inclusive. 

From United States. From Rmria. 

Wheat, bushels i 09. 181, 325 1 19, 383, 752 

Com, bushels 38,888.758 13.271.592 

Flour and meal, bushels 116,689,519 5,766,780 

Total 254,759,602 138,422,124 



.^1 



Deducting the linseed and rape-seed, which do not properly come under the classification, the 
total exports of all kinds of grain, flour, and meal from Russia, as furnished in the previous table, for six 
years ending 1862, amount to 261,694,520 bushels, while the exports of wheat, corn, flour, and meal 
alone from the United States amount to 254,759,602 bushels, as demonstrated in detail in the foregoing 
exhibit 

THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE. 

The exportation of grain to foreign countries, however, does not by any means indicate, the full 
extent of the grain trade of any country. The progress of the arts and manufactures, and the entire 
devotion of a large portion of some of the southern States to the cultivation of cotton, tobacco, sugar 
and rice, have created very attractive home markets in the eastern, middle, and southern States ; and, 
although the export demand is always of great advantage to the agriculturist, it is the certain home 
market upon which he has mainly to depend. Without this, whenever the export demand falls off 
materially, as it sometimes does when Europe has extraordinary crops, the agricultural interest would 
be so uncertain in its character that but few would be willing to engage extensively in the production 
of the various cereals. This feature of the trade has for many years engaged the attention of leading 
statesmen, and legislation has been shaped more or less for the last quarter of a century, towards fos- 
tering and encouraging the establishment of manufactories of all kinds on this continent, so as to attract 
labor and capital from the manufacturing populations of the old world, and render us more independent 
of foreign countries. 

That great progress has been made in this direction, the present position of the grain trade fully 
demonstrates. For instance, in 1860 the single State of Illinois (according to the census returns) pro- 
duced 23,837,023 bushels of wheat, and the whole amount exported from the United States to foreign 
countries during the same year (including flour reduced to wheat) was only 17,213,133 bushels. With 
regard to Indian corn, the value of a home market is even more apparent. In 1860 Illinois produced 
115,174,777 bushels, and there was exported during that year altogether only 15,448,507 bushels, a 
mere fraction of the product of one State. 

The following table shows the comparison between the production and the exportation of grain in 
the United States : 

WHBAT. 

Frodnetlon. Wheat aod flour exported. 

Bu§kei§. JhMAelA. 

1860 100,485,944 7,535,901 

1860 173,104,924 17,213,133 

INDIAN CORN. 

Prodoction. Exported. 

BuslUU, RuskeU. 

1850 1 592, 071, 104 6, 595, 092 

1860 838, 792, 740 15, 448, 507 



INTRODUCTION. cxlv 

Notwithstanding the great increase in the production of grain, the increased population has been 
gradually diverted from agricultural pursuits to those of manufactures, and the result is that those 
very States which half a century ago were exporting grain, are now almost entirely dependent on the 
west for their supply of breadstuffs. The following extract from the message of Governor Andrew to 
the legislature of Massachusetts at its last session, supplies a clear illustration of this point : 

"Foreign statistical writers differ considerably in their estimates of the cereal consumption of nations. McOalloch states 
the yearly consumption of England at one 'quarter' of wheat, or eight bushels, to each inhabitant. France, feeding more 
on bread and less on meat, is estimated as high as ten bushels. But New England, consuming largely of fish and other animal 
food, possibly may not exceed seven bushels to each person. At seven bushels each, her 3,135,293 inhabitants would consume 
21,947,601 bushels. 

The census of 1860 shows that her own product of cereals was : 

Of wheat, only = 1, 077, 285 bushels. 

Of rye, only 1, 617, 560 

Of Indian com, only : 9, 099, 570 



it 



Total yield of cereals grown in New England 11, 594, 445 ** 



''But Massachusetts, with a population of 1,231,066, produced less breadstu£G3 in proportion than either of the other New 
England States. While her population would, at seven bushels each, call for 8,617,462 bushels, her actual production ef 
cereals was : 

Of wheat, only 119, 783 bushelei 

Ofryconly 383,085 

Of Indian com, only 2, 157, 063 



u 



Her total being only 2, 659, 931 



« 



" Her residue of breadstuffs, purchased of the region to the north and west, allowing seven bushels for each inhabitant in 
the year 1860, was 5,952,531 bushels; or, if she consumed at the rate of eight bushels, the computation of English consump- 
tion by McGulloch, her purchase must have been 7,183,597 bushels. More than seven-eighths of the whole cereal yield of 
Massachusetts was Indian com, of which a very large portion must have been fed to animals. Her proportional purchase, there- 
fore, must have been much larger than the average purchase of New England. The annual consumption of purchased flour 
by New England, at an estimate which is sustained by the computation which I have already made, is something near 3,500,000 
barrels, or more than one barrel to each inhabitant. In the year 1862, more than 800,000 barrels of western and northern flour 

were sold in Boston for domestic consumption, or three-fourths of a barrel for each person in Massachusetts. 

• •••••••••• 

" I venture to affirm that the consumption of western agricultural products within the six States of New England, includ- 
ing flour, grain and animal food, used for the support of man and the forage of cattle, swine, and horses, during the year 1863, 
reached the value of $50,000,000, the proportion of which taken by Massachusetts exceeded $20,000,600." 

'The opening of the Erie canal to Lake Erie, on the 25th October, 1826, was the commencement 
of a new era in the internal grain trade of the United States, as it connected the waters of the great 
lakes with those of the Atlantic, affording a navigable water-course through the entire State of New 
York. To the pioneer, the agriculturist, and the merchant, this grand avenue developed a new world, 
and instituted what is now the commerce of the lakes. 

The following table shows the total receipts of flour and wheat at tide-water by the Erie and 
Champlain canals for a period of twenty-nine years : 



19 



cxlvi 



INTRODUCTION. 



Total receipts of JUmr and wheat at tide-water by the New York canals. 



Years. 



]635 
1836 
1837 
1838 
1839 
1840 
1841 
1842 
1843 
1844 
1845 
1846 
1847 
1848 
1849 



Flour. 



Barrels. 

999,125 

928,116 

914, 171 

1,079,001 

992,503 

1,834,727 

1,647,155 

1,588,368 

2,073,708 

2,222,204 

2,518,150 

3,062,677 

3, 952, 972 

3, 130, 575 

3,262,096 



Wheat 



Years. 



Bushels. 

688,265 

824,855 

592,637 

551,589 

582,752 

1,559,859 

912, 443 

93d, 417 

827,346 

1,262,249 

1,620,033 

2, 950, 633 

4,136,832 

3, 116, 134 

2, 388, 314 



1850 
1851 
1852 
1853 
1854 
1855 
1856 
1857 
1858 
1859 
1860 
1861 
1862 
1863 



Flour. 



Barrels. 

3,256,085 
3,358,465 
3, 464, 108 
3,063,742 
1,249,453 
1,290,149 
1,098,000 

835,546 
1,898,908 

903,296 
1,240,908 
1,530,775 
1,826,509 
1,560,800 



Wheat 



Bushels. 

2, 670, 754 

3,163,682 

6,754,946 

9,432,657 

3,523,800 

5,426,285 

11,741,366 

5,763,400 

8,324,966 

5,110,533 

19,204,000 

29, 632, 400 

32,667,866 

28,206,900 



The following is an exhibit of the total receipts of all kinds of grain at tide- water by the Erie and 
Ghamblain canals for a series of years : 

Total receipts of all kinds of grain at ttde-^vater by the New York canals. 



Years Grain, boahels. 

1849 11,986,690 

1850 11,585,619 

1851 16,762,613 

1852 19,583,875 

1853 19, 316, 019 

1854 23, 796, 038 

1855 21,613,904 

1856 30, 79 a 225 



Years. Grain, bushels. 

1857 16, 142, 310 

1858 23, 686, 374 

1859 18, 049, 798 

1860 41, 122, 100 

1861 62, 275, 951 

1862 74,811,877 

1863 66, 713, 000 



The Mississippi river was the only outlet to the ocean for the entire northwestern territory, com- 
prising now the northwestern States, prior to the opening of the Erie canal in 1825, but the comple- 
tion of this great work rendered the country west of the lakes attractive to the enterprising popula- 
tions of the eastern States and of Europe, and the tide of emigration soon began to flow westward. 
The construction of the Welland and other Canadian canals, a few years later, connected Lake Erie 
with Lake Ontario, and thus opened another avenue to the seaboard by the St. Lawrence river. 

From that period do we date the rise and progress of the northwest, as well as of the internal 
grain trade. Those counties in Ohio bordering on Lake Erie became settled first, and as late as 1835 
that State was the only grain-exporting territory on the lakes, there having passed through the Erie 
canal on that year 86,233 barrels of flour, and 1,354,995 bushels of wheat, all the product of Ohio. 
Michigan began to be settled in the early part of the present century, but it is stated in a copy of the 
Detroit Gazette, dated 1818, that "from four to five hundred farmers, in addition to those already in 
the Territory, would be needed to supply the demand for breadstuffs for local consumption." The 
deficiency at that period was made up by shipments from Ohio. From 1825 to 1830 the population 
of Michigan began to increase very rapidly, and in 1843 the exportation of grain from that State 
embraced 106,181 bushels of wheat, 2,582 bushels of com, 275 bushels of oats, and 263,083 barrels 
of flour. 

It was not till about the year 1830, however, that the resources of the fertile territory lying 
between Lake Michigan and the Mississippi river began to be developed. The first shipment of grain 
from Lake Michigan, of which there is any record, was inade ia the year 1836, when the brig John 
H. Kenzie took on board at Grand Haven, Michigan, 3,000 bushels of wheat for the port ef Bufialo. 



INTRODUCTION. 



cxlvii 



The first shipment of grain from the western shore of Lake Michigan, of which there is any 
record, was made in 1838, consisting of only thirty-nine bags of wheat. This was the first shipment 
of grain from Chicago, a port which in 1863 exported not less than 18,298,532 bushels of wheat and 
flour, and 54,741,839 bushels of grain of all kinds. 

The first shipment of grain from Wisconsin was made at the port of Milwaukie in 1841, consist- 
ing of about 4,000 bushels of wheat, which was purchased on Canadian account and forwarded there. 
The exports of grain and flour from this same port only twenty years later, amounted to 16,317,322 
bushels, consisting chiefly of wheat. 

In 1848 the Illinois and Michigan canal, which connects Lake Michigan with the Illinois river, was 
completed. This greatly stimulated the grain trade of the lakes, as it provided a water-course from the 
heart of the fertile prairies of Illinois to the Atlantic ocean. 

The next great step towards the development of the grain resources of the lake basin was made 
in the year 1849, when the era of railroad communication was inaugurated by the opening of the 
Galena and Chicago Union railroad to Fox river, which was soon afterwards extended and completed 
to the Mississippi. In 1852 the receipts of grain and flour by this railroad amounted to 1,658,725 
bushels, and in 1863 there were received by the same road 11,395,649 bushels of grain of all kinds. 

The success of the Galena railroad soon stimulated other enterprises of the same nature, until 
now the territory lying between Lake Michigan and the Mississippi river is crossed by about fifteen 
different lines. The same system of railroads is also being extended west of the Mississippi across 
the States of Missouri, Iowa, and Minnesota, into Kansas and Nebraska, and it is not improbable that 
but a few years will elapse before the grain product of these young frontier States will be as large as 
that of Iowa or Minnesota at present. 

The number of miles of railroad built between 1850 and 1860, in six of the western States, was 
9,119, as follows; 



states. 



Michigan . 
Wisconsin 

Iowa 

Illinois ... 

Ohio 

Indiana .. 



Total miles. 



1850. 



342 

20 



110.50 
575.25 
228 



1,275.75 



1860. 



799.33 

922.50 

679.75 

2, Sd7. 75 

2,999.50 

2, 125. 75 



Inc'se in miles. 



10, 394. 58 



457.33 

902.50^ 

679. 75' 

2, 757. 25 

2, 424. 25 

1,897.75 



9,118.83 



The rapid progress of the grain trade of the northwest is fully demonstrated by the increase in 
the commerce of the lakes. As late as the year 1845 the tonnage of the lakes consisted of only 380 
vessels of all classes, with an aggregate tonnage of 76,000 tons, while at the close of the season of 1863 
there were employed in the carrying trade of the lakes-\{hree-fourths of which consists of the trans- 
portation of grain^l,870 vessels of all classes, with an aggregate tonnage of 470,034 tons, valued at 
$16,720,800. ^ 

The following table exhibits the total tonnage of vessels engaged in the commerce of the lakes 
during the past six years : 

Tonnage of the lakes during the past six years. 

Years. Tonnage. 

1858 405, 301 

1859 392, 783 

1860 391, 220 

18G1 389, 611 

1862 454, 893 

1863 470, 034 



r 



cxlviii 



INTRODUCTION. 



But, rapid as has been the increase in the facilities for the transportation of grain and flour from 
the west to the east, it is evident, from the high rates of freight that have ruled during the past two or 
three years, that they are still inadequate to meet the requirements of the trade. 

The following table shows the receipts of flour and grain at the port of Buffalo during the past 

twenty-eight years : 

Tablb E. 

Receipts of flour and grain at Buffalo for twenty -eight years. 



Tears. 



1836 
1837 
1838 
1839 
1840 
1841 
1842 
1843 
1844 
1845 
1846 
1847 
1848 
1849 
1650 
1851 
1852 
1853 
1854 
1855 
1856 
1857 
1858 
1859 
1860 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 



Flour, barrels. 



139, 178 

126,805 

277,620 

294,125 

597,142 

730, 040 

734,308 

917, 517 

915, 030 

746,750 

1,374,529 

1,857,000 

1,249,000 

1,207,435 

1,103,039 

1,258,224 

1, 299, 513 

975,557 

739,756 

936, 761 

1,126,048 

845,953 

1,536,109 

1,420,333 

1,122,335 

2, 159, 591 

2, 846, 022 

2, 978, 089 



Wheat, buskels 



304,090 

450,350 

933, 117 

1,117,262 

1,004,561 

1,635,000 

1,555,420 

1,827,241 

2, 177, 500 

1,770,740 

4, 744, 184 

6, 489, 100 

4,520,117 

4, 943, 978 

3,681,347 

4, 167, 121 

5, 549. 778 

5, 420, 043 

3, 510, 782 

8, 022, 126 

8, 465, 671 

8, 334, 179 

10,671,550 

9, 234, 652 

18,502,649 

27,105,219 

30, 435, 831 

21,240,348 



Com, bnshelfl. 



204,355 
94,490 
34,148 



71, 

201, 

454, 

223, 

137, 

54, 

1,455, 

2,862, 

2,296, 

3,321, 

2, 593, 

5,988, 

5,136, 

8,065, 

10, 108, 

9,711, 

9,633, 

5,713, 

6,621, 

3, 113, 

11,386, 

21,024, 

24,238, 

20, 086j 



327 

031 
530 
968 
978 
200 
258 
800 
000 
651 
378 
775 
746 
793 
983 
430 
277 
611 
668 
653 
217 
657 
627 
952 



Oats, bushels. 



28,640 
2,553 
6,577 



14,144 



2,849 

18, 017 

23,300 

218,300 

446,000 

560,000 

362,384 

357,580 

1,140,340 

2, 596, 231 

1,580,655 

4,401,739 

2, 693, 222 

1,733,382 

1,214,760 

2, 275, 241 

1,394,502 

1,209,594 

1,797,905 

2, 624, 932 

7, 322, 187 



Barley, 
bushels. 



4,876 



4,710 
1,617 



47,530 
6 



3,600 

142,773 

497, 913 

401,098 

313,885 

62,304 

46,327 

37,844 

308,371 

36], 560 

262,158 

313,757 

423,124 

641,449 



Vi'j^ bushels. 



1,.S00 

3,267 

909 



2,150 

],268 

1,332 

456 



28,250 
70,787 
17,889 



10,652 
112,251 
107, 152 
177,066 
299,591 
245,810 

48,536 
125, 214 
124,693 

80,822 
337,764 
791, 564 
422,309 



Total flour and 
gram, bushels. 



1,239,351 
1,184,685 
2, 362, 851 
2,587,887 
4,061,596 
5, 502, 525 
5, 687, 468 
6,642.610 
6,610,718 
5,581,790 
13, 366, 167 

19. 153. 187 
13,641,012 

14. 665. 188 
12,059,559 
17,740,781 
20,390,504 
15,966,526 
22,252,235 
24,472,278 
25,753,907 
19, 578, 695 
27,812,980 
22,530,722 
37,053,115 
61,460,601 
72, 872, 454 
64,735,510 



The next most important receiving point on the lakes is the port of Oswego, on Lake Ontario. 
The following table shows the receipts at that port for sixteen years : 

Table F. — Receipts of fl^our and grain at Oswego for sixteen years. 



Years. 



1848 

1849 

1850 

1851 

1852 

1853 

1854 

1855 

1856 

1857 

' 1858 

1859 

1860 , 

1861 

1862 : 

1863 

■ » 



Flour into 
wheat, bushels. 



448,510 

J, t>oo, 7*10 

1,512,885 

1,949,645 

1,361,715 

1, 956, 075 

836,335 

1,123,215 

1,014,615 

506,915 

483, 315 

324,755 

606,995 

595,280 

1,176,910 

576, 460 



Wheat, bushels 



3,642,683 
3, 615, 677 
3, 847, 384 
4,231,899 
6, 525, 309 
7,436,391 
2, 492, 333 
5, 365, 783 
8,382,398 
5,353,026 
6, 595, 433 
4, 874, 593 
9,651,564 
10,121,446 
10,982,132 
8,785,425 



Com, bushels. 



373,185 

383,230 

426,121 

1,251,500 

1,055,043 

787,672 

2,632,274 

2,860,900 

3,589,211 

2, 003, 992 

2,913,618 

804,646 

5,019,400 

4,642,262 

4, 528, 962 

2, 676, 367 



Oats, bushels. 



63,136 
133,697 
113, 463 
175,984 

90,609 

32,806 
323,296 
228,097 
169,758 

14,603 
637,933 
251,534 
386,416 
1 16, 384 
187,284 
423, 147 



Rje, bushels. 



51,765 

31,426 

86,439 

106, 518 

31,279 

69,301 

43, 215 

281,021 

339,503 

74,436 

98,008 

182, 437 

244,311 

381,087 

130, 175 

116, 355 



Barley, 
bushels. 



181,560 

65,256 

120,652 

194,858 

134,697 

43,070 

101,436 

172, 215 

110,019 

281,210 

549,967 

778, 419 

1, 326, 915 

1,173,551 

1,050,364 

1,824,667 



Total flour and 
grain, bushels. 



4, 760, 839 

5, 818, 076 
. 6,106,944 

7, 910, 401 

9, 198, 652 
10, 335, 315 

6,428,899 
10,031,231 
13,605,539 

8, 234, 182 
11,278,274 

7, 216, 384 
17,237,601 
17, 030, 610 
18,(^,827 
14,402,421 



INTRODUCTION. 



cxlix 



The following is an exhibit of the receipts of flour and grain at the port of Toledo during the past 
five years : 



Tablb G. 



Receipts of flour and grain at Toledo for five years. 



Tears. 



1859 
1860 
1861 
1862 
1863 



Floor, barrelA. 



688,103 

720,517 

1,406,476 

1,585,325 

1,126,260 



Wheat, bushels. 



2, 312, 583 
5, 272, 690 
6, 277, 407 

9, 827, 629 
6, 194, 130 



Com, bushels. 



714,291 
5,333,751 
5, 312, 038 
3,813,709 
1,705,096 



Oats, bushels. 



167,538 

41,428 

234,759 

733,796 



Rye, bushels. 



35,957 
31, 193 
44,368 
24,520 



Barley, 
bushels. 



122,382 
12,064 
63,138 
37,608 



Total flour and 
grain, bushels. 



6,467,389 
14,504,903 
18,706,510 
21,910,228 
14,326,459 



On Lake Michigan, Chicago stands foremost as a general grain-shipping port The following table 
shows the shipments of flour and grain from that port during the past twenty-six years : 



Tablb H. 



Shipments of flour and grain from Chicago for twenty-six years. 



(Compiled from statistics of the Board of Trade.) 



Tears. 



1838. 
1839. 
1840. 
1841. 
1842. 
1843. 
1844. 
1845. 
1846. 
1847. 
1848. 
1849. 
1850. 
]851. 
1852. 
1853. 
1854. 
1855. 
1856. 
1857. 
1858. 
1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 



Flour and 
wheat, bushels. 



78 

3,678 

10,000 

40,000 

586,907 

688,907 

923, 494 

1,024,620 

1,599,819 

2, 136, 994 

2,386,000 

2, 192, 809 

1,387,989 

799,380 

941,470 

1,680,998 

2, 644, 860 

7,115,270 

9, 419, 365 

10, 783, 292 

10, 909, 243 

10, 759, 359 

15 892, 857 

23, 885, 553 

22, 508, 143 

18,298,532 



Corn, bushels. 



67,315 

550,460 

644,848 

262, 013 

3,221,317 

2,757,011 

2,780,253 

6,837,899 

7, 517, 678 

11,129,668 

6,814,615 

7, 493, 212 

4,217,654 

13,700,113 

24,372,725 

29, 452, 610 

24, 906, 934 



Oats, bushels. 



38,892 

65,280 

26,849 

186,054 

605,827 

2, 030, 317 

1,748,493 

3,239,987 

1,888,533 

1,014,547 

416,778 

1,498,134 

1, 174, 177 

1,091,698 

1,633,237 

3,112,366 

9,909,175 



Bye, bushels. 



17, 315 
82,162 
41,153 
20,132 
590 



7,569 
131,449 
156,642 
393,813 
871,796 
683,946 



Barley, 

bushels. 



31,453 

22,872 

19,997 

127,028 

120,275 

148, 421 

92,032 

19,051 

17,993 

132,020 

486,218 

267,749 

226,534 

532,195 

943,252 



Total flour and 
grain, bushels. 



78 

3,678 

10,000 

40,000 

586,907 

688,907 

923,494 

1,024,620 

1,599,819 

2,243,201 

3, 001, 740 

2,895,959 

1,858,928 

4, 646, 521 

5, 873, 141 

6, 422, 181 

12, 902, 320 

16, 633, 645 

21,583,221 

18, 032, 678 

20, 040, 178 

16, 768, 857 

31,109,059 

50,511.862 

56,477,110 

54,741,839 



As a grain-shipping port, that of Milwaukie, on Lake Michigan, is the second in importance. Tlie 
shipments of flour and grain at this port during the past nineteen years were as follows: 



cl 



INTRODUCTION. 



Tears. 



Table I. 

Shipments ofjhur and grain from Milwaukie for nineteen yean. 

(Compiled from Btatistics of Chamber of Commerce. > 



1845 

1846 

1847 

1848 

1849 

1850 

ISil 

1852 

1853 

1854 

1855 

1856 

1857 

1868 

1859 

1860 : 

1861 

1862 

1863 



Flour, barrelB. 



- 7,550 

15,756 

34,380 

92,732 

136,657 

100, 017 

51,889 

92,995 

104,055 

145,032 

181,568 

188,455 

228,442 

298,688 

282,956 

457,343 

674, 474 

711,405 

603,526 



Wheat, bushels. 



95,510 

213,448 

598,411 

602,474 

1,136,023 

297,578 

317,285 

564,404 

956,703 

1,809,452 

2,641,746 

2,761,979 

2, 581, 311 

3,994,213 

4,732,957 

7,568,608 

13, 300, 495 

14,915,680 

12,837,620 



Com, bushels. 



2,500 

5,000 

13,828 

2,220 

270 

164,908 

112, 132 

218 

472 

43,958 

41,364 

37,204 

1,485 

9,489 

88,989 



Oats, bushels. 



4,000 

2,100 

7,892 

363,841 

131,716 

.404,999 

13,833 

5,443 

2,775 

562,067 

299,002 

64,682 

1,200 

79,094 

831,600' 



Bye, bushels. 



54,692 

80,365 

113,443 

20,030 



5,378 
11,577 

9,735 

29,810 

126,301 

84,047 



Barlej, bushels. 



15,000 

15,270 

103, 840 

322,621 

291,890 

331,339 

63,379 

10,398 

800 

63,178 

53,216 

28,056 

5,220 

44,800 

133,449 



Total flour and 
grain, bushels. 



133,260 

292,228 

' 770,311 

1,076,134 

1,840,806 

620,033 

702,290 

1,772,753 

1,981,219 

3, 549, 301 

3,758,900 

3,720,313 

3,727,568 

6,162,234 

6, 552, 896 

9,995,000 

16,710,580 

18,712.389 

16,993,335 



The following table shows the total amount of grain, including flour, shipped from all the ports 
on Lake Michigan during the past six years : 



Tablb J. 

Ibtal shipment eastward of grain and JUmr from hake Michigan potts for six years. 

(Compiled from the statistics of the various boards of trade.) 



V. 



Ports. 



Chicago 

Milwaukie 

Baciue 

Kenosha 

Waukegan 

Sheboygan 

Port Washington. 

Green Bay 

Manitowoc 

St. Joseph 

Michigan City... 



1858. 



Bushels. 

20, 040, 178 

6,162,234 

1,085,132 

238,817 

48,000 

206, 173 

31,759 



1859. 



Total 



52,000 
15,000 



27,879,293 



Bushds. 

16,768,857 

6, 552, 896 

1,435,000 

430,000 

70,000 

275,000 

50,000 

140,000 



30,000 
78,000 



1860. 



Bushels. 

31,109,059 

9,995,000 

907,256 

295,003 

195,000 

214,862 

65,235 

350,033 

55,000 

25,000 



1861. 



Bushds. 

50,511,862 

16,710,580 

910,767 

384,000 

165,000 

219,262 

69,610 

448,722 

51, 310 

18,000 



1862. 



25,829,753 



43,211,448 



69,489,113 



Bushds. 

56, 477, 110 

18, 712, 389 

1,230,000 

235,454 

124,000 

452,470 

122,350 

780,902 

84,000 



78,218,675 



1863. 



Bushds. 

54,741,839 

16,993,335 

881,416 

141,670 

120,000 

360,752 

107,862 

1,288,790 

75,000 



74,710,664 



A glance at the figures in the foregoing table fully demonstrates the marvellous progress which 
has taken place in the grain trade of the northwest. In history, ancient or modern, we may search in 
vain for a parallel. 

The following table shows the entire movement of flour and grain eastward from the western and 
northwestern States, (including, in this instance, Canada West, whose products intermingle, in a general 
statement such as this, with those of the United States :) 



INTRODUCTION 



cli 



Table K. 

Jbial movement qffiowr and grain from the west to the east, by all the routes, frnr eight yearn. 

(Compiled from official recordfl.) 



Reoeivad 



Western termbnu of thA Baltimore and Ohio railroad . . 
Western terminus of the Pennsylvania Central railroad . 

Dunkirk 

Bnfhlo 

Suspension hridgo 

Oswego 

Ogdensbnrg 

Cape Vincent 

Montreal 

Bochester ....•.............•...........•■■■•••••••' 



1856. 



Floor* 



BtareU, 
449,797 
215,000 
|/ 350,000 

1,126.048 
304,524 
202,930 

|/354,904 

y 65,000 
712,038 



Wheat 



^iM&els. 



8,465^671 



8,382,396 
610,937 
500,000 

1,546,352 



Com. 



ButhiU, 



9, €33, 277 



3,589,211 

377,975 

45,000 

637,909 



Other gndn. 



BuakeU, 
487,100 
405^872 



2,025^519 

900,000 

619,280 

37.432 

50,000 

37,366 



1857. 



Flour. 



Bmrreli, 

426,801 
351,011 
354,072 
845,953 
180,194 
101,363 
361,578 
60,472 
637,052 



Wheat 



Btuhels, 



93,433 

8,334,179 

148,138 

5,353,096 

508,523 

477,375 

1,708.965 



Com. 



ButUU, 



Other grain. 



BvakOa. 
256,183 
206,793 



5,713,611 



2,003,992 

517,076 

40.537 

383,162 



1,301,140 



370,249 
14,740 
49,408 
38,106 



Total. 



I 



3.780,301 



19,505,358 



14,283,432 



4,562,569 



3,318,496 



16,713,639 



8,658.378 



2,236,678 



Tablb E-— Gontinaed. 



Beedyed 



Western terminus of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad. 
Western termfainsof the Pennaylyania Central railroad 

Dunkirk 

Buffalo 

Suspenidon bridge 

Oswego 

Ogdensburg 

Cape Vincent 

Montreal 

r 

Total 



Floor. 



BarrelM, 

682.314 

450,000 

331,007 

1,536,109 

200,410 

95,720 

381,624 

72,633 

664,275 

7,110 



4,421,202 



1858. 



Wheat 



B%ukel9, 



186,449 
10,671,550 

102,694 
6,595,433 

790.178 

410, 191 
1,769,482 

276,515 



Com. 



Buthtli. 



94,905 
6,621,668 



2,913,616 

720,236 

40,000 

105,087 



Other grain. 



Bu$keU, 

330,871 

250,000 

24,965 

2,706,826 



1,285^908 

44,126 

156,631 

136,537 

9,865 



20,802,492 



10,495,514 



4,947,729 



Floor. 



BarreU. 

446,403 

350.000 

432; 052 

1,420,333 

41,374 

64,941 

294,569 

9,390 

597,563 

1,764 



3,658,409 



1859. 



Wheat 



Bu^UU. 
17,800 



263,483 

9,234,652 

57,562 

4,874,583 

769,010 

266,735 

638,700 

416,821 



16.538,356 



Com. 



Othef grain. 



BuMhtU. 



77,914 
3,113,653 



804,646 

298,519 

20,100 

71,430 



4,386,262 



Bm$k€ia. 

196,466 

150,000 

14,400 

1,880,755 

73,346 

1,212,390 

64,702 

216,435 

204.652 

8,900 

4,022,046 



Tablb K — Oontinned. 



Beceived 



Western terminus of the Baltimore and Ohio raQroad. 
Western terminus of the Pennsylvania Central rutlroad 

Dunkirk 

Buffalo 

Suspension bridge 

Oswego 

Ogdensburg ; 

Cape Vincent , 

Montreal , 

Bochester , 

Total * , 



Floor. 



BamU. 
352,413 
426,660 
542; 765 

1,122.335 
650,000 
121, 185 
248,200 
28,940 
608,300 
5.250 



4,106,057 



1860. 



Wheat 






500,888 
18,502,649 



9,651,564 
565,023 
203,878 

2,686,726 
425.765 



32,536,494 



Com. 



Bufktlf. 



644,081 
11,386,217 



5,019,400 

867,014 

73,300 

138,214 



18,128,926 



Other grain. 



Bu$h^8. 

126,393 

864,160 

8,843 

1,552.574 

1,875,000 

1,959,642 

48,211 

186,597 

915,648 

10,725 



Flour. 



BarreU, 
270,000 

1,045^028 
736,529 

2, 159, 591 
758,915 
119,056 
441,488 
65.407 
937,394 
2.500 



7.547,793 



6.535.838 



1861. 



Wheat 



Butktlt. 



604,561 
27,105,219 



10,121,446 

677,386 

276,610 

7,738,084 

520,618 



47.043.924 



Com. 



Butktlt. 



230,400 
21,024.657 



4,642,962 

1,119,594 

124,411 

1,565,477 



26,706,801 



Other grain. 



BtukeU, 

80,000 

1,948,256 

7,175 

2,532,770 

2.67^*J4H 

1.671,622 

25,666 

104,581 

280,056 

10.990 

9. 337, 076 



dii 



INTRODUCTION. 



Table K — Gontinaed. 



Beodveda^- 



WMtom tarminiu of the Baltimore and Obk> raOroad. . 
Wettezn tennfamf of the Pemuylyania Central raUroad 

Dnnkirk 

BuilUo 

Boipeniion bridge 

Oiwego 

Ogdenebnrg 

CapeYlncent 

Montreal : 

Bochester 

Total .'. 



Floor. 



BarnU, 
090,000 
890,696 

1,095,365 

3,846,022 

875,000 

S35.383 

576,394 

48,576 

1,174,602 
1,000 



8,433,037 



1862. 



Wheat 



Bufhtlf. 



51,220,529 



Com. 



ButikeU, 







112,061 


149,654 


30,435,831 


84,288,627 


10, 962; 132 


4,528.962 


689,930 


1,130,176 


316,403 


849,369 


8,534,173 


3,661,261 


150.000 





33,998,049 



Other gndn. 



550,000 

1,622,893 

10,173 

3,849,620 

2,750,000 

1,467,823 

18,865 

47,047 

426,387 

6^622 



10,749,430 



Floor. 



Bantla. 
750^000 
850,000 

2,978,089 

775,000 

115,293 

475,465 

24,236 

1,193,108 

1,500 



7,782,920 



1863. 



Wheat 



Putktlt. 



86^905 
21,340.348 



8,785,425 
600,299 
306,856 

5^509,119 
85^000 



36,513,958 



CORL 



BuMktU. 



191.035 
80,086,952 



2,076,367 

1.057.299 

81.698 

862,534 



Other gnin. 



34,955,885 



450,000 
l,80a000 

11,789 
8.385,945 
1,500,000 
2,364,169 

85,000 

15^730 
1,406,418 

25^000 



15^983.111 



THE GRAm TRADE OF THE ST. LAWRENCE RIVER. 

The grain trade of the St. Lawrence river has of late years attracted the attention of the leading 
statesmen and merchants, both of Canada and the United States. The construction of the Welland 
canal, and the completion of the various Canadian canals around the rapids of the St. Lawrence, pro- 
vided an uninterrupted water-course from the head of Lake Michigan to Montreal and Quebec. 

For many years the trade of this river was confined chiefly to the products of Upper Canada, but 
the increased production of grain in the northwestern States during the past ten years has so crowded 
the other avenues to the seaboard that the trade has naturally sought an outlet to the ocean by the St- 
Lawrence. 

The following table shows the receipts of flour and grain at Montreal' during the past three years : 

ReceipU of jUmr and grain at Montreal for three years. 



Articles. 



Floor, barrels.. 

Wheat, bushels 

Com} 

Barlej, 

Oats, 

Rye, 






1861. 



By Qrand Trunk 

railway. 



336,466 
1, 187, 708 



6,931 
18,292 



By Lachine 
caoal. 



758,873 

6, 550, 376 

1,565,477 

125, 818 

104, 107 

24,710 



1862. 



ByGrankTnmk 
railway. 



402,221 
754,445 



11,876 
13,194 



By Lachine 
canaL 



772,381 

7, 779, 727 

2,661,261 

225,054 

93,598 

82,665 



1863. 



By Grand Trunk 
railway. 



457,926 

539,020 

1,173 

25,447 

51,251 



By Lachine 



735,182 
4,970.099 
861,361 
273,525 
352,721 
33,269 



The following table shows the exports of flour and grain from Montreal during the past three 
years: 

Easporti of fiour and grain from Montreal for three years. 



Articles. 



Flonr, barrels . . 

Wheat, bushels. 

Com, 

Oats, 

Barley, 

Peas, 



<t 
It 



1861. 



605,942 

5,584,727 

1,477,144 

276,375 

239,829 



1862. 



597,477 
6,500,796 
1,774,546 



652,144 



1863. 



526,155 
3, 741, 146 

638,281 
3,066,835 

709,239 

754,414 



INTRODUCTION. 



cliii 



As demonstrative of the nature of the receipts of grain at Montreal, it is necessary to state, that 
of the 4,970,099 bushels of wheat received during 1863, 1,961,649 bushels were from Milwaukie, and 
1,079,772 bushels from Chicago. Of the com received in 1863, nearly all of it was imported from 
Chicago, as there was shipped from that port for Kingston not less than 698,375 bushels, where it was 
transferred to barges and towed down the St. Lawrence to Montreal. Of the exports of grain at 
Montreal, the oats and barley are nearly all shipped to the United States. 

The chief grain-shipping point on the Canadian side of Lake Ontario is Toronto, wherefrom the 
following table shows the shipments of flour and grain in 1863, with the ports of destination: 

Shipments of flour and grain from Toronto in 1863. 



Shipped tcH- 



Oswego 

Cape y inoent 

Rochester 

Ogdensburg 

Montreal 

Quebec 

Other ports 

Total in 1863 
Total in 1862 



Floor. 



Wheat. 



Barrels. 

14, 740 

600 
18,532 
S5,256 

750 
9,664 



Bushds, 

268,001 

22,186 

2,100 

6,652 

353,280 



200,043 



129,552 
106,219 



852,262 
933,275 



Barley. 



Bushtls. 
288,108 



10,978 



299,086 
219, 147 



Peas. 



Bushtls. 

40,186 



16,963 



57, 149 
47,382 



Besides the above, there were shipped 92,936 bushels of oats — ^all to Oswego. 

From the foregoing table it will be seen that of the 1,949,193 bushels of flour and grain of all 
kinds exported from Toronto, only 811,251 bushels were shipped to Canadian ports. 

So important has the grain trade of the northwestern States become to the Canadians, that it has 
stimulated tiie construction, by English capitalists, of the Great Western railway from Detroit river to 
Lake Ontario and Niagara river, and the Grand Trunk railway from Detroit river to Quebec and 
Portland. To cheapen the transportation of grain, lines of propellers are established, and constantly 
run during the season of lake navigation, between Lake Michigan ports and Ports Samia, and CoUing- 
wood, on Lake Huron, where produce is transferred to cars, which are run across from Lake Huron 
to Lake Ontario, where it is again transferred to propellers or sailing vessels, which ply, in connexion 
with the railroads, between Montreal and Lake Ontario ports. Besides the advantage of cheapening 
freights, it is claimed that this repeated overhauling of grain, particularly in hot weather, is highly 
effective in preventing it from becoming heated or musty, as is often the case during hot weather, when 
it is confined closely in the holds of vessels during long passages. 

DFEEOT TBADE BETWEEN THE LAKJES AND EUROPE. 

During the past ten years various attempts have been made to establish a direct European trade 

with the lakes, via the St. Lawrence river; but it has been more successfully prosecuted in the lumber 

and stave than in the grain trade. The first direct shipment of grain from the lakes to Europe took 

place in 1856, when the schooner Dean Richmond cleared at Chicago for Liverpool with a cargo of 

wheat ; but, of about 125 vessels which have cleared from lake ports for the Atlantic ocean since that 

date, only three or four have been loaded with grain. This failure to establish a direct European grain 

trade, has been discouraging to merchants, and has led many to despair of ultimate success ; but the 

chief obstacle seems to be the unsuitableness for ocean navigation of the light-draught schooners which 

are necessarily employed in order to cross the St. Clair flats and pass through the canals. The want 

of return cargoes to the lakes has also been a serious detriment to the direct trade, and it is only in 

seasons of extreme depression in the lake trade, that vessel-owners are willing to embark in such long 

voyages. 

20 



cliv INTRODUCTION. 

To foster the establishment of a direct European grain trade, and also to provide more enlarged 
facilities for the transportation of the rapidly-increasing products of the west, a variety of measures are 
being agitated by commercial associations all over the country, as well as by the legislatures of New 
York and Canada. The following are some of the leading propositions : 

First. The construction of a ship canal from Georgian bay to Toronto, via Lake Simcoe, so as to 
pass vessels of one thousand tons burden from Lake Huron to Lake Ontario. 

Second. The construction of a ship canal from Georgian bay to the Ottawa and French rivers, via 
Lake Nipissingue, so as to pass vessels of one thousand tons burden from Lake Huron to the St. 
Lawrence river. 

Third. The enlargement of the Welland canal, so as to pass vessels of the size mentioned above. 

Fourth. The construction of a ship canal around the Falls of Niagara, so as to pass large vessels 
of deep draught from Lake Erie to Niagara river, and thence to Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence 
river. 

Fifth. The enlargement of the New York canals. 

Sixth. The construction of a ship canal from Chicago, on Lake Michigan, to Lasalle, on the Illi- 
nois river, and the deepening and improvement of that river, so as to allow steamers and vessels of deep 
draught to pass from the Mississippi river to Lake Michigan. 

Seventh. The improvement of Fox river, in Wisconsin, so as to connect the Upper Mississippi 
with Lake Michigan, and allow the passage of vessels carrying large cargoes of grain and other pro- 
du<?e from Minnesota and northern Wisconsin. 

Eighth. The construction of a ship canal from the head of Lake Michigan to Lake Erie, so as to 
avoid the long passage around the peninsula of Michigan, via the Straits of Mackinaw. 

Of the four projects connecting Lake Ontario with Lakes Erie and Huron, the three first are 
Canadian propositions. The accomplishment of either of the two first — the Georgian bay and Toronto 
or the Ottawa ship canal — would greatly shorten the distance from Lake Michigan to Montreal, and 
also avoid the St. Clair flats, which would have to be deepened and improved so as to enable ocean 
vessels of deep draught to pass. 

It is feared by many in New York, however, that the construction of a ship canal to the St 
Lawrence river Would damage the canal interests of that State by diverting a large portion of the grain 
trade of the lakes from the Erie canal; but when it is considered that the production of grain in the 
northwestern States increased from 218,463,583 bushels in 1840 to 642,120,366 bushels in 1860. and 
that of the eight food-producing States west of the lakes, embracing an area of 262,549,000 acres, only 
about 62,000,000 acres were under cultivation in 1860, and that 26,000,000 acres of that have been 
broken since 1850, no fears need be entertained that any of the outlets to the ocean will be unoccu- 
pied to the extent of their capacity. The only fear is, that we will not keep pace with the increased 
production by the provision of increased facilities of transportation. 

THE RECIPROCITY TREATY AND THE GRAIN TRADE. 

By the operation of the reciprocity treaty there is a free interchange of the grain products of 
Canada and the United States, and the free use of the St. Lawrence river for navigation is accorded 
to the latter. Since this treaty came into effect the grain trade between the two countries has beeL 
greatly increased. The following table shows the value of the agricultural products imported into the 
United States from Canada, and into Canada from the United States, from 1850 to 1861, inclusive : 



INTRODUCTION. 



civ 



Value of imports of agricultural produce into the United States from Canada, and into Canada Jrom the United States. 

Yean. Yalil^ of imports into United Yaloe of imports into Canada I 

States irom Canada, firom tlie United States. 



1850 $2, 706, 362 

1851 1,937,283 

1852 3,277,929 

1853 4, 949, 576 

1854 5,295,667 

1855 11,801,435 



$427, 084 

676, 327 

473, 137 

668, 113 

1, 500, 521 

4, 972, 475 



Yalae of imports into United Yalne of imports into Canada 
States firom Canada. firom tlie United States. 



1856 $11,864,836 

1857 7,100,413 

1858 5,740,305 

1859 6,278,351 

1860 10,013,799 

1861 9,580,165 



3, 809, 112 
5, 272, 151 
3, 385, 517 
4,671.882 
4,603,114 
5, 172, 588 



According to the above table it is evident that, however much the people of the United States may 
have been benefited by the operations of the reciprocity treaty, it has been more advantageous to the 
Canadian than to the American agriculturist. 

THE GBAIN TRADE OF THE MISSISSIPPI BIVER. 

The grain trade of the Mississippi and Ohio rivers has, for upwards of a quarter of a century, 
occupied an important place in the commercial history of the United States. In the early part of the 
present century, beforev the era of canals and railroads, the tide of emigration forced itself into the 
valleys of those rivers and laid the foundations of what soon became large and flourishing settlements. 
Before Chicago, Milwaukie, and Toledo had existence, other than as small trading posts, Cincinnati, on 
the Ohio, and St. Louis, on the Mississippi river, were comparatively large towns, with a trade and com- 
merce which attracted capital from all parts of the world. The Mississippi river was the natural outlet 
for this trade to the ocean, and New Orleans became at an early day the only exporting point for the 
grain products of the west. 

The valley of the Ohio river, embracing the States of Ohio, Indiana, and Kentucky, was settled 
first, and the grain trade of that river proper is therefore the oldest. But the fertile lands of the river 
tier of counties in Illinois and Missouri soon attracted the attention of agriculturists, and the grain trade 
of the Mississippi river proper followed ; and. as we have shown in a previous chapter, before steamboat 
navigation had made much progress, the grain was shipped chiefly in rude barges and carefiilly floated 
down the Mississippi to New Orleans, where it found a market, and was shipped to foreign ports. 
And even, at no distant date, all the western grain and flour which found a market in New York or 
New England was shipped to New Orleans in steamboats, and thence around the Atlantic coast in 
ocean ships. 

The following is an exhibit of receipts of grain and flour at Cincinnati during the past eighteen years : 

Tablb L. 

Receipts of flour and grain at Cincinnati for eighteen years, 
(Compiled from statistics of Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce.) 



Tears. 



1846 
1847 
1848 
1849 
1850 
1851 
1852 
1853 
1854 
1855 
1856 
1857 
1858 
1859 
1860 
1861 
1862 
1863 



Flonr, barrels. 



202,319 
512, 506 
151,518 
447, 844 
231,859 
482,772 
511,042 
449, 089 
427,464 
342,772 
546,727 
485,089 
633, 318 
558, 173 
517,229 
49Q, 619 
5S8, 215 
i>19,710 



Wheat, bushels. 



435,486 

590,805 

570, 813 

385,388 

322,699 

388,600 

377, 037 

343,649 

408,084 

437, 412 

1, 069, 468 

737,723 

1,211,543 

1,274,685 

1, 057, 118 

1,129,007 

2, 174, 924 

1,741,491 



Com, bushels. 



57,245 

896,258 

361,315 

344,810 

649,227 

489, 195 

653,788 

723,334 

745, 455 

845,597 

978, 511 

1,673,363 

1,090,236 

1,139,022 

1,346,208 

1,340,690 

1,780,292 

1,504,430 



Oats, bushels. 



106,852 
372,127 
194, 557 
185, 723 
191,924 
164,238 
197,868 
283,251 
427,423 
480, 178 
403,920 
534,312 
598,950 
557, 701 
894, 515 
838,451 
1,338,950 
1,312,000 



Barley, bushels. 



90,225 

79,394 
165,528 

87,400 
137,925 
111,257 

89,994 
226,844 
286,536 
204,224 
244,792 
381,060 
400,967 
455,731 
352,829 
493,214 
323,884 
336, 176 



Bye, bushels. 



85,821 

41,016 

24,336 

22,233 

23,397 

44,308 

58,317 

33,670 

29.592 

53,164 

158,220 

113,818 

64,385 

82,572 

131,487 

157,509 

247, 187 

138,935 



clvi 



INTRODUCTION. 



The following table shows the receipts of flour and grain at St Louis during the past fourteen years : 

Table M. 

Receipts ofjUmr and grain at St, Louis Jar Jbur teen years. 

(Compiled from statistics of St. Louis Chamber of Commerce.) 



Tears. 



1850 

1851 

1852 

1863 

1854 

1865 

1856 

1857 

1858 : 

1869 

1860 

1861 

1862 

1863.i 



Floor, barrels. 



306,463 
184,715 
132,050 
201,487 
192,945 
226,450 
323,446 
573,664 
387,451 
488,700 
443, 196 
484,000 
647, 419 
669,241 



Wheat, bushels. 



1,794,721 
1,712,776 
1,645,387 
2, 075, 872 
2, 126, 272 
3,312,854 
3, 747, 224 
3,281,410 
3, 835, 759 
3, 568, 732 
3, 555, 878 
2,654,738 
3,&50,336 
2,703,378 



Com, bushels. 



1,457,748 

755,258 

1,048,120 

1, 784, 189 

2, 947, 285 

938,546 

2,286,828 

892,104 

1,639,579 

4, 209, 794 

4, 515, 040 

1,734,219 

1,299,850 



Oats, bushels. 



888,423 

848,850 
1,235,000 
1,777,873 
1,912,974 
1,132,932 
1,217,887 
1,690,010 
1,267,624 
1,789,234 
1, 735, 157 
3,135,043 
2, 771, 848 



Rje, bushels. 



28,894 



111,526 

44,210 

36,810 

45,900 

123,056 

158,974 

117, 080 

253,562 

126,700 



Barley, bushels. 



91,662 
124,064 
114,160 
126,128 
127,210 
216, 574 
290,350 
242,262 
291,130 
201,484 
290,925 
195, ^iO 



As New Orleans is the only exporting point for the grain carried down the Mississippi river, the 
following table is appended, showing the receipts at that port for thirty-one years : 

Table N. 

Receipts of flour and grain at New Orleans Jor thirtynme years. 
(Compiled from statistics of New Orleans price current.) 



Years. 



Wheat, bbls. and 
sacjLB. 



Flour, barrels. 



1832. 
1833. 
1834. 
1835. 
1836. 
1837. 
1838. 
1839. 
1840. 
1841. 
1842. 
1843. 
1844. 
1845. 
1846. 
1847. 
1848. 
1849. 
1850. 
1851. 
1852. 
1853. 
1854. 
1855. 
1856. 
1857. 
1856. 
1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 



10,038 
1,C90 
6,422 

2,027 
17,280 

63,015 

2,621 

138,886 

118,248 

86,014 

64,759 

403,786 

833,649 

149, 181 

238,911 

57,508 

88,797 

64,918 

47,238 

184, 943 

31,288 

869,524 

775,962 

401,275 

29,585 

13,116 

71,678 

36,411 



221,283 
233,742 
345,831 

286,534 

287,232 

253,500 

320,208 

439,984 

482,523 

496, 194 

439,688 

521,175 

502,507 

533,312 

837,985 

1,617,675 

706,958 

1,013,177 

591,986 

941, 106 

927,212 

808,672 

874,256 

673, 111 

1,120,974 

1,290,597 

1,538,742 

1,084,978 

965,860 

1,009,201 

281,645 



CORN. 



Shelled, sacks. 



7,490 

65,620 

62,137 

162, 346 

287,182 

369,090 

177,751 

338,795 

278,358 

268,557 

338,709 

427,552 

360,052 

390,964 

1, 166, 120 

2, 386, 510 

1,083,465 

1,705,138 

1,114,897 

1,298,932 

1,397,132 

1,225,031 

1,740,267 

1,110,446 

1,990,995 

1,437,051 

1,289,665 

759, 438 

1,722,039 

3,833,911 

315,652 



In ear, barrels. 



Qats, bbls. and 
sacks. 



71,322 

91, 473 

97,774 

262,410 

255,975 

194, 013 

270,924 

161,918 

152,965 

168,050 

240,675 

255,058 

165,354 

139,686 

358,573 

619, 576 

509,583 

295,711 

42,719 

42,526 

163,008 

17,620 

48,404 

10,701 

41,924 

14,719 

62,405 

5,000 

36,092 

122,644 

22,216 



1,784 

9,029 

18,026 

14,264 

18,132 

32,180 

25,514 

38,708 

42,885 

54,250 

63,281 

120,430 

130,432 

144,262 

269,386 

588,337 

467, 219 

266.559 

325,795 

479, 741 

463,273 

446,956 

586,451 

439,978 

587,180 

393,171 

568,649 

249,736 

659,550 

552,738 

as 348 



INTRODUCTION. 



civil 



The following table shows the exports of flour and grain from New Orleans to foreign countries 
for a series of years : 

Table 0. 

Exports of flour and grain from New Orleans to foreign ports, 

(Compiled £roin official doctimento.) 



Tear ending Jane 30 — 



1856 

1857 

1858 :.. 

1859 

1860 

1861 



Flonr, banels. 



251,501 
428,436 
474,906 
133,193 
80,541 
21,767 



Wheat, bnshels. 



1,096,733 

1,353,480 

596,442 

107, 031 

2,189 

3 



Com, buahelB. 



2,941,711 

1, 034, 402 

1, 134, 147 

111,522 

224,382 

69,679 



Rje, oato, dx., 
value. 



(67,892 
2,172 

885 
1,029 
1,943 

971 



A comparison of the foregoing tables with those illustrating the grain trade of the lakes and of the 
Erie canal, demonstrates the revolution that has taken place in the grain trade of the west. The trade 
and commerce of the Mississippi river, so far as relates to grain and other produce, has not kept pace 
with the development of the territory through which it runs, and for which it is the natural highway 
to the ocean. The old theory that " trade will follow the rivers " has in some respects been disproved. 
The artificial channels of trade, canals and railroads, have tapped the west and carried its products east- 
ward across the continent The grain trade of Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Wisconsin, and even the greater 
portion of that of Indiana and Ohio, have been diverted almost entirely to the lakes, the Erie canal 
the St Lawrence river, or the six great trunk lines of railroads that lead from the heart of the west to 
the seaboard. The Mississippi river has been bridged at Rock island, and another bridge is just being 
completed at Clinton, farther up. The lines of railroads which extend from Lake Michigan to this river 
are being pushed forward with great rapidity to the Missouri river, and into Kansas and Nebraska, and 
there is every probability that the grain of these frontier States will also find a market by way of the 
lakes. Even now grain is being received t Chicago from Kansas and Nebraska via the Missouri river, 
the Hannibal and St Joseph railroad, and the Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy railroad. As an outlet 
to the ocean for the grain trade of the west, the Mississippi river has almost ceased to be depended 
upon by merchants. There are several reasons for this change : 

First. The risk of damage to grain and flour that may be shipped during the summer months 
through the southern latitudes of the Gulf of Mexico, as compared with the transportation by the 
northern routes, viz., around the lakes and through the Erie canal, or via the St Lawrence river. This 
applies particularly to com, which is more liable to become heated than any other kind of grain. 

Second. The uncertainty of river navigation during the summer months, in droughty seasons, and 
the vexatious and ruinous delays that are apt to occur in consequence. 

Third. The speedy transportation by railroads and canals on the northern route, as compared with 
transportation by river to New Orleans, and thence by ocean ships around the Atlantic coast. 

Fourth. The superior advantages which New York during the past ten or fifteen years has attained 
as an importing point, as compared with New Orleans, thus offering greater inducements to ocean 
shipping to trade with New York. 

Fifth. The rapid growth of the cotton, sugar, and tobacco trade at New Orleans, to the exclusion 
' of almost every other branch of trade and commerce. 

A glance at the table of receipts of grain at New Orleans during the six years previous to the 
blockade of the Mississippi river, as compared with the great movement of grain during the same 
period eastward by the Erie canal and the St Lawrence river, shows clearly the diversion which has 
taken place in this trade. The entire receipts of grain in New Orleans in 1860 amounted to only 



1/ 



clviii 



INTRODUCTION. 



6,198,927 bushels, while the receipts during the same year at the single port of Chicago amounted to 
about fifty million of bushels, while Milwaukie received about ten million. The exportation of grain from 
New Orleans to foreign countries had also fallen off year by year, till in 1860 the entire amount ex- 
ported was only 2,189 bushels of wheat, 224,382 bushels of com, and rye, oats, and small grain to the 
value of $1,943, while during the years 1860-'61 there were exported from New York 23,869,147 
bushels of wheat, 9,268,729 bushels of corn, and 2,728,012 barrels of fiour. 

To demonstrate still further the change in the grain trade from the southern to the northern route, 
the following table is appended, showing the exports of flour and grain from Cincinnati during the 
four years preceding the blockade of the Mississippi river, with the amount shipped by the southern 
and the amount shipped by the northern route ' 

Table P. 
ShipmenU north and south from Cincinnati for four years. 



ArtielAfl 


1857-'58. 


1858-'59. 


1859-'60. 


1860-'61. 




Shipped south. 


Shipped north. 


Shipped south. 


Shipped north. 


Shipped south. 


Shipped north. 


Shipped south. 


Sltipped north. 


Flour, barrels 

Wheat, bushels 

Com, sacks 


162,565 

30,446 

1,927 


445,650 

601,214 

17,225 


17,569 
1,182 
3,707 


544, 570 

270,531 

24,796 


92,919 
11,341 
23,640 


385,389 

310, 154 

25,227 


158,592 
47, 801 • 
105,332 


268,033 

477,264 

21,947 



It is also to be noted, that of the amount shipped south, as given in the above table, but a very 
small proportion reached New Orleans. For instance, in the year 1860, of the 478,308 barrels of flour 
exported from Cincinnati, only 35,146 barrels were shipped to New Orleans, the balance having been 
shipped north or to other ports on the river between Cairo and New Orleans. 

It is wdrthy of mention, however, that, although the export grain trade of New Orleans has not 
kept up with the production of the valley of the Mississippi, the local river trade greatly increased in 
consequence of the extraordinary demand by cotton and sugar planters, who were every year becoming 
more dependent upon the northwestern States for their supplies of breadstufis. 

THE GRAIN TRADE OF THE UPPER MISSISSIPPI. 

The grain trade of the Upper Mississippi is a very important branch of northwestern commerce. 
The rapid development during the past five years of the resources of northern Iowa and Wisconsin, 
and of Minnesota, has built up large towns on the river, such as McQ-regor, Winona, Hastings, and 
St. Paul, on the Mississippi, and Stillwater and Hudson, on the St. Croix, all of which are depots 
for the grain of the surrounding territory, which is shipped in steamboats and barges down the Missis- 
sippi river to' Lacrosse, Dunleith, and Fulton, where it is transferred to railroads and shipped to Lake 
Michigan ports. It is estimated that during 1863 the receipts of wheat alone, for the Upper Missis- 
sippi river, at Lake Michigan ports, was not less than six millions of bushels 



THE GRAIN TRADE OF CALIFORNIA. 



One of the most wonderful features of the grain trade is its growth and development on the 
Pacific coast. California, v^hich but a few years since was entirely dependent upon western South 
American ports for a supply of breadstufis, appears now on the records as a grain-exporting State, and 
almost every mail from the Pacific conveys intelligence of one or more ships, loaded with wheat, having 
sailed from San Francisco for Liverpool or London. Riches, other than gold, have been found on the 
so^l, as the excellent quality and heavy yield of California wheat and other cereals, fully attest. 



INTRODUCTION. 



clix 



The following table shows the exporta of flour and grain from the port of San Francisco to foreign 
countries from the year 1856 to 1861, incltisive: 

Tablb Q. 

Export* of grain and fia»r from San FrancUco to Jbrngn amntriet. 
(Compiled IVoin oEGcIol doctuDeutg.) 



Tew ending— 


WHEAT, 


,„„, 


RYE MEAL. 


RYB, OATS, ETC. 


Bmhela. 


DoUwD. 


Baneli. 


Oollan. 




Dollart. 


DoUan. 




33,068 

35,832 

«,6M 

9 

946,930 

2,379,617 


36,748 
64,683 
12,272 
11 
449,057 
2,550,820 


114,572 
43,122 
6,683 
22,580 
57,830 

186,455 


1,070,121 
376,637 

84,086 

236,568 

380,005 

1,001,894 


3,950 


19,750 














335,880 
M6,681 


186S 


















316,299 









































VINEYARDS AND WINE MAKING IN THE UNITED STATES. 

In the first settlements on this continent, the grape-vines found indigenous, were esteemed among 
the most valuable productions. In "Force's Collection of Historical Tracts" — 1620 to 1760 — frequent 
allusion is made by the writers to our native grapes and to the wine made from them. According to 
Sir John Hawkins, wine was made in Florida in 1564. A vineyard was established in Virginia in 
1620, also in 1647. In 1651 premiums were offered in Virginia for the production of wine. In 1664 
a vineyard was planted near New York by Paul Richards, and in 1683 and 1685 attempts were made 
at Philadelphia, but failed. At a later period Mr. Tasker, of Maryland, and Mr. Antil, of New Jersey, 
were more successful. These, however, were mere experiments. There is no evidence that wine was 
produced in any quantity worth naming, until the close of the last and the beginning of the present 
century. About this period vineyards were planted in various parts of the Union, near the cities of 
New York and Philadelphia ; near Lexington and Glasgow, Kentucky ; Cincinnati, Ohio ; Vevay, 
Indiana; York and Harmony, Pennsylvania; Baltimore, Maryland; and in some parts of North and 
South Carolina, Georgia, and Virginia. These plantings were generally in small vineyards of one to 
five acres, and, unfortunately, most of them with foreign grapes, which, proving to be unsuited to our 
climate, resulted in failures. Those who planted with native grapes did better. In North and South 
Carolina the " Scuppemong wine," from a native grape, soon became famous, and was praised as a home 
production worthy of American patronage. 

At Vevay, Indiana, Dufour and his Swiss settlers adopted the "Schuylkill Muscadel," a Pennsyl- 
vania grape, then erroneously called the "Cape." This grape was found to suit the climate, and made 
a red wine, that soon acquired a fair reputation, and laid the foundation for wine-growing in the west, 
with the better varietieB that succeeded it. 

The celebrated traveller, Volney, "tasted wine made from native grapes at Gallipolis, Ohio, in 
1796," and Dufour, in 1799, "found a Frenchman at Marietta, Ohio, who made a few barrels of wine 
every year from grapes collected in the woods, equal to the wine made near Paris." Dufour further 
remarks: "None of the difierent and numerous trials which were made in severed parts of the United 
Stat^ that I visited in 1794, were found worthy the name of vineyards." "I went to see all the vines 
growing that I could hear of, even as far as Kaskaskia, on the Mississippi, where I was informed the 
Jesuits had planted a vineyard shortly after the first settlement of the country, but that the French 
government had ordered it to be destroyed, for fear that vine culture might spread in America and 
hurt the wine trade of France." "I found only the spot where that vineyard had been planted, in n 
well-selected place on the side of a hill, under a cliff to the northeast of the town. No good grapes 
were found there or in any gardens of the country." 



clx INTRODUCTION. 

Dr. Daniel Drake, in an address on ''The Early Physicians, Scenery, and Society of Cincinnati," 
states that " Third street, running near the brow of the upper plain, was on as high a level as Fifth 
street is now. The gravelly slope of that plain stretched almost to Pearl street On this slope, be- 
tween Main and Walnut, a French Political exile, M. Mennesieur, planted,^ in the latter part of the last 
century, a small vineyard. This was the beginning of that cultivation for which the environs of that 
city have since become so distinguished. I suppose this was the first vineyard cultivation in the valley 
of^ the Ohio." The well-known naturalist, F. A. Michaux, in his travels through the United States in 
1802, "visited the vineyard near Lexington and found but one variety of grape — ^a native, doing well, 
the foreign mildewed." The foregoing extracts afibrd a fair sample of the pioneer efforts in vineyard 
culture in the west ; they were much like those in the east, and wherever foreign vines were planted 
disappointment and loss resulted. In the south, owing to its genial climate, the experiments were more 
successful, but most so with native vines. In 1812 I was first cheered by the sight of a vineyard. It 
was on the south side of a hill at Rapp's German settlement of Harmony, in Butler county, Pennsyl- 
vania. The grapes planted were principally native varieties, the most of them " Schuylkill." Five 
years later I visited the vineyard of the Swiss colony, at Vevay, Indiana, where the same grape was 
the favorite. At the former the vines were planted in 1808, at the latter in 1806. The product was 
a red wine, resembling claret, but rather too harsh for the American palate. Still it was received with 
favor as a home production, giving promise of great results in the future. 

I now come to a period when the second class of pioneers in this cultivation were more fortunate 
than their predecessors, and, with other grapes, produced better wines. About the year 1820 Major 
John Adlum, of Georgetown, D. C, first brought the Catawba into notice as a wine grape, and Thomas 
McCall, of Georgia, Mr. Herbemont, and other gentlemen of the south, the Warren, Herbemont, Madeira, 
and other varieties which have since proved so valuable. 

To Major Adlum belongs the honor of introducing the Catawba, and so high was his appreciation 
of this grape that he wrote to Mr. Longworth, of Cincinnati, that he believed he had conferred a greater 
favor on his country than if he had paid off the national debt ; in which, after a trial of the grape for 
wine, Mr. Longworth agreed with him. 

The memory of the late Nicholas Longworth, of Cincinnati, will ever be held in the highest esteem 
by the wine-growers of our country, as he was the father of successful vine culture in the west. By 
a large expenditure in money in his various experiments with both foreign and native grapes, during a 
period of forty-three years, he at last succeeded in producing sparkling and still wines highly creditable 
to himself and the country, and the practical knowledge he acquired from year to year was liberally 
made known through the public prints for the benefit of all. . 

The late John J. Dufour, of Vevay, Indiana, is also entitled to the grateful remembrance of the 
people of the United States for his early and persevering efforts in the cultivation of the vine in this 
country of his adoption. For thirty years succeeding the introduction of the Catawba grape, the large emi- 
gration of Germans into the Ohio valley, many of them from the wine districts on the Rhine, furnished 
practiced and willing vine-dressers, who were glad to have the opportunity of trying their skill in this 
new country with a grape so promising. Numerous vineyards were planted in the western States, in 
localities supposed to be favorable, especially in the vicinity of Cincinnati, and in 1850 Catawba wine, 
produced in hundreds of thousands of gallons, had acquired a high reputation as a rival of Rhenish wine, 
and became an article of export to our eastern cities. The cultivation had spread over all the western 
and southwestern States, and we thought then, as we do now, that wine-growing would eventually be 
ranked amongst our most important agricultural interests. This the next generation may possibly realize. 

Vineyard culture in the United States may now be considered as fairly established. Wine is made 
in thirty of the thirty-four States of the Union, of different qualities of course, and with varied success. 
As to its future production in quantity, I should name, first, California ; second, the mountainous dis- 
tricts of the southern States, as most favorable on account of the climate ; third, the Ohio and Missis- 
sippi valleys ; fourth, the middle States ; and last, the eastern. As to quality, the best samples have 



INTRODUCTION. clxi 

been found in Georgia and the Ohio valley. The impression is, that in the middle and eastern States 
the climate is too cold to elaborate sufficient saccharine matter in the grape to make a wine that 
will keep without the* addition of sugar. But this may prove a mistake — ^new varieties may yet be 
produced to suit each section of our country where the grape is grown. They are now numbered by 
hundreds, and new hybrids are annually added to the lists. Afler all our experience during the last 
seventy years, vine culture in the United States is but yet in its infancy, and we have much to learn. 
The few millions of gallons which we produce annually, are as nothing when compared to the nine hun- 
dred millions of France, or the three thousand millions of all Europe. The vineyards of Europe are 
estimated at twelve millions of acres. We have far more grape territory than that in the United 
States; but our climate, with the exception of California, is less equable. In California alone,it is 
stated, there are five millions of acres well adapted to grape culture. Here is something to reflect 
upon, and to give hope for the future. 

CULTIVATION. 

Vineyards are usually planted on hills, or rolling uplands; such positions are chosen on account of 
the natural drainage, which is considered essential. Porous soils are preferred to stiff clay, or such as 
are retentive of water. No trees should be permitted to grow within one hundred feet of the vine- 
yard, nor should any crop be cultivated in it, as the vine is a selfish plant, and demands all the ground 
for its own use. The ground is prepared for planting by trenching with the spade two feet deep, or by 
breaking up with a subsoil and common plough 18 or 20 inches ; the latter is much the cheapest, and 
always adopted where the situation of the vineyard permits. In planting the vines, the distance apart 
in the rows appears to vary in different localities. Around Cincinnati and in the Ohio valley, 3 by 6 
is the usual distance; on the shores of Lake Erie, 6 by 8, and 8 by 8; and in California, 8 by 10 is 
recommended as the proper distance. The object in this country, where labor is dear, is to cultivate 
with the plough where it can be used, and to avoid the spade, which is expensive. Vineyard-planting 
is a system of dwarfing the vine, but with our long-jointed and rampant-growing native vines it may be 
an error to plant too close, or to prune too severely. Our European vine-dressers, accustomed to short- 
jointed vines, naturally fall into that error here, but they are now correcting it. 

The method of training also varies with localities. In the Ohio valley and the southern States 
the single stake to each vine, and the bow system, is adopted. On the lake shore, and in California, 
the trellis is used, the vines being trained on it horizontally. 

The estimated average annual yield of good vineyards in the west is about that of France — 200 
gallons to the acre. In the south they claim 600, and in California 800 ; these latter I consider too 
high. A bushel of grapes — ^fifty pounds — will make three and a half gallons of good wine, and a half 
gallon inferior. In a mere sketch like this article, it is only intended to impart general information on 
the subject of which it treats ; the reader is therefore referred for special directions as to setting 
out the vines, spring and summer prunings, cultivating the ground, and securing the crop, to the several 
treatises on grape-culture and wine-making recently published. But I may remark, in brief, that a free 
exposure to the vnnd, with the bunches of grapes sheltered from the hot sun by the leaves of the vine, 
tying neatly to the stake or trellis, a judicious shortening in of superfluous branches, and the keeping 
the ground cultivated and free from weeds, is considered essential. 

Disease, insects, and frost. — ^The grape, like other fruits, has its enemies. The most destructive 
of these is the mildew or rot Was it not for this disease the Catawba would be immensely profitable; 
but of late years, in the Ohio valley, it has destroyed from one-fifth to four-fiflhs of the crop in many 
vineyards, and discouraged some persons from planting that fine grape. A sudden change of weather 
from hot to cold when the vine is in rapid growth, and the seed in the berries about hardening, is sure 
to produce rot. A free under-drainage — either natural or artificial — and a full exposure to the wind, 
will in part prevent it. No system of pruning or cultivation has yet proved a sufficient remedy in vine- 
yards. Vines trained against the side of a house, and under cover of the eaves, seldom, if ever, rot. 
The disease probably results firom atmosphoric causes, as the rust in wheat. 
21 



clxii INTRODUCTION. 

Insects have not as yet been found very injurious, but the careful vine-dresser will watcb closely, 
and permit none to get colonized in his vineyard. The frost in some localities kills the young shoots 
of the vine in April, or early in May, but the twin or latent bud will put out, and yield about half a 
crop. To prevent serious injury by hail, let the bunches of grapes be well sheltered by the leaves of 
the vine, which will also prove a protection from the hot sun. 

VABIETIES OF GRAPES FOR THE VINEYARD. 

These are now quite numerous, and every year adds more to the list. It will only be necessary 
to name a few of the most popular varieties, and — 

1. Catawba. — Nine-tenths of all our vineyards in the west and southwest are planted with this 
fine grape. With all its liability to rot, it continues a favorite. 

2. Delaware. — This hardy and delicious table grape promises to rival the Catawba for wine. It 
is becoming popular with some of our best cultivators. The wine is light and delicate, and preferred 
to the Catawba by many good judges. The Delaware is less subject to rot than that variety. 

3. Herhemant makes an excellent wine, but the vine is not hardy enough to be much planted. 

4. Norton's Seedling. — A hardy, free-growing vine, but little affected by rot, makes a rich red wine 
like Burgundy, and is becoming quite popular. 

5. Schuylkill. — ^This old favorite of sixty years ago is now but little planted. The wine resembles 
claret when well made, but the vine bears light crops. It is almost free from rot. 

6. Isabella. — ^Another favorite of former years that i« now but little cultivated for wine. It is 
deficient in saccharine matter to make still wine that will keep without adding sugar to the must or 
juice ; but the sparkling wine from it is delicious. 

The Concord, Hartford Prolific, and some of Rogers's hybrids, appear to suit our climate, and to be 
free from disease, but are not yet fairly tested for wine. Grapes of recent introduction in high credit 
for northern cultivation are the lona^ and Adirondack, natives of the State of New York, and the 
Creveling, a native of Pennsylvania. In the south, in addition to the Catawba, the Warren is largely 
cultivated, and the Scuppernong still holds the favorable reputation it acquired sixty years ago. Other 
varieties are being tested which it is unnecessary to enumerate here. The varieties in the vineyards of 
California are said to be foreign or of foreign origin. I have no means of describing or even naming them. 

WINE-MAKING. 

This process is as simple as making cider. The bunches of well-ripened, selected grapes, are 
mashed by passing through a pair of wooden rollers in a small grape-mill, or by a beetle in a barrel; 
then poured into the press and the juice extracted. This "must,*' as it is termed, is put into a 
clean cask to ferment. A few inches of space is left to allow room for fermentation, and a tin siphon 
is placed tight in the bung-hole, with one end in a bucket of water, through which the carbonic acid 
gas escapes, thus preventing a contact with the air from injuring the new wine. In ten days or two 
weeks the fermentation ceases ; then fill up the casks and drive the bungs tight. In March rack off 
the wine into clean casks. A second but slight fermentation will take place in May, when the bungs 
should be loosened until it subsides ; then fill up the casks and tighten the bungs. The wine is now 
made, and in autumn will be fit to bottle. The only art in preserving the wine sound is to keep it 
fi'ee firom the air by filling up the casks and tightening the bungs every two or three weeks. So 
important is this, that in Europe they have a quaint proverb : "A man might as well forget to kiss his 
wife on coming home, as to leave a vacancy in his wine-cask," implying that the omission would turn 
both sour. 

From the refiise grapes, and the last pressing of the good ones» an inferior wine is made by the 
addition of sugar, and sold at half price. The lees of the wine and the pomace of the grapes are dis- 
tilled for brandy, which, in three or four years, compares favorably with foreign. 

The pride of the wine-grower is to make a good natural wine from the pure juice of the grape, 
without the artificial appliances of sugar or spirits. And, if this " must" or juice weighs over 80^ (or 
1.080) by the areometer or saccharine-scale, it will do so ; if not, then loaf sugar, dissolved in water, 



INTRODUCTION. clxiii 

must be added before fermentation. Catawba " must" averages 86^; Isabella, 72°. This is the product 
of the wine farmer who only makes " still wines." 

Sparkling wines are made by the wine merchant or vintner, who purchases the new vsrine before 
its second fermentation, fines and bottles it, and, by placing it in deep, arched sub-cellars, usually 
twenty-five feet under ground, and letting it remain there from fifteen to eighteen months, is enabled 
to prepare it for market, with the fermentating principle so subdued as not to endanger the bursting of 
the bottle. Sirup of rock-candy is added to sweeten it, and sometimes a spoonful of brandy to each 
bottle, to strengthen it. To make this wine right and profitably requires a large capital, and liberal 
outlays in preparation. This showy and popular wine sells for about double the price of still wines. 
The great art in making good vnne is to have the grapes well ripened, and all unripe or imperfect 
berries picked from the bilhch before pressing. The press, casks, and vessels should be perfectly 
clean. Then, with a good cellar, and the casks kept bung-full and tight, there is no danger. The 
grapes are not stemmed, the tannin in the stems beii^ usefiil in clearing the wine. 

To the foregoing views of Mr. Buchanan, we add the following statement of ex-Governor Downey, 
of California, on the culture of the vine in that State : 

" In the tier of counties extending south from Santa Cruz to the Mexican boundary the grain crop 
is precarious, the seasons being uncertain, and the wheat subject to rust. Stock-raising and the culture 
of the vine are the chief employment of the husbandman. The number of vines now bearing in this 
State is about 4,500,000, and, if well attended, these will yield 4,600,000 gallons of wine; the capacity 
of our State for this product is beyond conception. The counties of Los Angeles and San Bernardino 
have* now 2,000,000 vines; with increased supply of water for irrigation, they could be increased 
to 30,000,000. The grape generally cultivated, and as yet the best adapted, is that introduced by the 
Catholic missions. It is the same that is in general use in Spain, Madeira, and the Canary Islimds, 
from which springs Xerez, or Sherry, and Madeira, or Teneriffe, altered somewhat by the change of 
climate and soil. There is less change in the process of wine making than in any other branch of 
modern agriculture, the same old process used hundreds of years since being yet followed by many, 
with as much advantage as by any modem innovation ; and it is as simple as by a cider-mill and press. 
Our vines, up to the present, are free from disease. The average yield of a well-attended vineyard is 
1,000 gallons to the acre, and the vine will bear vigorously until it reaches sixty years of age. One 
hundred acres of vineyard can be planted, the ground prepared, and attended with as little cost as 
the same extent of land planted in tobacco: deep ploughing once or twice, harrowing, and laying 
off the rows six feet apart each way. The cuttings are about two feet long, planted with aid of a crow- 
bar, and from four to six inches left above the surface. The third year will produce, and at the age of 
six years, produce profitably. The first year we irrigate frequently, in order to assist the rooting of 
the vine, and thereafter once or twice annually, according to the soil or relative moisture. I am 
induced to make these lengthy observations on the simplicity of vine culture from the fact that many 
are led to believe, from the dissertations and reports of agricultural societies, that the work of planting 
a vineyard on anything like a large scale must be a Herculean task. They suggest deep spading, 
(three feet,) and various composts, and a thousand and one fertilizers as adjuncts, which may, in their 
localities be necessary, but surely not in California, and it is very doubtful if they are in the vine region 
on the Atlantic side of the continent. Our process of irrigating is a never-failing source of fertility ; 
the salts and earthy matter held in partial solution in running streams, stimulate and enrich the soil, 
and destroy, in a great measure, all insects and larvse. It is this natural irrigation of the valley of the 
Nile that has made it yield its successive crops, from the remotest antiquity, without exhaustion. In 
this connexion, I would suggest to our farmers and gardners in the older States, {hat, when practicable, 
they should have one field at least that could be irrigated." 



clxiv INTRODUCTION. 



INFLUENCE OF RAILROADS UPON AGRICULTURE. 

The first impression made on the popular mind by any great improvement in machinery or loco- 
motion, after the admission of their beneficial effect, is that they will, in some way or other, diminish 
the demand for labor or for other machinery. Hence it was that in Europe the introduction of printing 
was denounced on account of its supposed tendency to diminish the employment of writers or copyists, 
and the associations of individuals against its employment, similar to the opposition subsequently mani- 
fested to the use of labor-saving machinery in manufactures. It was long before this prejudice could 
be overthrown, but the subject is now much better understood. It is now established, as a general 
principle, that machines facilitating labor increase the amount of labor required. This is done chiefly 
by cheapening the products of labor so that more can be consumed, and ultimately more labor employed.- 
The introduction of cotton and wool machinery was followed by outbreaks of workmen against ma- 
chinery ; yet nothing is more certain than that hundreds of thousands of men and women are employed 
in the manufacture of cotton who would not have been if machinery had not cheapened cotton cloth so 
that it could be introduced into general use. So it might be assumed that the introduction of sewing- 
machines would at once throw many sewing women out of employment ; but such is not the &ct. Many 
more sewing women are now employed than there were before the sewing-machine was introduced. 
In the same way the influence of railroads was at first very much misconceived ; even among civil 
engineers the vast power of steam and of cohesion on the tracks were not understood. On the com- 
pletion of the Liverpool and Manchester railway, some of the ablest engineers laid it down as a settled 
principle that railroads would not be able to carry heavy freights, and their business must be confined 
to the carriage of passengers. It was also considered impracticable to ascend over fifty feet per mile 
with ordinary locomotives ; as a consequence of this theory inclined planes were for several years made 
wherever the grade was over fifty feet. If this practice had continued, it must obviously have proved a 
great obstruction to the carriage of heavy freight. Time and inventive genius have happily overcome 
all these difficulties; but still, in this, as in other cases, there was an idea that the transportation of 
agricultural products would result in diminishing the number of horses, wagoners, and steamboats. In- 
deed, this would seem a natural, if not a necessary, effect of transporting immense quantities of agri- 
cultural produce by a machinery which did not before exist The result, however, proves precisely the 
contrary. Horses have multiplied more rapidly since the introduction of locomotives than they did 
before ; and even steamboats, on such rivers as the Ohio and the Mississippi, where the recently con- 
structed railroads have been in direct competition with them, have continued to increase almost without 
interruption. Before we look at the general results of railroads on the agricultural interests, we will 
glance at their incidental connexion with the other means of transportation. Take, for example, the 
increase of horses in connexion with the increase of railroads. 

The following is the number and increase of horses in the last twenty years, including mules and asses: 

No. of hones. Increfue. 

ImSiO 4,335,669 

In 1850 *4,896,050 12 per cent. 

In 1860 *7,400,322 51 per cent. 

Three-fourths of all the miles of railroad have been made since 1850; and we see that since then 
the increase of horses has been the greatest. If we pursue this inquiry a little further, we shall find 
that horses have increased the most in those States in which the greatest extent of railroads has been 
made since 1850. Take, for example, the number of horses employed in agriculture and for other 
purposes in the five great States of the west: 



■■p- 



o Ezcloaive of 1,186,614 not employed ia agricultoro. 



INTRODUCTION. 



clxv 



NujfAer of horses employed in agriculture and for other purposes in the five great Stages of the west : 



States. 



OWo 

IndittDA 

Illinois 

Micliigaii 

Wisconsin 

Aggregate 



1850. 



466,830 

320,898 

278,626 

68,576 

30,335 



1860. 



753,881 
592,069 
724,138 
167,999 
145,584 



Increase, per cent. 



61 

84 

160 

186 

380 



1,155,255 



2,383,671 



106 



In these five States there have been constructed since 1850 nearly nine thousand miles of railroad ; 
and yet there we find this extraordinary increase in the number of horses. We do not present this as 
evidence that the construction of railroads necessarily augments the demand therefor, and therefore 
increases the number of horses, although we have no doubt that such is the case ; but simply to show 
that railroads have not diminished one of the great elements in competing means of transportation. It 
must be recollected that only forty years ago the only means of transporting goods and products between 
the eastern and western States was by wagons, and that the business of transportation in this way was 
as much a business, on relatively as large a scale, as that of transportation by canal and railway is now. 
The first great change in this mode of transportation was by the New York and Pennsylvania canal ; 
but the whole business of the canals in the first years of their introduction was small in comparison wit h 
that of the railroads now. Hence it seemed that railroads must diminish the number and importance 
of horses, but such was not the fact ; and we shall see in this, as in the ease of all animals, that rail- 
roads tend to increase their number and value. This is now an established principle, which we shall 
illustrate in regard to other domestic animals. 

Although but slightly connected with the interests of agriculture, we may here state another fact, 
that since the introduction of railroads, the building and employment of stc imboats on our interior 
rivers have also increased largely, so that, even where railroads have competed v'irectly with them, the 
steamboat interest has continued to increase in value and importance. This has not been always, we 
admit, in direct proportion to the growth of the country, but enough to show that, even where competi- 
tion was greatest, this interest has not been injuriously affected. More than double the number of 
steamers were built on the waters of the interior west in 1861 than were in 1850. 

We advance these facts, not so much to show the direct and positive influence of railroads on agri- 
culture, as to show that there is no interest of agriculture and commerce that railroads have injured, 
even, when upon the most plausible theories, such results were anticipated. 

We now proceed to show the positive advantages which all departments of agriculture have 
derived from the construction of railroads. So great are their benefits that, if the entire cost of 
railroads between the Atlantic and western States had been levied on the farmers of the central 
west, their proprietors could have paid it and been immensely the gainers. This proposition will be- 
come evident if we look at the modes in which railroads have been beneficial, especially in the grain- 
growing States. These modes are, first, in doing what could not have been effected without them ; 
second, in securing to the' producer very nearly the prices of the Atlantic markets, which is greatly in 
advance of what could have been had on his farm; and, third, by thus enabling the producer to dispose 
of his products at the best prices at all times, and to increase rapidly both the settlement and the 
annual production of the interior States. A moment's reference t-o the statistics of internal commerce 
will illustrate these effects so that we can see the vast results which railroads have produced on the 
wealth and production of the country. 

1. If we examine the routes and tonnage of the trade between the Atlantic cities and the central 
western States, we shall find some general results which will prove the utter incapacity of all other 
modes of conveyance to carry on that trarle without the aid of railroads. Between Lake Erie on one 



clxvi INTRODUCTION. 

side acnd the Potomac on the other, the commerce between the east and west is altogether carried on 
by way of several great arteries, which are these, viz : the Erie canal, the Oswego canal, the Champlain 
canal, the Central railroad, the Erie railroad, the Pennsylvania railroad, and the Baltimore and Ohio 
railroad. There are no other great channels of conveyance between the east and the west, and in fact 
no other routes appear practicable. However large an amount of product or merchandise may be carried 
by the lakes, it must be shipped to or from Buffalo, Oswego, or Ogdensburg. However multiplied 
may be the routes by rail or canal, by which products may arrive at Buffalo, Pittsburg, Wheeling, or 
Parkersburg, all the freights carried over them going east must pass over these great routes. We 
have, therefore, the means of determining accurately the relative transportation by different routes and 
modes. The different modes are all reduced to two— canals and railroads. The proportion of tonnage 
on these several lines of conveyance, as reported in 1862, was as follows: 

CANALS. 

Tons. 

Erie canal 2, 500, 762 

Oswego canal 862, 920 

Champlain canal 650, 000 

Aggregate 4, 003, 682 



ac 



But, we must observe that the Oswego canal joins to the Erie canal, and its tonnage, arriving at 
or leaving Albany, is included in that of the Erie canal. In fact, the tonnage of the canals, which is 
counted at Albany, is only that of the Erie and the Champlain, and of the latter but a small portion 
goes to or from the west We have at the utmost, then, the carriage on canals between the Atlantic 
cities and the west of 3,150,000 tons. 

RAILROADS. 

Tons in 18A2. 

Fennsylvania railroad 1, 792, 064 

Erie railroad 1, 632, 955 

New York Oer ral railroad 1, 387, 433 

Baltimore and Ohio (efltimated) 1, 200, 000 

Aggregate tonnage of these lines 6, 018, 452 



We observe that in 1862 the tonnage of the six great arterial lines of transportation between the 
east and west amounted to over nine millions of tons, of which only one-third were carried by water. 
We must recollect that this was the case when the Erie canal of New York had been enlarged and 
refitted with the express purpose of transporting the products of the west, and was supplied with 
five thousand canal-boats. It is evident, therefore, that railroads not only carry two-thirds of the 
freights to and from the west at the present time, but that such is the rapid increase of western pro- 
ducts, and the surplus carried to Atlantic or foreign markets, that the time is near when all that can be 
carried by water will be but a small proportion of the whole. The transportation by wagons is no 
longer possible to carry the surplus products of the interior States to either foreign or domestic markets. 
In fine, in the absence of railways the cultivation of grain beyond the immediate wants of the people 
must cease, or the surplus perish in the fields. Such was exactly the state of things rn the west 
before the general introduction of railroads. The great grain-fields of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and 
beyond the Mississippi, have been mainly cultivated because railroads made their products marketable 
and profitable. In one word, railroads did what could not have been done without them. 

2. Railroads secured to the producer very nearly the prices of the Atlantic markets, which was 
greatly in advance of any price which could possibly be obtained in western markets. It might be 
supposed that if the carriage of a bushel of grain from Sandusky to New York was reduced from forty 
cents a bushel to twenty cents, the gain of twenty cents would inure, in part at least, to the consumer; 
but experience shows this is not the fact. This gain of twenty cents inures to the producer. In proof 



INTRODUCTION. clxvii 

of this it will be sufficient to adduce two or three well-known facts. The prices of flour and meat at 
New York (estimating them at the gold standard) have not been reduced in the least, notwithstanding 
the immense quantities of the products of grain imported into that city. On the other hand, the prices 
at Cincinnati, on the Ohio, have doubled, and in some articles, such as pork, have trebled. The great 
bulk of the gain caused by the cheapness of transportation has gone to the producer. This depends 
on a general principle, which must continue to operate for many years. The older a country is, the 
more civic and the less rural it becomes ; that is, the greater will be the demand for food, and the less 
the production. The competition of the consumer for food is greater than that of the producer for 
price. Hence it is that Europe, an old country, filled with cities, makes a continual demand on this 
country for food. Hence it is that New England and New York, continually filling up with manu- 
facturers, artisans, and cities, must be supplied with increased quantities of food from the interior 
west ; and hence, while this is the case, prices cannot fall in the great markets. Hence it is that the 
cheapening of transportation inures to the benefit of the agricultural producer. New England consumes 
more than a million barrels of western flour. The transportation is cheapened a dollar per barrel . 
and thus, in New England alone, in the single item of flour, a million of dollars, net profit, is put 
into the pockets of the western farmer by the competition of railroads ; for a large portion of this 
flour is carried over the Massachusetts Western railroad. It is entirely true that the manufacturer of 
New England shares, on his side, in the gain of eheap transportation ; but we are here considering 
simply the influence of railroads on agriculture. 

In the western markets the gain to the farmer is palpable in the enhanced prices of every article. 
At Cincinnati, in 1848 and 1849, (which was the beginning of the greatest railroad enterprises,) th« 
average price of hogs was $3 per hundred. In 1860 and 1861 it was double that, and has continued 
to increase. This was a net gain to the farmers of Ohio alone of from three to four millions of dollars. 
In the entire west it was a profit of more than twenty millions on this single animal ; for, if there were 
now no railroads, this product could not be carried to market except on foot, which would take away 
half the value. No further illustration of this point need be made. Take the market prices of New 
York and Boston, on the Atlantic, and of St. Louis and Cincinnati, in the west, at an interval of twenty 
years, and it vrill be seen that the cheap prices of the west have gradually approximated to the high 
prices of the east, and this solely in consequence of cheapening the cost of transportation, which inures 
to the benefit of the farmer. 

3. By thus giving the farmer the benefit of the best markets and the highest prices, railroads have 
increased the agricultural productions of the interior States beyond anything heretofore known in the 
world. We have already shown that this increased production, or rather its surplus, could not have 
been carried to market without the aid of railroads, more than two-thirds of the whole being carried 
oflf by that means. Let us now reverse this operation, and we find, on the other hand, that railroads 
have stimulated and increased production. The northwestern States are those in which the influence 
of railroads on agriculture is most obvious. In the five States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and 
Wisconsin there were comparatively few miles of railroad prior to 1850; but from 1850 to 1860 the 
construction of roads was most rapid. In 1850 there were only 1,275 miles of railroad in those States, 
but in 1860 there were 9,616 miles. Let us now examine the products of those States in 1850 and 
1860, and see how the progress of railroads has sustained and stimulated agricultural production. The 
following table shows the increase of the principal vegetable and animal production in the five States 
of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin in the ten years from 1850 to 1860: 

In 1850. In 1860. Increase per oent. 

Wheat 39, 348, 495 bushels. 79, 798, 163 bushels. 100 

Corn 177,320,441 " 280,268,862 " 58 

Oats 32, 660, 251 " 51, 043, 334 " 60 

Potatoes 13, 417, 896 " 27, 181, 692 " 100 

Cattle 3,438,000 " 5,371,000 " 59 



♦» 



clxvui INTRODUCTION. ^ 

This increase i^ decidedly beyond that of the population ; showing that the products of agriculture 
are, in those States, profitable. The aggregate of grain products in those States was : 

In 1850 •255, 240, 444 busheld. 

In 1860 •422, 369, 719 " 

What part railroads have had in carrying this product to market we shall see byt ascertaining the 
surplus, and the manner in which it was transported. The commissioner of statistics for the State of 
Ohio, in his report to the legislature of Ohio, estimates (in the actual carriage of railroads and canals) 
that three-Jifths of the value of agricultural products of Ohio are exported, excepting, of course, pas- 
turage, fruits, garden products, &c. In 1859-60, twelve millions of bushels of whe^t were exported 
from that State, and an equal proportion of com, reduced into other forms, such as. fat' cattle, hogs, pork, 
lard, whiskey, cheese, &c. Three-fifths of the aggregate grain production of these five States (I860) will 
give two hundred and fifty millions of bushels of grain. This is vastly greater than the whole tonnage 
of canals and railroads, and would, therefore, seem incorrect. This, however, is not so. The heaviest 
article (corn) is reduced to a fourth, perhaps, less weight by being changed into whiskey, pork, and 
cattle. The same is true of oats, and thus the ten millions of tons represented by the canals and rail- 
roads may cover all the surplus which finds the extreme eastern markets. A large quantity of the 
surplus products of these States is consumed in way-markets. We see now, that, since railroads carry 
two-thirds of this immense export, they represent nearly or quite the same proportion of the capacity 
of those States^ raise any surplus, and therefore two-thirds of the profit made upon it. If we now 
consider the question of the profits of agriculture, the case becomes still stronger. The actual cash 
value of the products carried to market from these five States (that is, the surplus) is two hundred 
millions of dollars, and it is safe to say that one-half this sum is due to the influence of railroads. 
There are some interesting facts on this subject, to some of which we will briefly allude. Take, for 
example, the prices of both products and lands in the interior States, and compare them at different 
periods. Forty years ago (1824-'25) the surplus products of Ohio had already accumulated beyond 
the means of transportation. In consequence of this fact, wheat was sold in the interior counties, 
for 37 cents per bushel, and corn at 10 cents. After the New York canal (Erie) was finished, 
in 1825, and the Ohio canals several years later, these prices were raised more than fifty per 
cent. ; but when two or three of the main railroad lines were finished in 1852-53, the rise in prices 
and the amount carried forward to the eastern markets were even more increased. To show, in some 
measure, the effect of the improved means of transportation on the value of produce in the interior, we 
make the following table of prices at Cincinnati at several periods: 

In 18264 In 1835. In 1853. In 1860. 

Flour $3 00 per barrel. (6 00 $5 50 (5 60 

Com 12 per bushel. 32 37 48 

Hogs 2 00percwt 3 12 4 00 6 20 

Lard 05 per pound. 08 08J Oil 

We find that in 1860 the price of flour was nearly double that of 1826 ; the price of corn nearly 
four times as much ; the price of hogs three times as much, and the price of lard double. From 1835 
to I860, (when the railroads were completed,) under the influence of railroad competition with canals 
the price of corn advanced 50 per cent, and that of hogs 100 per cent. Perhaps no articles can be 
selected which furnish a more complete test of the value and profits of farming in the States of the 
northwest than that of these staples, corn and hogs. 

But there is another respect in which the influence of railroads is almost as favorable to agricul- 
ture as that of cheapening the transportation of produce. It is that of cheapening the transportation, 
and therefore reducing the prices of foreign articles and eastern manufactures consumed by the farmers 
of the interior. We need not adduce tables to illustrate this ; for it is quite obvious and well known 

o Includes wheat, rye, ooro, oats, barley, and buckwheat. t Bdward D. Mansfield. 

t The prices of 1826 are from " Drake dt Mansfield's Ciucinnati, 1826.** 



INTRODUCTION. clxix 

that this has been the effect, though perhaps not to so great an extent as the reverse, in the ease 
of produce. In 1839-40 sugar was just the same price as in 1857 and 1858 ; but, the average 
price of coffee from 1833 to 1838 was three cents higher than it was from 1853 to 1860. On the 
whole, the prices of articles carried from the east to the west were diminished, while those from the 
west to the east were increased. Again, the influence of railroads on the value of farming lands is too 
great and striking not to have been noticed by all intelligent persons. We have, however, some 
remarkable instances of the specific effect of certain railroads ; we have, for example, the immediate 
effect produced on the lands of Illinois by the Illinois Central railroad. That company received from 
the government a large body of land at a time when the government could not sell it at a dollar and a 
quarter ($1 25) per acre. Since then the company has constructed its road and sold a large part of 
those lands at an average of $11 per acre, and the greater part of the lands of Illinois is fully worth 
that. Notwithstanding the rapid growth of population, the larger part of this advance is due to rail- 
roads. The following table shows the advance (by the census tables) of the cash value of farms in 
the five States mentioned in the ten years from 1850 to 1860 : 

1850. 1860. 

Ohio $368, 758, 602 $666, 564, 171 

Illinois 96, 133, 290 432, 531, 072 

Indiana 136, 385, 173 344, 902, 776 

Michigan 51, 872, 446 163, 279, 087 

Wisconsin 28, 528, 563 131, 117, 082 

Aggregate 671, 678, 075 1, 738, 394, 188 

Increase in ten (10) years $1, 066, 716, 113 



It is not too much to say that one-half this increase has been caused by railroads, for we expe- 
rience already the impossibility of conveying off the surplus products of the interior with our railroads. 
Putting the increase of value due to railroads at a little more than one-third, we have four hundred 
milhons of dollars added to the cash value of fiirms in these five States by the construction of railroads. 
This feet will be manifest if it is considered that the best lands of Illinois were worth but a dollar and a 
quarter pier acre prior to the construction of railroads, and are now worth twenty dollars. 

We need not pursue this subject further. If the effect on the central western States has been so 
great, it is still greater in the new States which lie beyond the Mississippi. They are still fiirther from 
market, and will be enriched in a greater ratio by the facilities of transportation. Indeed, railroads are 
the only means by which the distant parts of this country could have been commercially united, and 
thus the railroad has become a mighty means of Wealth, Unity, and Stability. 

PRESERVATION OF FOREST TREES. 

We have endeavored to avail ourselves of all proper occasions, to impress upon our generation the 
importance of exercising greater care in the preservation of forest trees. It is lamentable, in view of present 
ruthlessness, and the demands of posterity, to observe the utter disregard manifested by the American 
people, not merely for the preservation of extensive groves, but the indifference which they exhibit for 
valuable trees, the destruetion of which is not necessary to good cultivation, and the existence whereof 
would not only add greatly to the value of their property, but contribute vastly to health, the fertility 
of their farms, and the comfort of their live stock. We have seen thousands of farms rendered less 
productive and of much less intrinsic value by the destruction of timber, especially on their north and 
west boundaries, where they protect from the colds of winter, and others made unhealthy by removing 
the barriers which nature had placed to the encroachments of miasm. 

We remember, upon an occasion of remonstrance with a farmer against destroying a beautiful 

isolated tree in a large field, his foolish reply in extenuation of his labor, that it supplied a resort for 

the blackbirds which destroyed his corn, nor could he be persuaded that its use by the birds which 
22 



clxx INTRODUCTION. 

protected his fields through a long series of years from insect depredators, much more than compensated 
for the few corn-hills torn up by the enemy of the grub-worm, nor dissuaded by the representation 
of its benefits in supplying shade to his cattle. His plea was, that if we had experienced like labor 
with himself in eradicating the original forest, we would not manifest such fondness for trees. Were 
the half of that farm now possessed of so much of its "original forest" as might have been preserved, 
without any restriction of its uses for necessary purposes, it would be worth double the present value 
of his entire estate, while we doubt not that the other half would have yielded more income than he 
has derived from the whole, and have increased in value. No one better understood the importance 
of belts of timber as protection against the inroads of fever, than the judicious and philosophic Dr. 
Benjamin Rush, of Philadelphia, who in 1798 assigns one cause for "the unusually sickly character of 
Philadelphia after the year 1778" to the "meadows being overflowed to the southward of the city, and 
the cutting down by the British army of the trees which formerly sheltered the city from the exha- 
lations of the ground."* 

Dr. Rush refers to the fact of residences in the southern country becoming untenable from like 
causes — the cutting down of groves near dwellings. Through ignorance and want of taste, labor and 
expense are thus misappropriated, producing injurious consequences, not only to the present but to 
future generations. Every well-managed farm should support sufficient timber to admit of an abundant 
present supply for all necessary purposes of fuel, fencing and building, without reducing the quantity 
necessary for like uses by posterity, and by the exercise of discretion the amount of land appropriated 
to this end will be found less than is generally supposed, although, judging from the too general practice! 
it would appear as if we presumed that posterity would have but little use for timber. Apart from the 
increasing value of timber in every section of our country, our farmers do not seem to comprehend that 
they are destroying that which in a little time would prove the most attractive feature of their estates. 
Groves restrain the sweeping winds in winter from divesting the surface of that soft and protecting 
covering and important fertilizer, the snow, the gradual melting of which in spring converts the stones 
into food for plants, while in the summer they supply an invisible but important moisture to the crops, 
and in the heated day enable them to enjoy the full advantage of the dews of night, and supply agree- 
able places of recreation for developing the intellects and bodies of our children, ever associating with 
their minds through life, recollections of pleasures the happiest of their existence, which made home a 
place of joyous contentment. And who that has experienced the pleasure, would exchange it for that 
derivable from other examples of practical operations, the gratification yielded by mature, beautiful 
forest trees which he preserved, protected, and pruned when they were but unseemly shrubs, especially 
when his children and their children derive from them their happiest annual enjoyments ? He whose 
farm is destitute of groves should procure or plant them at once, being encouraged by the fact that 
from the seed, with good attention, he may have nut-bearing chestnut- trees in eight years ; and while 
your houses and barns are failing, these will be improving. But in addition to the luxury, ornament, 
and value of groves, wherever they are cherished with proper attention, they confer a dignity upon 
their possessor and ennoble the pursuit of agriculture. That was a sage injunction of the dying Scotch 
laird to his son : "Jock, when ye hae naething else to do, ye may be aye sticking in a tree; it will be 
growing, Jock, when y're sleeping;" words of wisdom "tauld" him by his father, "sae forty years, 
sin;" but which he regretfully confessed not to have heeded. 

While treating of this subject we cannot refrain from reference to that bad taste, so frequently 
exhibited, of introducing exotics for ornament, or to supply shade, to the neglect of the beautiful native 
forest trees, which are so easy to be obtained by all — not that we have any objection to such, under 
appropriate circumstances, but to adopt them to the exclusion of the more attractive and useful trees 
with which our forests abound, betrays a want of taste as well as deficiency in judgment. 

* Medioal Inquirios and Observations : Philadelphia, 17d9, p. 86. 



INTRODUCTION. clxxi 



*FRUITS, VEGETABLES, AND WOOL OF CALIFORNIA. 



Our orange and lemon crops are becoming of great importance, coming into market or ripening 
when those raised in the tropics are exhausted. The trees of each of these grow as large as they do 
in the tropics; the fruit is as good and as sweet, but the rind thicker. We produce the sugar-cane of 
Louisiana, and it yields profitably ; the Chinese sugar-cane does well, but neither these nor the cotton- 
plant have been cultivated on sufficiently large a scale to enable me to arrive at a conclusion as to their 
real merits as staple products in this region. A convention of stock-raisers, composed of intelligent 
gentlemen, met in San Francisco last year. They inform us, from their best source of information, 
that we have now in the State three millions of homed cattle, a number far beyond the wants of con- 
sumption ; and there being no market open to us beyond the Umits of the State, this branch of industry 
has become profitless and ruinous. The same will apply to horses. We have vast quantities of inferior 
stock which have become a nuisance, and which only serve to destroy pasture that might be profitably 
employed for the maintenance of the Merino sheep. 

The capacity of this State for maintaining a large population in proportion to our entire superfice, is 
not as great as our number of square miles would suggest. There is but a comparative small proportion 
that can be cultivated. This is not owing to any want of fertility, but to the absence of rains in the 
summer, and the scarcity of water for irrigation on a large scale. Our commercial position on the con- 
tinent, our vast mineral resources, and our unsurpassed climate will always guarantee to California a 
respectably numerous, but we need never hope for a dense population, such as will swarm the great 
northwest, " where every rood of land will maintain its man." 

Much will be done to extend the present area of cultivation in the State by means of artesian 
water, damming in the winter to prison the water of mountain streams for summer irrigation, and by 
improved modes of deep ploughing and subsoiling, which will enable the field to absorb and retain 
the winter rains. 

Vegetables of all kinds are produced in great abundance, and the aid of manures is seldom resorted 
to. . In size and yield they surpass those of the older States, but some contend they are deficient in flavor. 
This, I think, a mistake, and may he partially accounted for by early and pleasing impressions of home. 

Our wool clip will claim, in order of importance, the second rank as a product, adding largely to 
the material wealth of the State and nation at large, giving to large numbers pleasing and profitable 
employment, and adding much to our carrying trade. From a few thousand coarse-wooled and inferior 
Mexican sheep, our flocks will now number three millions of improved stock, yielding this year a clip 
approximating to 12,000,000 pounds ; and, at the close of the present decade, it will not be unreasonable 
to expect that California will produce an amount equal to the entire product of this staple in the United 
States in 1860 — say 60,000,000 pounds. We are happy to see that your wise and patriotic suggestions 
in relation to the protection that our wool-growing interests should have and receive are being acted 
^on by Congress. The same rule should apply to the wine-growing interest, and specific, not ad 
valorem, duties should be the rule, so as to prevent fraud both on the producer and the government. 

* Commonicated by Ez-€k>yemor Downey. 



dxxii INTRODUCTION. 



NUMBER OP SLAVEHOLDERS IN THE UNITED STATES. 

The last table in the volume would attach more properly to that on population ; but, not having 
been included there, it is deemed more advisable to incorporate it here than to omit it. 

In examining this table, the conclusion must not be arrived at that the exhibit presents the number 
of people directly interested in slaves. A great majority of the persons represented in the table are 
heads of families, or agents for others having equal interest with themselves. It would probably be a 
safe rule to consider the number of slaveholders to represent the number of families directly interested 
in the slave population in 1860. 



In concluding this introduction, we cannot but allude to the industry and capacity of Mr. James 
S. Wilson, who has been charged with the supervision of the tables following, and to whom we are 
mainly indebted for that accuracy with which they have been prepared. 



I 



AGRICULTURE 



YEAR ENDING JUNE 1, 1860. 



2 



STATE OF ALABAMA. 



AGRICULTURE. 





COUNTIES. 


ACRES OP LAND. 


i 
1 

Cash value of farms. 


Farming implements and ma- 
chinery, value of. 






LIVE STOCK. 








a 
& 

Pi 

a 

M 


.3 

> 

i 

a 


1 


oi 

a 
S 

09 

< 


t 

1 


■ 

s 

a 

o 

fcp 

a 

o 


s 

u 
o 

J3 

o 




1 


Antanira .............. 


131, 7M 

10, 141 

209,150 

74, 705 

40, 943 

99,959 

125,306 

226,163 

106,919 

92,272 

99,429 

56,612 

73,845 

123,231 

29,275 

76,726 

201. 130 
56,218 
56,768 

133, 575 

277,462 

101, 993 

104, 860 

75, 121 

142,726 

139, 446 

120,047 

239,667 

214,509 

244, 821 

38.912 

56,400 

224,419 

10,399 

257,602 

98,408 

82,412 

194,562 

174. 131 
167,085 
100,323 
230,121 

72, 151 

60,460 

189, 014 

153.332 

139,892 

151, 420 

31,467 

16,987 

179, 143 

12,329 


307,385 
73,045 
324,053 
230,542 
152, 087 
306,6^8 
246, 619 
206,279 
218, 234 
258, 903 
446, 169 
213, 181 
173,082 
316, 376 
142, 051 
273,651 
280, 343 
99, 314 
328, 739 
280,543 
282,082 
266,582 
228,582 
216, 547 
201,407 
287,234 
147, 139 
273,238 
192, 734 
334,102 
323, 8G9 
124, 199 
221,073 
130,400 
295,511 
253,367 
158,641 
227,089 
328,873 
354,822 
333,502 
214, 407 
193, 588 
237,725 
208,798 
XI,S59 
310, 014 
469,085 
198,567 
107,552 
337,886 
72,663 


♦2,901,285 

468,090 
4, 960, 812 
1,442,455 

832,500 
2, 950, 744 
2, 709, 394 
3, 035, 933 
2, 979. 265 
2, 746, 506 
3, 255, 548 
1,004,062 
1,045,700 
1, 672, 376 

538,155 
1,431,122 
9,311,714 
1, 100, 609 

rJ9, 641 
4, 096, 733 
9, 176, 802 
2, 154, 860 
3, 121, 085 
1,219,865 
2,996,285 
4,554,063 
3, 592, 495 
9, 040, 470 
6, 078, 806 
10, 291, 862 

729,765 
1,372,766 
5, 825, 099 
1, 186, 763 
9, 883, 964 
2,672,000 
1,441,974 
7, 275, 412 
4, 016, 618 
3, 744, 687 
1, 950, 170 
4, 959, 649 
1, 401, 230 
1,370,662 
5,308,979 
3,256,377 
3,111,205 
6, 925, 157 

613,820 

791,710 
7,311,117 

231,261 


$125,234 

20,495 

181,321 

112,325 

54,835 

101, 432 

150,088 

210, 501 

166,508 

112,246 

143, 281 

41,228 

73, 492 

146, 061 

39,266 

83,868 

245, 541 

74,053 

96,246 

140,228 

259, 471 

99,118 

98,255 

95,261 

91,730 

154, 512 

114, 529 

405, 489 

184,277 

301, 473 

85,834 

71,393 

152, 394 

40,758 

326,229 

144, 549 

77,076 

276,479 

263,403 

165,763 

105,930 

208,958 

82,123 

75,371 

248, 997 

198, 236 

184, 7(M 

260,551 

57, 797 

23,920 

233,165 

21, 184 


1,885 

499 
2,861 
2,267 
1,655 
2,123 
3,139 
3,046 
3,171 
1,925 
2,115 
1,204 
1,183 
2,950 
1,025 
1,828 
2,870 
2,664 
2,356 
3,413 
2,834 
1,718 
4,6€3 
2,409 
2,877 
3,076 
2,961 
3,372 
4,283 
2,870 
2,408 
2,270 
2,609 

962 
3,255 
1,870 
3,040 
2,327 
3,392 
3,216 
2,688 
2,141 
B 037 
2,319 
2,364 
3,210 
3,025 
3,557 
1,468 

685 
2,308 

604 


2,279 

587 

3,521 

1,092 

412 

1,566 

1.975 

2,915 

1,483 

1,657 

1,940 

523 

800 

1,?98 

264 

850 

5,809 

617 

607 

2,088 

5,580 

1,254 

1.007 

1.054. 

2,020 

2,223 

1,820 

4,791 

4,680 

5,522 

562 

815 

4,170 

606 

5,613 

1,777 

1,069 

4,46:} 

3,122 

2,561 

1,177 

3,814 

1,013 

623 

3,945 

2,189 

2,359 

3,958 

327 

507 

4,202 

76 


4,575 
4,381 
6,024 
4,103 
2,186 
4,518 
5,324 
6,073 
4,623 
3,929 
5,485 
4,435 
4.470 
6*rfl 
3,117 
4,850 
5,043 
3,504 
3,617 
4,333 
5,909 
4,561 
4,948 
3,726 
3,197 
3,773 
3,011 
5,417 
4,351 
5,127 
3,653 
3,377 
5,502 
4,040 
5,514 
4,648 
3,028 
4,749 
6,581 
6,367 
5,391 
6,395 
3,406 
3,520 
3,630 
3,857 
5, 762 
7,046 
2,367 
2,090 
5,011 
882 


1,081 

400 
1,289 

585 
],317 
1,736 
2,393 
2,304 
2,090 
1,992 
1,816 

210 
1,143 
2.173 
1,088 
1,028 
1,379 
1,740 
1,755 
1,960 
2,708 
1,384 
2,639 
1,821 
1,341 
1,578 
1,574 
1,907 
2,014 
2,816 
1,635 
1,616 
1,869 

825 
2,048 
1,583 
1,059 
1,525 
2,365 
2,508 
2,793 
1,637 
1,341 
1,789 
2,269 
2,702 
1,449 
3,069 
1,435 

409 
1,843 

486 


8.147 

10.3C0 

12,839 
7,035 
3,956 

10,209 
8,525 
8,252 
7,293 
8.737 

13.416 
9,294 

10,135 

11,239 
5,872 
6,721 
9,972 
6,195 
6,321 
8,089 

12, 284 
7,367 

10,286 
6,220 
4,709 
5,225 
4,426 

13,086 
- 7,673 

14, 571 
5,rJ8 
4,517 

11, 840 
8,228 

12,719 
8,054 
5,945 

10,484 
8,103 

11,785 
7,690 

16,631 
6,894 
5,523 
9,953 
9,162 

10,061 

12,427 
2,971 

11,597 

13,569 
1,S^ 


5,634 
3.099 
6,331 
8,923 
4,689 
7,101 
8,609 
7,764 

11.106 
6,192 
5,305 
3,GB5 
5,613 
6,258 
4,369 
7,872 
9,02J^ 
7,497 
9,849 

10,502 

14,675 

•4,310 

10,919 
5. 965 
6,409 

10,007 
7,890 
6,789 
9.015 

10,085 
5.603 
5,119 
5,821 
5,124 

10,376 
4,750 
6,506 
8.736 
9,969 
5,682 
8,973 
4,106 
4,961 
5,291 

10,243 
8,244 
7,C35 

10,990 
4,290 
1.796 
8,«» 
1,339 


2 


Baldwin 


3 


Barbour 


4 


Bibb 


5 


Blount 


G 


Butler 


7 


Calhoun 


8 


Chamber! 


9 


Cherokee 


10 


Choctaw 


11 


Clarke 


13 


Coffco 


13 


Conecuh 


14 


Coosa 


15 


Covington 


16 


Dale 


17 


Dalian...; 


18 


DoKalb 


19 


Fayette 


20 


Franklin 


21 
* 


Qrecuo 


22 


Henry. 


23 


Jackflon 


24 


Jcffcnon 


25 


Lawrence 


26 


Lauderdale 


27 


Limettono 


S8 


Lowndei 


29 


Bfadlson 


SO 


Marengo 


31 


Marion 


32 


Marshall 


33 


Macon 


34 


Mobile 


35 


Montffomerv ........... 


36 


Monroe 


37 


Morgan 


38 


Perry 


39 


Pickeni 


40 


Pike 


41 


Randolph 


42 


Russell 


43 


Shelby 


44 


St. Clair 


45 


Sumter 


46 


Tallapoosa 


47 


Talladega 


48 


Tuscaloosa 


49 


Walker 


PO 




M 


Wilcox 


52 


Winston 




Total 




6,385,724 


12, 718, 821 


175, 824, 622 


7,433,178 


127,063 


111,687 


230,537 


88.316 


454. 543 


370,156 







STATE OF ALABAMA. 



AGRICULTURE. 



M ■ 1. ■ ■ ■ 

LIVE STOCK. 












PRODUCED. 












i 
1 


o 
o 

1 

► 

o 

> 


•2 

a 


1 


Indian com, bushels 
ot 


1 

■ 1 


o 

s 
o 

oT 


o 

•9 

a 
i 

s 
u 
•§ 


Ginned cotton, bales 
of 400 lbs. each. 


v: 

o 

c 
a 

§ 


Peas and beans, bush- 
els of. 


Irish potatoes, bash- 
els of. 


■a o 

U 

00 




27,483 


$778,906 


10,105 


2,795 


559,521 


7,034 


23,282 


1,052 


17,329 


12,289 


60,608 


6,872 


126,930 


1 


8,861 
55,523 


294, 470 
1, 225, 193 


28 


110 


131 


.167 




6,602 


390 


2,172 


7,244 


2,261 


1,656 


33. 


979 


2 


6,001 


1,585 


909 


973 


15,727 


41, 875 


205 


44, 518 


11,426 


84, 741 


4, 70) 


273 


851 


3 


42, 158 


608,458 


15,393 


745 


411 


130 


7 


,143 


335 


2,475 


8,303 


12,262 


40,368 


4,854 


86 


879 


4 


15, 949 


305,035 


35,286 


305 


294 


702 


7 


,184 


90 


21,990 


1,071 


7,454 


13, 505 


6,978t 


39 


951 


5 


34, 116 


746,735 


1,1(^1 


394 


476 


301 


5 


.6.14 


4,210 


345 


13, 489 


11,449 


26, 291 


579 


124 


391 


6 


36,508 


812, 706 


103, 434 


652 


655 


193 


28 


,049 


400 


4, 785 


11,573 


15,031 


16, 508 


6,311 


90 


850 


7 


46, 374 


1,132,376 


78, 861 


2,143 


793 


466 


44 


,855 


1,005 


70 


24, 589 


10, 849 


25,538 


12,022 


176 


771 


8 


32,620 


739,631 


91,037 


921 


604 


217 


32 


,378 


320 


23,399 


10, 562 


17, 127 


20, 146 


9,665 


79 


823 


9 


29,194 


678.377 


442 


975 


445, 


285 


2 


759 


7,181 


70 


17, 252 


0,950 


24, 878 


6,167 


102 


807 


10 


37,966 


808,820 


70 


714 


516 


355 


2 


045 


10, 195 


15,760 


16,225 


13,390 


18,891 


5,390 


151 


223 


11 


23,859 


392, 032 


533 


70 


257, 


822 


2 


508 


1,721 


229 


5, 294 


3,292 


33,141 


892 


78 


357 


12 


21.996 


458, 986 


823 


685 


302, 


610 


3 


508 


15, 597 


3,280 


6,850 


10,118 


14, 125 


2,222 


72 


370 


13 


35,810 


909,070 


32,079 


1,105 


552, 


928 


19 


189 


9, 9a> 


1. 852 


13, 990 


11,794 


60,066 


16,221 


158 


293 


14 


20,527 


324,362 


350 


229 


148, 


475 


1 


173 


19,849 


1,431 


2, 021 


9,282 


7,761 


261 


55 


459 


15 


34,011 


550,091 


1,278 


650 


341, 


239 


J> 


614 


36,201 


2,206 


7,836 


12, 613 


8,938 


1,839 


100 


,129 


16 


55,145 


1,716,12a 


8,880 


2,617 


1,352, 


961 


10 


496 


21, 673 


2,027 


63,410 


19, 110 


38,753 


8,564 


185 


919 


17 


23,772 


496, 116 


49,436 


869 


451, 


081 


20 


821 


50 


26.664 


1,498 


15, 747 


7, 990 


11,267 


49 


,034 


18 


21,963 


501, 713 


29,483 


292 


338. 


552 


1 


090 


222 


4.151 


5,462 


18,604 


28,689 


2,829 


64 


.103 


19 


31, 861 


838,487 


21,763 


3,774 


764, 


967 


16 


074 


400 


6,801 


15, 592 


21,896 


18,100 


14,000 


£2 


,071 


20 


49, 701 


1, 746, 454 


22,033 


2,725 


1,311, 


535 


17 


743 


ISO 


20 


57,858 


27,568 


60,613 


11,218 


194 


,469 


21 


33,938 


621, 480 


1,790 


1,350 


421, 


618 


4 


241 


9,031 


270 


13, 034 


7,082 


58,930 


3,224 


138 


,025 


22 


27,463 


837,307 


26,458 


788 


1,050, 
586. 


716 


8 


r>\o 




10,207 
9,192 


2,713 


20,323 


12,267 


14,730 


47 


,085 


23 


23,561 


552,095 


51,032 


267 


785 


2, 


787 




4,940 


12, 091 


26, 405 


7,163 


52 


995 


24 


23,919 


768,543 


17, 817 


4,104 


659, 


666 


13, 


:«)i 




247 


15, 434 


12,507 


16,783 


9,515 


29 


967 


25 


24, 101 


845, 171 


38,751 


3,328 


646, 


603 


30 


509 


80 


3, 525 


11,050 


17,354 


15,362 


14,026 


36 


,252 


26 


30,958 


718,902 


20, 317 


4,023 


585, 


785 


9. 


555 


25 


4,372 


15,115 


13,311 


8,458 


10,133 


26 


454 


27 


56,394 


1,661,362 


9,096 


1,563 


1,288, 


722 


45 


122 


16, 743 


28 


53,664 


16, :i27 


24, 767 


13,453 


174 


632 


28 


49, 723 


1, 107, 685 


43, 613 


7,746 


988, 


396 


44, 


587 


260 


6,711 


22, 119 


16,725 


33, 595 


21, 127 


69 


627 


29 


58,457 


1, 699, 142 


4,495 


1,583 


1.384, 


616 


13 


970 


31,689 


200 


62,428 


22,929 


22, 945 


6,014 


208 


a'?6 


30 


20,272 


493,607 


25,224 


^1,190 


359, 


018 


1 


955 


2,070 


12, 900 


4,285 


13,520 


27,602 


4,997 


53 


574 


31 


27,035 


518,027 


20,429 


859 


462, 


446 


6 


780 


120 


3,775 


4,931 


10, 819 


6,155 


9,040 


43 


281 


32 


44,775 


1,291,563 


23,728 


1,679 


972, 


723 


27 


264 


6,355 


60 


41,119 


5,552 


82,661 


11, 895 


241 


610 


;w 


10, 441 


389,430 






70. 


412 


2 


325 


58,439 
5,051 


30 


440 


8,671 


4,755 


15,132 


10 


881 


34 


63,134 


1, 748, 273 


6,317 


1,202 


1,586 


480 


• 
33 


476 


476 


58,880 


18, 448 


32, 206 


11,839 


23 


394 


35 


30,661 


673,257 


277 


400 


496, 


455 




818 


8,111 


40 


18,226 


9,190 


23,226 


3,556 


118 


017 


36 


25,628 


546, 110 


16, 240 


1,422 


447, 


851 


6 


885 


1,440 


7,145 


6,326 


13, 695 


14,892 


9,930 


36 


686 


37 


41,767 


1, 305, 872 


12,540 


1,012 


1,074 


257 


16 


239 


8,580 


605 


44,603 


17, 124 


16, 314 


4,458 


179 


145 


:» 


48,289 


1, 229, 332 


36,907 


1,275 


884, 


229 


1, 


283 






29,843 


16,594 


41, 970 


4,593 


166 


204 


39 


55.156 


1, 133, 938 


3,153 


960 


823 


752 


13 


,199 


25,150 


185 


24,527 


8,730 


79,493 


4,143 


243 


079 


40 


37, 596 


679,785 


a^oso 


759 


560, 


133 


24 


,973 


3,031 


18, 391 


6,427 


16,671 


24,054. 


7,183 


114 


802 


41 


37.877 


964,095 


18,911 


6G0 


77G 


9."»5 


22 


087 


4,140 


1,275 


38,728 


7,510 


69.361 


8,417 


227 


303 


42 


23,785 


442,289 


37, 448 


1,283 


378 


660 


11 


854 


300 


2,574 


6,463 


8,258 


15, 142 


10, 742 


56 


,913 


43 


22.887 


306,026 


38,660 


461 


371 


527 


4 


294 


6 


9,821 


4,189 


9,757 


7,020 


5,544 


45 


,924 


44 


42,303 


1,181,240 
983,087 


8,802 
59,031 


1,944 
563 


996 
635 


490 
220 


10 
10 


,409 
,835 


1,460 
492 




36,584 
17, 399 


20,215 
14,889 


42, 699 
46,465 


10,398 
4,724 


122 
125 


559 
,144 


45 


41,684 


2. 844 


46 


38,832 


929,590 


81, 559 


2,465 


755 


173 


61 


,082 


62 


2,578 


18, 243 


12,660 


27,008 


11,973 


89 


,954 


47 


37,289 


1,716,130 


25,458 


3,019 


859 


,928 


24 


.480 


36,899 


1,941 


26,035 


19,076 


43,965 


12,775 


IJSD 


,271 


48 


17,325 


292,831 


12,085 


095 


249 


274 


1 


,051 


74 


6,631 


2.766 


7,889 


16, 493 


2,447 


38 


,415 


49 


15,314 
46,326 


295,576 
1 303.368 






132 
1 Oil 


,745 

359 








3,449 

48, 749 


2,020 
16, 249 


770 
20,088 




42 
206 


,106 


50 


3 278 


727 


9,081 
483 


71 534 




9,378 


51 


6,031 


111,790 


3, 529 


709 


88 


,808 


637 


7,629 


352 


2,836 


7,954 


3,385 


15 


,090 


52 


1,748,321 


43,411,711 


1.218,444 


72, 457 


33,226,282 


082. 179 


493, 465 


232,914 


980,955 


775.117 


l,48i2,036 


491,646 


5, 439, 917 





STATK OF ALABAMA. 



AGRICULTURE. 



1 

2 
3 

4 
5 
G 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
IG 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
3G 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
40 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 



COUNTIES. 



Atttanga 

Baldwin , 

Darbour 

Bibb 

Bloant gi 

Batler 

Calhoun 

Chambers 

Cherokee 

Choctaw 

Clarko 

Coffee , 

Conecuh 

Coosa 

Covington — 

Dale 

Dallas 

DoKalb 

Fayette 

Franklin .... 

Greene 

Henry 

Jackson 

Jefferson 

Lawrence .... 
Lauderdale... 

Limestone 

Lowndes 

Madison 

Marengo 

Marion 

Marshall 

Mncou 

Mobile 

Montgomery.. 

Monroe 

Morgan 

Perry 

Pickens 

Pike 

Randolph 

Russell 

Shelby 

St. Clair 

Suiuter 

Tallapoosa . . . 

Talladega 

Tuscaloosa . . . 

Walker 

Washington . . 

Wilcox 

Winston 



Total. 



1 



240 



410 
102 
103 



150 

123 

57 

40 



GO 

13 

632 

12 



lOG 
14 
20 
18 

140 
15 

201 



68 



14 
2G0 



105 
30 



148 



1, 
2, 



134 



753 

824 

15 

13 

256 

118 

71 



3» 



355 

31 

383 

104 

36 



3, 



026 
20 



15,135 



PRODUCED. 






C9 o 

M 

a 
P 



246 



58 

309 

C6 



30 



16 



150 



20 
175 



11 
15 



147 
o 

35 



52 
5 



1,347 



p 

I 



1 

.a 
O 



9i 

a 

-a 



$16, 598 

3,929 

6,055 

8,a'J3 

3,835 

875 

130 

16,805 

1,031 

5,658 

70 



3,979 

19, 574 

97 

6,337 

1,253 

588 

3, 5o3 

649 

4,925 

100 

393 

2,915 

200 

3,944 

500 

24 

2,102 

2,427 

1,190 

707 

140 

11,755 

3,999 

60 

2,312 

576 

100 

11,423 

10,258 

6, 600 

9,787 

4,219 



725 



169 



26,344 
374 



12,577 
2,568 



223,312 



a 

o 



1,114 

104 

705 

11 



15 

8 

281 

237 

544 

42 

10 

281 

232 



2,308 



10 

122 

1,090 

227 

12 



148 
106 
299 
472 
124 
60 



665 

560 

319 

143 

231 

529 

343 

10 

71 

963 

42 



1,124 
29 
20 

1,341 



2,311 
714 



18.267 

f 






$8,620 

11,330 

1,915 

12 

100 



11 



58 



10 



50 
950 
150 



o •; 



1,520 



165 
550 
100 



100 

16,725 

400 



1,898 



30 

392 

89,255 

16,464 



2,152 



35 
2,457 

4,880 
330 



150 



480 



75 
698 



163,062 



o 



a 

O 



a 



109,239 

20,394 
121,935 

79,328 
102.490 

92, 543 
187, 012 
223,590 
153, 196 

59,989 

67,529 

38,995 

46, 181 
122, 494 

34, 111 

59,068 
136,636 

91,637 
128,779 
169, 851 
151, 520 

65,644 
141,914 
147, 447 

85, 948 
102,881 

93, 5a'J 
126, 520 
170, 114 
162,827 
168,302 

99,032 
155,232 

12,064 
163, 798 

51, 472 
100,199 
148, 932 
157,503 
130,026 
222,375 
138, 915 
116,947 
144, 132 
115, 431 
132, 175 
187,921 
284,758 

46, 515 

23,555 
109,362 

16, 511 



6,028,478 



s 

o 
p* 

s 
s 

o 



471 

615 

110 

5 

30 



82 
1,055 
1,536 



1,000 
500 

2,623 
490 
100 



1,391 
332 



100 

891 

1.037 



130 
142 



60 
187 
647 
113 



388 

400 

50 

110 



315 



240 



453 

170 



100 
50 



15,923 



9 

m 
O 







o 

OB 

I 









a 

o 



619 

19 

1,141 

11 



65 

2 

51 

1,011 

842 



21 
90 



4,839 

237 

1,970 

68 

2,753 

4 



2,483 
2,379 
3,222 
5,539 
5,641 
2,491 
1,028 

288 
2,612 
1,036 

469 

16 

1,001 

48 

1,405 



1 

7,545 

1.962 

3 

130 

2,723 

33 

4,818 

1 



1,439 



10 
24 



8 
7 



55 
4 



75 



40 



62, 211 



244 



7 

6 

3 
23 

7 



30 

20 
240 

41 



84 



88 
13 

8 
90 

1 
SO 

2 
10 



630 



§ 

o 
p* 

i 

o 



6 

25 

5 
5 



18 
11 



10 
38 

16 
15 



10 
12 



15 
807 



5 
1 

507 



STATE OF ALABAMA. 



AGRICULTURE. 



PRODUCKD. 



HEMP. 



a 
S 



a 
o 

•J 

« *J 

u 

CI 






.a 





O 




.3 




a 







,3 


ta 


a 


<M 


© 


o 


o 


6 


^ 


(a< 


(a< 


•s 




rf . 


>r 


g 


^ 

»fc 


ocoon 

of. 


a 




OD 


u 


o 


» 


H 

C] 


^ 


e9 


z 


fa 


CO 


» 



- o 

I- o 

eS O. 



•a 



00 



o 



33 
12 



30 



20 



20 



25 



15 



111 



5 



315 



12 



122 



53 



1 
150 



1 
44 



20 



40 



68 



315 



228 



11 






61 
13, 8C5 



4,060 
460 

3,846 

100 

936 

96 

860 

3, 483 
940 
126 

2,630 
17, 273 



1,893 



23,634 
2,067 



245 

235 

40 



783 



80 
SCO 

5,418 



385 
565 

1,851 



400 



85,115 



Si 

a 

to 

ll 



s 



35 



3,347 



222 

170 



16,941 

233 

1,449 



694 
5,280 
1,061 



6,213 



2,867 
9,919 



236 



625 
80 
865 
140 
437 
622 
398 
1,480 



2,539 



55,653 



o 
en 

•a 

a 

a 

v< 

o 



2,000 

320 

3,016 

2,611 

746 

1,201 

843 

2,066 

731 

783 

5,964 

555 

2,353 

3,434 

1,475 

1,634 

1,511 

767 

2,280 

576 

1,577 

1,603 

3,392 

2,047 

557 

435 

688 

2,284 

1,962 

3,353 

1,763 

663 

823 

109 

949 

3,607 

1,100 

2,987 

1,760 

1,891 

2,903 

1,166 

13,000 

1,085 

1,408 

2,647 

720 

5,313 

1,025 

20 

2,939 

285 



9 

o 



a 
o 



23, 799 

6,730 
38,266 
30,502 

8,000 
14,836 
18, 628 
59, 449 
12,302 
17,406 
65,881 

8,022 
25,313 
43, 619 
14, 830 
16,670 
20,022 

9,969 
29.229 
13,853 
15,683 
30,875 
43, 190 
20,413 

8,092 

8,415 

6,313 
28,855 
22,341 
28,483 
24,275 
11,282 
92,719 

6,220 
10,662 
29,115 
13, 246 
35,931 
31, 196 
40, 816 
30,650 
21,015 
18,501 
10,128 
18,764 
56,345 

7,824 

52,099 

12, 142 

100 

31,169 

3.048 



100,987 



47,233 






t -a 

2 > 
^ 2 



$47, 784 

1,537 
18,415 
35, 618 
30,280 
21,214 
59,202 

9,204 
65,596 
10, 619 
26, 362 
26,236 
59,085 
62,884 
35,458 
70, 824 

8,372 
85,433 
93,100 
76,502 
12, 894 
24,892 
85,995 
51,155 
18,263 
22,833 
16,551 

6,709 
65,305 
42,251 
45, 862 
44,279 
11,333 



9,997 
28,483 
25,923 

6,845 
18, 391 
71,320 
86,3:» 

4,754 
36,293 
37,912 
13,265 
51,621 
23,327 
37,706 
32,983 



25.344 
14. 970 



1, 817, 520 



o 
a 



■a 

•i 

s 
•a 

< 



$190,636 
41,326 
300,878 
164, 367 
79,759 
172,943 
220, 382 
308,711 
188, 137 
127,921 
145, 588 
104, 482 
107, 213 
248,214 
96,922 
169, 395 
332,596 
126,659 
130, 270 
259,303 
324,828 
B17, 648 
220,584 
130,861 
160,823 
164, 482 
173. 593 
319, 844 
222, 761 
368,051 
133,406 
125,124 
269,665 
285,743 
336,915 
148, 380 
131,271 
29.1,614 
315, 826 
303, 472 
199, 149 
237,360 
137,582 
130,327 
265, 522 
226,291 
243,906 
256,599 
74,122 
39,579 
232, 417 
33,678 



1 
9 
3 

4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 



10, 237, 131 



6 



STATE 0"F ARKANSAS. 



AGRICULTURE. 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

J2 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 
iv> 

23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
2d 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
36 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
5J 






5:3 

54 



COUNTIES. 



ArkanBas 

Ashley 

Benton 

Bradley 

Calhoun 

Carroll 

Chicot 

Clark 

ColambLa 

Conway 

Crawford 

Crittenden . . . . 

Craighead 

Dallas 

Dcisha 

Drew 

Franklin 

Pulton 

Grecno 

Hempstead . . . 
Hot Spring... 
Independence 

Izard 

JeflFereon 

Johnson 

Jackson 

Lafayette . . . . 

Lawrenco 

Madison 

Marion 

Mississippi 

Monroe 

Montgomery.. 

Newton 

Ouachita 

Perry 

Phillips 

Piko 

Poinsett 

Polk 

Pope 

Prairio 

Pulaski 

Randolph .... 

Saline 

St. Francis . . . 

Scott 

Searcy 

Sebastian .... 

Sevier 

Union 

Van Burcn 

Wanhington . . . 

White 

Yell 



ACRES OP LAND. 



Total. 



o 



45,493 

44,225 

41,183 
46, QOG 
19,641 
39,742 
66, 423 
37, 564 
87, 416 
21,717 
21,568 
19,897 
8, 879 
50, 786 
42, 261 
44, 808 
33,033 
15,065 
14,908 
65,548 
25,400 
51,769 
28,945 
65,387 
32, 569 
40, 597 
47, 390 
44, 795 
34,558 
19, 436 
17,584 
25,2frl 
15,703 
11, 597 
74,000 
8,735 
83, 737 
14,289 
15,478 
13, 807 
35, 577 
35, 704 
35, 926 
22,517 
28,629 
38,730 
18,871 
18, 765 
25,767 
49, 910 
101, 421 
15, 759 
59,379 
30, 692 
27, 427 



B 

i" 
> 

o 
u 



u> 



288,767 
209,953 
150, 019 
208,115 
52, 895 
69,6->4 
155, 071 
161, 270 
332, 785 
121,010 
40, 252 
88,011 
33,6:31 
201, 105 
125, 800 
320,868 
89, 0,'J9 
91,023 
90,815 
211,138 
139, 091 
183, 946 
118,932 i 
230, 8,33 
118, 875 
108, 028 
137, 905 
177, 199 
63,187 
55, 205 
165, 002 
94, 343 
18,019 
19,351 
260,631 
42,974 
270, 374 
63,605 
75,032 
19. 342 
80, 279 
163, 185 
148, 520 
136,927 
123,363 
193,000 
09,230 
29,550 
120,407 
236, 511 
306, 557 
81,711 
174, 803 
134, 117 
134, 097 



•a 

I 



♦5, 498, 395 

2, 532, 350 

1,411,920 

2, 084, 198 

499, 136 

836, 970 

4, 399, 554 

1, 254, 607 

2,041,073 

923,263 

615,073 

2, 408, 415 

268,982 

1,530,234 

4, 098, 240 

1, 002, 123 

1, 030, 882 
466, 340 
575, 574 

3.029,418 
797, 525 

1, 695, 951 
750, 070 

6, 952, 596 
947, 405 

2, 063, 231 

2, 356, 283 
1, 089, 470 

757, 783 
462, 9:6 
1,741,201 
1, 458, 212 
291, 250 
190, 491 
1,988,237 
422,441* 
8, 037, 263 
4.39, 436 
912, 217 
297, 360 
1, 032, 383 
2,051,830 
3, 301, 692 
711,021 
690,206 
2, 498, 918 
520, 782 
318, 198* 
956,008 
2, 284. 692 
2, 089, 904 
506, 1'17 
2, 010, 927 
1, 193, 912 
1, 201, 951 



B 

s > 

— a 






$175, 999 
126,402 
70,544 
109, 668 
30,647 
62,775 
234,555 
65, 452 
156, 534 
33, 470 
50,663 
51, 871 
16,589 
75,500 
123,064 
67,024 
42,288 
25,203 
45,666 
156, 522 
64,013 
107, 267 
32,496 
276, 942 
155,482" 
93, 719 
70, 945 
72, 014 
59, 917 
33,379 
22,829 
54,438 
30,6:15 
17,202 
102,852 
24, 518 
169, 685 
35,032 
40,279 
28,554 
67,086 
53,992 
105,600 
24, 187 
54,153 
82,091 
41,763 
26,610 
49,509 
107, 022 
136, 719 
34, 006 
123, 783 
30, 814 
19, 692 



LIVE STOCK. 






1,586 
1,411 
3,205 
1,460 

598 
3,746 
1,148 
2,114 
1,911 
1,990 
2,110 
1,205 

566 
1,158 
1,017 
1,606 
2,492 
1,295 
1,564 
2,738 
40,032 
3,546 
2,069 
2,096 
2,420 
2,077 
1,094 
3,056 
3,109 
1,953 

810 
1,088 
1,067 
1,265 
1,637 

847 
2,120 
1,005 

724 
1,089 
2,559 
1,561 
2,099 
2,180 
1,452 
2,258 
1, 952 
1,353 
2,022 
2,396 
1,707 
1,6-22 
5,084 
1,734 
2,195 



of 

B 

3 

s 

OQ 

< 



1,079 

1,042 
625 
679 
279 
579 

2,890 
726 

1,688 
443 
637 
803 
83 
811 

1,257 

2, 401 
660 
241 
268 

1,549 

13,428 

690 

377 

2,117 
593 
913 

1,447 
415 
673 
264 
501 
685 
163 
120 

1,175 
141 

2,897 
137 
416 
186 
577 
745 
943 
241 
475 

1,093 
322 
214 
435 

1,128 

1,790 
222 

1,329 
657 
504 



o 

V 



4,701 
3,036 
3,391 
3,394 
1,356 
3,867 
2,169 
3,349 
4,210 
2,907 
2,042 
2,849 
873 
2,434 
2,542 
3,102 
3,027 
l.-'iOO 
2,407 
5,114 
12,262 
4,840 
3,032 
3,539 
3,019 
4,442 
3,054 
4,178 
2,828 
2,362 
2,319 
1,819 
1,855 
1,079 
3,046 
1,324 
4,586 
1,485 
1,334 
1,532 
3,545 
2,788 
3,832 
2,762 
2,596 
3,657 
2,386 
1,679 
3,537 
5,213 
3,844 
2,320 
4,395 
2,994 
3,230 



9 

8 



o 



1,001 
1,420 
1,748 
1,594 
566 
2,937 
1,185 
1,4.34 
1,524 
1,240 
732 
633 
392 
1,011 
830 
1,377 
1,318 
965 
1,335 
2,004 
8,498 
2,117 
1,669 
1,687 
1,792 
1,311 
1,370 
1,990 
1,774 
1,452 
634 
837 
932 
895 
1,358 
515 
1,768 
612 
6-26 
744 
1,511 
1,255 
1,308 
1,414 
1,130 
1,423 
1,042 
1,219 
1,308 
1,648 
1,694 
1,454 
1,655 
1, 193 
1,456 



C3 



11,050 

6,266 

4,883 

6,164 

2,064 

5.656 

5,682 

6.564 

7,793 

6,349 

3,268 

8.543 

1,892 

3,508 

5.446 

6,931 

6.534 

3,482 

4,923 

9,089 

11,383 

10.581 

4,327 

6,984 

5,895 

8,577 

5.921 

9,296 

4,215 

4.662 

5,081 

3,873 

3,508 

1,725 

5,784 

2,874 

9,530 

2,671 

2,891 

2,929 

4,744 

6,755 

8,852 

6,537 

4,075 

7,117 

3,074 

3,257 

4,457 

10. 182 

6,691 

4.675 

7,515 

6,506 

4.829 



1,983,313 



7,590.393 I 91,649,773 



4,175,326 



140. 198 



57.358 



171,003 



78, 707 



318, 089 



9 
o 
.a 

OQ 



1,816 
2,406 
10,410 
4,345 
1,481 
7,494 
2,037 
3,992 
5,GG2 
4.227 
2,702 

631 
1.040 
3,784 
1,049 
3,1«8 
3,858 
2,212 
3,023 
7,437 
3,698 
7,888 
4.688 
2,970 
4,845 
1,697 
1,773 
7.884 
7,100 
4,304 

731 

997 
2.103 
1,844 
5,471 
1,02B 
2,873 
2,475 

929 
2,008 
5.177 
2,375 
2,755 
3»e78 
2,675 
2,383 
2,157 
4.300 
3.114 
4,937 
7,698 
2,964 
11,115 
3,281 
3,010 

209^753 



STATE OF ARKANSAS. 



AGRICULTURE. 



LIVE STOCK. 



s 

CO 



19,834 
18,006 
22,044 
23,175 
10, 315 
27,409 
10,OC9 
29,C80 
31,069 
22,069 
12,015 
IC, 175 

7,467 
21,454 
11,757 
18,681 
28,124 
11,345 
20,821 
38,842 
29,349 
31, 610 
17, 425 
21,657 
28,523 
28,621 
20,158 
34,748 
21,834 
16,782 
18,293 
16,353 
10,539 

9,894 
25,099 
10,258 
28,870 
11,031 
13,591 
10, 125 
25, 381 
20,987 
25,008 
21,992 
16,805 
26,920 
23,282 
14,906 
26,550 
31, 949 
31,663 
14,652 
33,556 
21,403 
31,415 



1, 171, 630 



o 

e 
a 

•a 

► 

M 
o 

2 

aa 
> 



$632 
446, 
494 
395 
163 
606. 
572, 
461 
615 
336 
297 
333 
108 
348 
403 
447, 
402, 
201 
311 
775, 
313 
620, 
339 
658 
444 
475 
461 
574 
408 
291 
265, 
302 
202, 
171 
453, 
145, 
780, 
193 
212, 
189 
433 
334 
432 
390, 
315, 
570, 
2a3, 
239, 
339, 

, 548 
608 
274 
747, 
345 
375 



069 
241 
380 
306 
542 
162 
910 
429 
518 
848 
229 
843 
099 
141 
250 
800 
743 
431 
609 
743 
248 
398 
969 
332 
800 
297 
447 
328 
271 
258 
395 
406 
406 
739 
696 
484 
682 
480 
315 
152 
063 
467 
798 
623 
245 
183 
432 
008 
008 
433 
205 
913 
078 
628 
832 



PRODUCED. 



•s 






1 

2 
76, 
16, 

1 
52, 

B, 
26 
11 
22, 

1 

3, 
16 

1 
11 
23 
19, 
12, 
19 
17 
52, 
29 

3 
23 

1 

3, 
36 
33 
36 

1 

9, 

8, 

7, 

3 

13 

3, 

2 

7 

24 

8 

4 

14 

18 

11 

13 

16 

27 

19 

8 

122, 

24 

12, 



353 
174 
791 
825 
840 
110 
50 
405 
182 
643 
452 
7&-> 
700 
247 
091 
479 
157 
840 
033 
933 
082 
650 
462 
3(>i 
202 
344 
059 
64L 
038 
506 
105 
446 
103 
716 
21X1 
lOA 
572 
710 
316 
104 
392 
828 
214 
513 
963 
803 
495 
990 

exj 

918 
354 
331 
644 
114 
935 



22,096,977 



957, GOl 



o 

o 

Pi 



107 

173 

6,356 

663 

41 

19,960 



219 

1,944 

866 

481 

25 

89 

1,341 



1,251 
1,349 

484 

94 

1,656 

696 
1,259 
1,418 

157 
1,079 

211 

108 

257 
4,499 
3,065 

120 



205 

1,401 

603 

85 

1,265 

162 

50 

236 

857 

715 

409 

147 

416 

515 

1,106 

1,787 

989 

1,039 

8,633 

571 

6,434 

333 

166 



o 

•a 
9 

.a 



o 



364,632 
282,559 
426, 495 
304, 172 
139, 475 
531,669 
329, 941 
360,797 
456, 360 
265,119 
238,380 
211,700 

91,375 
287, 691 
239,923 
317, 287 
401, 995 
234,288 
287,090 
563,093 
272,385 
604,470 
305, 072 
490,765 
387,293 
332,165 
310, 430 
480,266 
439,663 
292,158 
282,450 
189, 988 
179, 642 
193, 157 
418,886 

68,295 
578, 137 
145,800 
114,480 
150,540 
361,1% 
272,405 
385, 710 
302,716 
301,309 
359, 697 
240. 810 
294, 115 
248,538 
430, 990 
452, 553 
274,094 
663,540 
300,102 
285,730 






O 



l.KJO 
2,380 

35.449 
3,029 
1,083 

39,630 



2, 44 4 

11,622 

3,858 

12,000 

150 

1,083 

1,939 

325 

2,052 

14, 252 

4,408 

917 

19,658 

5,557 

22,969 

12, 975 

1,585 

21,358 

820 

742 

9,431 

15, 429 

13,825 



320 

5,138 

6,050 

3,815 

2,513 

2,ro 

1,744 

150 

2,011 

8,445 

7,504 

4,262 

2,544 

2,730 

2,598 

8,213 

9,463 

8,132 

11, 518 

9,890 

4,747 

85,148 

10,837 

11,921 



•3 

a 



o 
© 



825 



9,000 
360 
555 



1,050 



250 

47 

100 



2,980 
10 



75 



15 



205 



40 



170 

6 

450 



10 



218 



12 



150 
303 



78,092 



17,823,588 



475,268 



16,631 



a 
o 



cd 

O 



545 

59 

37,725 

2,208 

70 
27,750 



2,279 

1,605 

34,917 

2,040 



1,343 
335 



7,740 

9,115 

41, 750 

144, 767 

1,019 

14, 515 

85,990 

199,774 

2,027 

30,306 

8 

2.50 

27,500 

39,870 

35,967 

500 

1, 245 

8,576 

17,452 

10 

1,080 

1,084 

5,634 

4,583 

12,558 

17,420 

4,344 

3,904 

45,930 

6,288 

10, 470 

2,510 

4^160 

6,575 

7,768 

50 

5,170 

43,123 

16,335 

11,146 



c 

o a 



a «2 



20, 178 
9,435 



7,921 

3,672 

7 

40, 948 

7,203 

13,911 

3,181 

108 

4, 075 

318 

9,229 

12, 261 

9,204 



2, *■• 



• 3 

275 

16,548 

1,793 

2,120 

184 

28,586 

1,560 

10, 483 

17,653 

770 

1 

21,063 

1,244 

7,137 

302 

6 

10,276 

26,91»3 

932 

2,577 

90 

3,723 

6,495 

11, 157 

6<i7 

2,562 

9,275 

400 

9 

136 

10,897 

17, 261 

220 

15 

4,071 

3,708 



989,980 



367,393 



•9 

a 

S! 
O 

P4 



o 
o 



3,028 
4,529 

17, 149 
9,148 
4,391 

18, 640 
4,701 
7, 552 

10,902 
8,725 
5,473 
4C7 
1,911 
5,985 
2,302 
5,576 
9,568 
6,343 
5,731 

15, 174 
6, 157 

19,656 

10,239 
9, 130 

10, 318 

613 

2,415 

17,808 

14,338 
8,787 
870 
1,028 
4,977 
4,958 
4,461 
2,138 
4, 680 
6,.107 
1,012 
4,399 

12,305 
4, 389 
7,294 
7,446 
4,847 
4,535 
5,066 
8,596 
4,906 

10,560 

17,031 
5,760 

23,295 
5,656 
7,301 



m 



3 



•3 



ij 



9 



16,489 

21,5-n 

146 

37,767 

993 

92 

4,633 

9, 3G4 

42, 324 

5.644 

200 

1,854 

700 

8,665 

9,806 

21,844 

6,310 

2, 931 

1,320 

26,466 

13,499 

6,196 

1,768 

13, 857 

3,514 

529 

2, 655 

54 

1,970 

3,834 

1,175 

10, 120 

1,652 

235 

10,299 

5,192 

23,457 

312 

4,145 

3,527 

3, 824 
12,200 

3, 528 

874 

3,134 

15,301 

660 

192 

320 

7,507 

40,625 

2,783 

533 

16, 743 

5,016 



m 

I "^ 

■♦- •— ' 
o « 

p. 

.C3 

us 



11,084 
8,213 

10,858 
7,029 
1,552 

12,069 

11,430 
6,811 
7,026 
8,639 
7, 214 
5,123 
2,239 
2,997 
5,575 
7,405 

13, 709 
6,003 
7,519 
9,281 
5,888 

16, 978 
7, 031 

14, 145 

11,535 
2,677 
2,651 
4.346; 

13, (Ml 
7,730 
6,404 
5,828 
4,856 
3,393 
2,031 
4,007 

11,070 
2,993 
4,286 
6,538 

11,357 
8,929 

15,337 
3,239 
3,908 

11,264 
3,619 
5,063 
7,377 
7,233 
8,503 
6,953 

18,030 
9,913 
8,076 



410,382 



440, 472 



418, 010 



.a 

M 

« - 

a- 

o 
CO 



44, 919 
67,893 
10, 437 
77,400 
23, 312 
14,635 
43, 076 
47, 083 
116,771 
16, 912 
12, 908 

7,181 

7,204 
59, 997 
24, 021 
75,232 
16,760 

7,404 
19,000 
61,199 
33,273 
29,300 
13, 435 
53,349 
18,302 

4,999 
32,60-4 
13, 935 

8,265 

3,900 

6,580 
22,315 
12, 915 

3, 551 
35, 897 
10,515 
40,593 
12, 157 
15, 998 
15,094 
20,035 
35,288 
32, 485 

4,066 
40,982 
36, 727 
13,037 

7,550 

13,800 

50,212 

106,011 

6,367 
12,635 
24,644 
21, 384 



1 
o 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

U 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 






23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
3d 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 



1,566,540 



8 



STATE OF ARKANSAS. 



AGRICULTURE. 



T- 



1 

2 
3 

4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
AG 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 



COUNTIES. 



Arkanwig 

Ashley 

Benton 

Bradley 

Calhoun . 

CarrolV 

Chicot , 

Clark 

Columbia 

Conway 

Crawford 

Crittenden 

Craighead 

Dallas 

Desha 

Drew 

Franklin 

Fulton 

Groeno 

Hempstead . . . 
Hot Spring... 
Independence. 

Izard 

Jefferson 

Johnson . 

Jackson 

Lafayette . . . . 
Lawrence . ?. . 

Madison 

Marion 

Mississippi 

31onroo 

Montgomery . . 

Newton 

Ouachita' . . . . 

Perry 

Phillips 

Pike 

Poinsett 

Polk 

Pope 

Prairie 

Pulaski 

Bandolph .... 

Salino 

St. Francis... 

Scott 

Searcy 

Sebastian . . . . 

Sevier 

Union 

Van Burcn . . . 
Washington . . 

White 

YcU... .*:.... 



Total. 



PRODUCED. 



•s 

>-• 

St 



10 



30 
50 



840 
200 



56 
45 



40 



301 



75 
230 



15 
50 



24 



41 



5 



33 

60 



150 
130 
103 



357 
15 



213 

30 



3,158 



.a 






110 



125 



51 

58 

5 



1 
23 



10 

4 



11 
20 



3 
75 



509 



o 

a 

o 

P 



$595 

4,750 

440 

050 

1,237 

170 



440 
2,510 



455 
5 

8 

20 
9G0 
1,992 
575 
120 
295 
23 



2, 4-25 



4,527 



290 
31 
50 



121 
250 



1,905 



5,012 
30 



80 
4,100 
1,460 



5 



25 

434 

20 

a? 

1,000 

175 

17, 7J0 



450 

665 

85 

56,025 



o 

s 

o 

•a 

a 



o 

C , ■ 

1-3 



S 



50 



15 



20 
15 



18 



30 
66 



27 



196 



565 



1120 

4,975 

5 



35 

90 

2,883 



1,843 

4,700 

30 



3,100 
54 



27 



185 

3 

830 

32 

598 



154 
41 



30 



1,280 



200 
9,330 



40 
110 



7,025 



1,004 



125 



37,845 



a 
d 

o 

a. 



80, 
83, 
77, 

123 
27 

150, 

40 
41 
27 
44 
36 
26 
18 
63 
56, 
66, 

112 
50 
66 

110, 

112, 

203, 
81 
81 

115 

4 

50, 

158, 
97, 

118, 
82, 
35, 
39, 
31 
26, 
31 

114 
39, 
36 
41 

103 
93, 

125, 
19 
55 
64 
43 
45 
72, 
95 
89, 
62 

129 

132 
9? 



.486 
,350 
,191 
,683 
,939 
,194 
,008 
,903 
,498 
,903 
,800 
,130 

,i:a 

,600 
,374 
,359 
,511 
,455 
,519 
,407 
1,600 
,389 
,510 
,573 
,537 
,355 
,357 
,543 
,466 
,803 
,508 
,841 
.579 
,873 
,364 
,215 
,908 
,500 
,275 
,015 
,091 
,124 
,790 
,032 
,139 
,534 
,067 
,874 
,712 
,202 
,027 
,860 
,809 
,670 
,045 



4, 067, 556 



a 
o 



.a 
O 



225 



531 



145 

5 

407 



425 



40 



10 

258 

432 

1,112 

325 



100 
687 

1,762 

100 

162 

182 

24 

1,074 
750 

1,196 
54 



380 
63 



110 
350 
175 
375 
255 
758 



25 



200 
10 



680 
848 



290 

661 

12 

562 

16, 810 



I 

cs 



1,375 
173 



17 



■s 

s 

i 



> 



-3 

Xi 

U3 



rs 



o 



54 

305 
112 



967 

119 
o 

133 
8 



16 



435 
97 

448 
57 
31 



87 

107 

66 

391 

9 

3 

26 
1 



282 

4 

407 



587 

415 

449 

18 

20 

170 
o 

1 

21 
35 



9 

1,781 
11 
37 

9,356 



37 



30 



1 
2 

1 



14 



95 



386 



61 



10 

14 

4 

2 

11 

GO 

104 

76 

13 

45 



13 

48 

1 

77 

22 

2 

4 



40 
156 



194 
60 



9 
461 



157 
10 
46 



1,015 
26 
86 

3,168 



•3 

S 
O 
C 



o 



50 



20 



11 
2 



12 



20 
20 



146 






STATE OF ARKANSAS. 



AGRICULTURE. 



PRODUCED. 



HEMP. 



a 

o 



c 

u 

Q 



a 
o 
■♦* 



P^ 



•« 
«> 



t ft 

ft S 



O 

m" 

c3 



7J 



•a 



153 



305 



200 



50 



90 



30 



10 
20 



25 
25 



341 



450 

210 

20 

IGO 



o 
a «m' 



CO 



an 

a 
o 



ee <M 

tfi o 



e 



ft 

(9 



o 



•a oi 
.a t3 
.a a 

si 

I-" 

O 






OB 

3 «> 

•s • 

S <3 

o 
ft 



1! 


o 

a 
:3 
o 
ft 


o 

g 


_ o 

& -a 


es 


H 


o 
ft 




ia 


eS 




fl 


CO 




a 
o 


§ e 



54 



1 



24 



1,038 
160 



240 



40 



40 



25 
509 



6J 



51 



90 



306 



3,821 



o 

3 

1 
o 



25 



1 

417 



4G 



130 



45 



1,907 
205 



599 



100 



45 



545 



5 



3,077 



111 



9 



124 



26 
40 

10, 484 

10 

195 

17,350 



227 
140 
306 
438 



1,521 
41 



241 

i.oai 

8,228 
8,413 



2i9 

5,367 

7,095 

63 

2,909 



5,698 

7,746 

6,547 

405 



817 
3,109 



440 

5 

796 

55 

3,411 

1,545 

20 



706 



85 

4,172 

871 

901 



1,134 

12.806 

380 

607 



115,604 



361 
240 
2.39 
909 
337 
632 
412 

1,354 
170 
762 
610 
242 
389 

1,2-21 
365 

1,190 
238 
716 

1,674 
515 

2,157 
916 
585 

2,922 

175 

58 

38 

3,399 
889 

2,081 
95 

2,252 

2,073 



476 
574 
762 
610 

1,131 

1,747 

6-29 

547 

30 

900 

4,050 
628 

1, 626 
124 

1,977 
747 
933 

1,192 
382 

1,446 



50,940 



10,048 

3,370 

6,089 

11,129 

6,377 

38,816 

2,815 

18, 978 

1, 525 

10,284 

9,975 

2,715 

7,330 

13,833 

3.635 

3,977 

39,892 

5,455 

10, 212 

16, 185 

7,707 

33,294 

12, 402 

12, 762 

55, 773 

324 

2,512 

6,925 

57, 043 

10,274 

32, 303 

1,331 

11,686 

27,098 

2,325 

6, 042 

14, 123 

13, 484 

11,256 

19,655 

32, 856 

11,691 

3,009 

653 

22, 455 

12,830 

16,362 

22, 562 

4,230 

20,853 

25,921 

12, 972 

33,812 

1,844 

23,318 



806,327 



f283 
12, 188 
18, 761 
64,369 
5,584 
51,119 



11,408 
9,951 

13, 117 

6.541 

70 

3,7G7 

11.956 



7,122 
21,231 
22,767 
26, 257 
67,848 
64,569 
61,110 
32.163 

2,043 

32,334 

3-26 

3.242 
37,827 
38,644 
23,284 

2,386 

959 

27,251 

14, 843 

3,597 

3, 952 

65 

15, 931 

4,750 

18, 357 
77, 427 

4,362 

4,025 

7, 980 

13,237 

8,335 

14,266 

22, 61)2 

8,947 

19, 795 
19,204 
19.204 
36,314 

9,112 
22,368 



1,019,210 



o 

•a 



to 

ca 

» 
•3 
8 

a 
< 



164,863 
77,009 
69,297 
90, 482 
36, 418 
80,223 
28,370 
74,961 

117,106 
68,644 
54,587 
36, 221 
18, 464 
63,784 
49, 313 
81,960 
97, 310 
36, 312 
60,732 

166, 914 
68.446 

143.282 
71,393 
89,775 
89,134 
13, 732 
65,299 
98,623 
87,920 
53,923 
39,060 
58,143 
49,609 
27,944 
45,290 
23,850 

105,091 
45, 488 
21,415 
35,265 
75,636 
86,602 
63,341 
48,964 
70, 5-23 

117,563 
50. 811 
54.009 
62, 427 

133, 766 

146, 920 
61.475 

129, 095 
6:J,501 
68,705 



3,878.990 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
.30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 

49 
.TO 
51 
52 
53 
54 



55 



10 



STATE OF CALIFORNIA. 



AGRICULTURE. 



1 

2 
3 

4 



5 



G 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
IG 
17 
18 
19 
20 
SI 
22 
33 
24 
25 
26 
27 
S8 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
.17 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 



COUKTIES. 



Alameda 

Amadop 

Butte 

Calaveras 

Coltui 

Contra Costa 

Del Norte 

El Dorado. 

Fresno 

Hnraboldt 

Klamath 

Los Angeles 

Mariposa 

Marin 

Mendocino 

Merced 

Monterey 

Napa 

Nevada 

Placer 

Plumas 

Sacramento 

Santa Barbara .. 
Son Bernardino. . 

Santa Clara 

Santa Crux 

San Diego 

San Francisco. . . 
San Joaquin..... 
San Luis Obispo. 

San Mateo 

Shasta 

Sierra , 

Siskiyou 

Solano 

Sonoma 

Stanislaus 

Sutter 

Tehama 

Trinity 

Tulare 

TnoInran« 

Yolo 

Yuba 



ACRES OF LAND. 






> 

z 

a 



Total. 



82,1G9 

35,556 

58.654 

30,213 

89,704 

84,130 

9,670 

86,233 

3,770 

5,324 

2,849 

20,600 

8,145 

48,294 

92,729 

20,299 

89,091 

101,683 

8,144 

26,7CC 

58,335 

218,396 

3,990 

8,219 

62,333 

83,423 

4,143 

7,181 

204,178 

3,713 

44,107 

24,9G4 

418 

57,870 

162,220 

108, 768 

37, a-is 

101,509 

46,887 

4,87G 

20,313 

17,265 

144,903 

45,058 



2,468,034 



.^ 



Si 
•6 

> 
o 
hi 
o. 

S 

a 
U 



158,746 
51,273 

116,401 
53,448 
84, 960 

121,716 
10,159 
19,259 
19, 431 
23,705 
280 
1,012,370 
24,696 

102,136 

5.445 

42,600 

687,006 

94, 791 

52,464 

63,523 

8,793U 

113,7^4 
1, 179, 476 

128,874 

104, 215 
47,505 

499,863 
2,110 

154, 913 

310, 447 

125,833 
53,079 
7,012 
21, 461 
71,528 
80,453 
36,023 
63,496 

111,388 
16,021 
85,288 
40,167 

181,375 
74,355 



I 

o 
s 
> 

a 



$4,^7,430 
989,045 

1,157,980 
491, 065 
878, 240 

1, 888, 650 
253,500 
943, 120 
118, 140 
324, 976 
104,800 

1,621,375 
176,060 
758,339 
523, 195 
326, 830 

1,153,970 

2, 650, 095 
304,250 
565,165 
481,000 

3, 470, 000 
957, 660 
280,137 

2,962,410 
887,223 
269,800 
519,900 

2, 3>7, 097 
582,700 

1, 907, 697 

306, 455 

94,800 

875,730 

2,529,460 

2,989,110 
456,460 

1,256,510 
946,343 
218,700 
372,885 
475,260 

2,209,273 

1, 786, 950 



S 
•a 

!^ 

a I 

— a 

a "S 



LIVE STOCK. 



$173, 254 
51,907 
53,775 
35,197 
36,480 

114, 529 

26,970 

1,055 

5,940 

19,700 

4,150 

44,865 

17,370 

34,876 

39,622 

25,620 

41,115 

118,740 
19,691 
30,970 
29,180 

161, 182 
10,650 
17,981 

167,330 

51, 498 

24,450 

8,000 

194, 859 
12,271 
78,057 
29,985 
610 
68,862 

106,000 

138,857 
35,051 

103,366 
96,053 
12,0a5 
32,763 
28,565 

165,949 
89,090 



6,262,000 



48,726,804 



2,558,506 



61 

£ 

o 



6,252 
2, 242 
3,115 
2,108 
3,502 
6,640 

300 
2,050 
1,733 

538 

144 
14,035 
1,123 
3,001 
6,272 
1,671 
7,263 
6,681 

792 
1,929 

tei 

5,925 
8,708 
1,105 

. 7,504 
1,437 
5,157 
476 
0,789 
4,726 
2.322 
1,054 
27 
4,075 
7,561 

10,368 
2,723 
3,767 
2,663 
257 
3,924 
1,039 
5,017 
2,035 



160, 610 



a 

a 

i 



503 
383 
476 
374 
196 
504 
272 
G31 
125 

49 
395 
691 
202 

70 
178 
141 
351 
318 
172 
178 
501 
575 
155 

79 
257 

45 

609 

8 

716 

72 
272 

78 

41 
696 
194 
448 
118 
416 
336 
513 
321 
322 
378 
322 



3,681 



o 

V 



15,904 
5,393 
5,411 
3,633 
4,400 
10.063 

904 
4,400 
8,714 
1,633 

690 
3,397 
1,804 
7,767 
8,310 

962 
3,047 
5,947 
1,200 
2,121 
1,724 
11,592 
2,800 

743 
7,399 
2,055 
1,796 
1, 182 
7,696 

896 
4,939 
1,728 

104 
6,206 
5,116 
16,037 
9,488 
3,731 
4,435 

770 
4.980 
1,759 
9,065 
3,446 



905,407 



a 

M 

O 



o 



661 

1,081 

744 

444 

250 

943 

282 

1,071 

1.143 

322 

44 

733 

346 

966 

1,188 

175 

445 

1,149 

284 

268 

705 

641 

467 

126 

432 

320 

S50 



617 
275 
736 
649 
53 

1,014 
483 

1,596 
303 
984 



206 

1,014 

576 

545 

714 



26.004 



.o 



CO 



34,756 

7,359 
22,906 

6,133 
44,724 
24,321 
913 
17,286 
10,444 

2,563 

1,527 
71,078 

7,555 
18,921 
28,946 
27,090 
60,264 
22,031 

2,906 

9,880 

7,446 
31, 014 
87,783 

1,362 
35,216 

7,447 
15,452 

1.069 
30,466 
76,176 
11,921 

7,569 
125 
21,413 
34,767 
31,385 
18,562 
24, 942 
l6,289 

2,158 
36,379 

2,721 
17,046 

8,436 



54,363 
14, 613 
16,611 

8,947 

21,880 

25,402 

785 

8,657 

30,885 

14 

94,639 

7,813 

9.979 

9,382 

• 14,181 

190,636 

24,827 

1,147 

23,280 

1,330 

25,224 

65,530 

5,232 

18,007 

10,407 

13,7(8 

1,229 

15.821 

92,9S0 

3,546 

2,034 



55 



2,403 

92,063 

35,589 

11,280 

28,969 

21,475 

263 

16,521 

2,124 

. 40,251 

24.013 



048.731 



1,068,002 



STATE OF CALIFORNIA. 



11 



AGRICULTURE. 



LIVE STOCK. 



9 

a 

so 



7,621 

11,427 

25.500 

7,854 

22,907 

16, 148 

2,283 

19,762 

5,892 

4,266 

1,400 

1,494 

3,373 

3,477 

21,036 

5,240 

3,840 

18,572 

4.498 

13,622 

841 

19,394 

153 

531 

7,679 

3,853 

633 

573 

19,024 

1.092 

6,876 

14,924 

304 

6,280 

18,453 

35,149 

5,0T9 

19,240 

15,931 

1,936 

32,546 

2,263 

20, 173 

17,153 



o 

« 
s 

-a 

► 



3 

o 



|1, 645, 399 
7P8, 351 

1, 007, 130 
541,604 

1,349,795 

1,291,538 
149, 160 
731,104 
293.450 
149,939 
117,505 

1, 451, 089 
269,345 
754, 748 

1, 193, 882 
642, 111 

1,073,309 
957,025 
289,880 
513, 157 
467,400 

1, 612, 226 

1, 422, 435 
141,661 

1,325,635 
308,907 
412,300 
142,205 

1,445,212 

1, 120, RIO 

701,051 

333,210 

21,585 

1, 110, 317 

1,591.898 

1, 591, 648 
728,581 

1,217,577 
752, 470 
170, 427 

1, 212, 381 
325,465 

1, 379, 750 
840,335 



o 
e 
5 



685,042 

42,094 

130,058 

10,241 

99,250 

407, 151 

19, 116 

10, 491 

4,945 

25,374 

14,275 

55,196 

2,823 

41,731 

33,765 

41,730 

120, 811 

501,375 

5,210 

82.442 

10,125 

303,554 

9,900 

8,233 

549, 195 

166,133 

8,695 



445.234 
21.095 

165,502 
32,686 



53,969 
427,796 
276,564 

22,597 

141,305 

207,295 

7,086 

40,268 

13,:»2 
422,964 
171, 762 



PRODUCED. 



o 



6,110 

220 

1,540 

10 

320 

40 



230 



10* 
200 
95 



2,085 



2,350 

60 

825 



8,868 



880 

1,800 

803 



5,185 

11,610 

1,777 

30 



424 

644 

130 

1,715 

158 

ISO 

921 

1,885 

1,005 



SB 

e «-• 

o o 

i 



16,950 

26,700 

0,365 

664 

3,955 

3,644 

375 

392 

3,200 

lOD 

2,205 

85, 010 

200 

1,507 

21,740 

17,990 

13,270 

28,320 

955 

225 

10 

21,870 



16,565 
3,960 

17,321 
2,300 



5,585 

35,420 

2,778 

4,335 



5,135 

3,360 

75,408 

5,925 

8,260 

8,420 

897 

6,355 

647 

14,560 

34,740 



456,396 



35,585,017 5,928,470 52,140 



510, 708 



.a 



O 



250,564 

510 

4,750 

475 

150 

54,231 

28,875 

408 



17,624 

14, 375 

425 

325 

110,242 

17, 716 

500 

46,079 

16,200 

160 

610 

27,830 

23,545 

4,200 

163 

17,240 

21,880 

100 

9,620 

1,230 

13,550 

48,065 

1,310 



•9 

a 

I 



3 



O 



8 

O 



1,000 



190 



200 



95.690 
3,000 

187,438 



130 



5,800 
1.031 
1,014 
400 
3,G81 
5,980 



600 



1, 043, 006 



2,140 



P Oi 

u 

a o 



2,500 



250 



400 



« 
a 



284,735 
20,650 
92,400 
10.335 
66,900 
74,108 



1,130 



209,869 



17,820 
18,794 
28,500 
485,107 
31,390 



31,330 



67,005 
150,200 

4,000 
19.000 
24,873 

5,150 



36,477 

263,100 

7,535 



1,150 
240,937 
78,223 • 
38,249 
83,062 
32,675 



16,900 

150 

146. 80C 

07,487 



.a 



3 

OB 

a 
o 



13,720 
6G8 
375 
586 



3,543 

10,595 

160 

100 

19,625 

405 

2,465 

4 

1,876 

956 

1,IG0 

42,930 

260 

134 

202 



6,005 



99 
121 

205 

16,950 

50 

1,279 

2,882 

1,400 



1,001 
2 

7,781 
416 
300 
461 
644 
502 



255 



2'1{> 
3.05G 



a 



2-5 



149,232 

14,852 

13,150 

6,427 



10,343 

25,857 

10,037. 

1,030 

52,154 

10,865 

15,034 

50 

303,005 

18,054 

1,2G5 

45, 178 

4,450 

7,070 

2,507 

16,831 

305,222 

3,200 

2,131 

4.620 

74,730 

190 

16,350 

14,160 

16,405 

78, 7J8 

14,280 

15,282 

54,004 



321,675 



3,240 
5,605 
34,598 
4,067 
12, 415 
80,780 
12, 870 



c 



1,006 
280 
800 



2.600 
2,515 



770 



19.200 
1,050 
1,840 



480 



185 



108,635 



50 



40 

24,000 

2.000 



1,240 
27,375 



130 



4,360 
1,650 



14, 010 
85 



I 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
G8 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 



3,150 



2, C83, 109 j 165, 574 



1,789,463 



214.307 



12 



STATE OF CALIFORNIA. 



AGRICULTURE. 



1 
s 

3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
23 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
3L 
32 
30 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 



COUNTIES. 



Alameda 

Amadur 

Bntto 

Calaveriu 

ColuBl 

Contra Coeta 

DelNorto 

£1 Dorado 

Fresno 

Humboldt 

Klamath 

Lob Angeles 

Mariposa 

Marin 

3Iendocino 

Merced 

Monterey 

Napa 

Nevada 

Placer 

Plumaa 

Sacramento , 

Santa Barbara.., 
San Bernardino. . 

Santa Clara 

Santa Cruz 

San Diego , 

San Francisco . . 

San Joaquin 

San Luis Obispo 

San Mateo 

Shasta , 

Sierra , 

Siskiyou 

Solano 

Sonoma 

Stanislaus 

Sutter 

Tcbama 

Trinity 

Tulare 

Tuolumne 

Yolo 

Ynba 



ToUU. 



o 

U3 



1.1 




828, 015 
41,580 

107, 068 
37,169 

1C6, 340 

225,850 

2,660 

11,8C8 

22,030 

1,179 



46,455 

4,990 

29,570 

17, 171 

47, 148 

154,264 

70,507 

2,390 

43, i:fc8 

3,520 

514, 715 

11,050 

9,917 

116,207 

108, 135 

16,850 

200 

450,830 

33,730 

51,960 



25,486 
153, 937 
125, 810 

33,897 

159,368 

154,500 

1,180 

29,259 

5,153 

404, C80 

142, 180 



PRODUCED. 



OB 

.a 






9,865 

1,930 

200 

100 



3,062 

590 

20 



32 



153 

135 

50 

1,139 

710 



2,915 

2,000 

7 



3,745 



335 

2,114 



15 



3,603 



2,453 



55 



70 
41,391 



a 

o 

c > 

ja 

CJ 

u 



$S8,530 

20,910 

13,277 

26,507 

200 

9,835 



84,815 
150 
410 
300 

57,290 
150 
300 



3,800 
4,415 

30,215 
5,770 

21,925 



70,360 
11,700 

2,450 
30, 095 

5,480 
400 



10,450 

1,100 

1,545 

16,250 

3,700 

100 

26,785 

29,131 

600 

4,000 

13,670 

650 

1,300 

54,980 

18, 141 

142, 490 



•4 

o 

a 

o 

I 






8,040 

87 

2,300 

277 



2,527 



6,464 



162, 980 
10,700 



700 
8,745 



722 



4,550 

10,550 

8,520 

3,721 



70 



50 



1,000 



3,095 
1,990 



1, 375 



5,825 

50 

2,180 



o 

a 2 
& s 

•g -a 



6) 



9) U 

Si •« 



S 



$129,720 

26,840 
4,925 

28,972 
600 

11,394 
9,175 

48,466 
1,100 
3,350 
1,000 
8,920 
3,425 



100 

4,915 

4,080 

450 

32,500 

39,186 

51,275 

139, 214 

150 

300 

46,550 



800 

72,800 

11,490 

3,500 

28,476 

18, 310 

48,930 

82,040 

44,520 

8,187 

4,525 

7,350 

8,800 

66,775 

5,105 

49,260 

24,060 

80,320 



o 

•3 
g 






81,000 
42,765 
16,925 
48, 797 
76, 915 

149, 618 
18,925 
66,060 
2,524 
34, 110 
3,450 
16,330 
22,480 

342,798 
55,037 
15,765 
89,784 
87,825 
20,650 
30,039 
93,100 

239,899 

1,000 

42,763 

222,212 

32,100 

7,005 

6,600 

79, 014 

12,608 

205,273 

34,660 

400 

105,902 

120,275 

303,590 
16, 315 
27,901 
10,640 
9,025 
39,380 
10,700 

180,042 
72,834 



4,415,426 



76,88*; 



754,236 



246, 518 



1,161,855 



3, 095, 085 



o 

p. 

i 

it 
v 

.a 
O 



26,872 
1,930 
1,320 
6,610 
2,270 
215,586 
300 
2,560 



8,350 



700 

2,700 

196,870 

26,400 

2,700 

96,310 

23,965 

755 

6,250 



106,740 

50 

12,080 

181,105 

15,500 

7,800 



8,510 
14, 310 
23,585 

1,000 



12,023 

30,299 

141,068 

9,885 

18,500 

5,175 

681 

14,970 



114,630 
3,330 



a 
3 



13,800 

5,759 

7,062 

5,512 

6,099 

9,101 

496 

4,759 

804 

871 

153 

2,476 

3, 016 

2,359 

3,257 

1,753 

6,482 

8,617 

2,231 

5,065 

14,685 

32,702 

135 

550 

14,438 

3,756 

1,446 

3,643 

14,520 

893 

12,534 

4,964 

33 

8,758 

16,194 

18,353 

6,238 

7,709 

6,721 

1,035 

980 

5,321 

27,160 

13,225 



1,313,089 



3a>, 655 



UQ 

a 
•sf ^• 



> 
o 



1 
20 



50 



3 

.a 



i-i 



u 
O 



s 
o 

Cm 



Cm 
O 



£5 



15 



148 



10 



100 



90 



286 



10 
50 

80 



I 



STATE OF CALIFORNIA. 



13 



AGRICULTURE. 



PRODUCED. 



HEMP. 



B 

4; 






a 

a 

i "^ 

2 o 






o. a 



•3 

o 

0* 

a 



o 

•s 

.a 



3 

&4 



i 

a <t: 

o o 



=3 

CO 



s 

S) O 






M a 
-"I 

o 



•a 

6S 



1 s 
a o 






is 

a 

o 

r 

CO 



"S 




•a 


'S 





.3 


a 


3 




o 


i 


A 




5 


& 


& 



17 



l.')0 



450 



S5 



290 



G5 



S5 



100 
30 



503 



1.030 



600 



4,883 



2,784 
1,600 



I 

£-3 

a > 

"31 
§ 



t80,080 



80,040 



48,794 



16,059 



o 
o 

"3 



g 

f 

•3 



<5 



$149,268 
170,661 

71, 575 
213,030 
44,695 
84,989 
32,665 
354, OM 

1,650 
18,551 
21,093 
13,800 
,72,000 
40,177 
32,242 
16,795 
50,718 
67,302 
110,300 
67,665 
74,550 
37,102 
35,500 
16,392 
64,645 
10,360 
23, 315 



1 
2 
3 
4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

2U 

21 

2L' 

23 

24 

25 

2C 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

33 

33 

34 

35 

36 

37 

38 

39 

40 

41 



165 



100 
35 



100 



6 
6 



32 



31 
325 



552 



584 



12,276 



14,590 
1,735 
4,170 
1,024 



250 



8,711 



200 



255,653 



8,885 

6,000 

74,907 

82,035 

166,936 

172,022 

168,085 

129,009 

38,254 

86,564 

30,427 

119,971 

75,995 



139,460 ! 42 



92,267 
148, 912 



3, 449, 823 



43 
44 



14 



STATE OF CONNECTICUT. 



AGRICULTURE. 



1 

*2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 



COUNTIES. 



Fairfield 

Hartford 

Litchfield . . . 
Middlesex . . . 
New Haven 
New London 

Tolland 

Windham . . . 

Total.... 



ACRES OF LAND. 



► 

a 



230,(592 
290,219 
330.669 
144, 104 
241, 652 
233,857 
119, 992 
239,622 



1,830,807 



s 

Q 

•a 



68,321 
94,496 
131, 941 
56,533 
95,327 
88,804 
55,235 
82,799 



673,457 



o 

a 

•a 

3 



$15,944,881 

19,863,633 

14,414,233 

5, 730, 691 

13.973,305 

9, 464, 881 

3, 826, 376 

7,612,095 



90, 830, 005 



(S 

S 
•a 

OS Oj 

a ► 

.2 - 

a o 

u 2 

a o 



h 



$310,222 
553,633 
365,183 
139, 714 
347, 517 
259, 818 
153,377 
219.017 



2, 339, 481 



e 

o 



5,535 
5,946 
5,691 
2,191 
4,872 
3,468 
2,080 
3,493 



33,276 



LIVE STOCK. 



a 

§ 

8 



25 

21 

9 

4 

13 

8 
o 



82 



8 

.d 



14,769 
14,795 
21,961 

5.956 
12,124 
12,773 

5,060 
11,439 



98,877 



s 

H 

O 

a 

a 



6,479 
6,906 
7,593 
5,128 
7,368 
5,942 
3,049 
5,474 



47,939 



c> 




^ 








C3 




O 


« 


u 


o. 


o 


» 


ji 


o 


** 


.(3 


O 


OQ 



12,673 

14,493 

20,493 

7,871 

13,623 

10,927 

5,155 

9,856 



95,091 



9,021 
12,386 
25,106 

8,206 
14.643 
24.454 

7,676 
14615 



117, 107 



AGRICULTURE. 



1 

2 
3 
4 

5 
6 

7 
8 



COUNTIES. 



•2 

a 
.a 

I 



Fairfield.... 
Hartford . . . . 
Litchfield . . . 
Middlesex . . . 
New Haven . 
Now London 

Tolland 

Windham... 

Total.... 



846 
1,343 
2,897 

438 
3,619 
8,718 
1,147 
1,805 



20, 813 



PRODUCED. 



0) 

o 
.a 



ee o 

M 

a 



46,635 
33,920 
53,686 
24,307 
49,062 
26,915 
20,587 
53,995 



309,107 



o 





O 



I 

O 



a 
> 



177,972 
120, 013 
65,333 
44,643 
83,057 
45.727 
19,783 
52,320 



508,848 



§ 
I 

pa 

e 

B 



16, 590 
6,905 
3,358 
3,728 

12,048 

2,025 

1,176 

953 



40,783 



p» o 



& 






1107,539 

144,768 

4,907 

4,174 

39,810 

25,004 

4,706 

6,057 



337,025 



•3 



a 



1, 357, 207 
1, 308, 370 
1,541,109 
570,855 
988, 134 
881.955 
360,095 
613, 187 



7, 620, 912 



•9 

o 



102,984 
302,497 
2, 406, 801 
27,186 
137,774 
272, 178 
107,946 
541,945 



3, 898, 411 



§ 






83,499 ! 
87,721 
109.901 
45,865 
79,933 ! 
63,307 
31,649 
60,550 i 



562.425 



tn 

a 

to tti 

u 
u 

o 



311 
116 
483 
15 
166 
377 
279 
11,924 



13,671 



9 

I 



o 



433 

85 

525 

221 

208 

3,424 

82 

9,032 



13,024 



•3 

a 



s. 



o 



205 
42 

196 
80 

392 

14 

25 

5 



959 



STATE OF CONNECTICUT. 



15 



AGRICULTURE. 



LIVE STOCK. 


PRODUCED. 


1 


o 

1 

i 

m 


1 

.a 


1 

1 


1 

1 


1 

o 


o 

1 


o 

1 
1 

g 

1 


•si 

a *M 
.S o 

o 


a 

I 

1 


1: 

§ 

3 

& 


• 

1 


• 

1 

u 

1 

CO 




13, 491 

10,935 

12,856 

4,864 

9.507 

9,928 

3,374 

10,165 


$1,735^071 
1,961,211 
2,225,611 

809,209 
1,656,898 
1,242,262 

606,473 
1,074,344 


12,638 
8,523 

12,420 
7,082 
6,492 
937 
1,476 
2,833 


• 115, 511 

120,419 

100,927 

57,703 

134, 714 

37,307 

22,491 

29,630 


378,582 
336,143 
306,512 
138,971 
325,004 
275,664 
90,463 
208,496 


309,265 
176, 582 
373,261 

58.084 
100,484 
173,852 

71,585 
199,105 




61,975 
4, 221, 474 
736,185 
433, 245 
153,453 
325 
393,476 




27,964 
32,804 
81,406 
22,800 
34,382 
69,851 
20,336 
46, 443 


495 
1,743 

919 
1.261 
8,407 
8,221 
J, 418 
3,340 


253,029 
384,103 
250.082 
129,468 
274,391 
187, 142 
100,921 
245.012 


6 
9 

17 


1 






2 






3 






4 






2,530 
148 


5 






G 






7 








ft 










75^120 


11,311,079 


52,401 


618,702 


2,059,835 


1,522,218 




6, 000, 133 




335,896 


25,864 


1, 833, 148 


2,710 








• 



AGRICULTURE 



PRODUCED. 


1 

1 
1 

e 

a 
< 




HZMP. 


o 

1 
1 


•5 

•2 

1 

S 


8Uk cocoons, pounds 
of. 


Maple sugar, pounds 
of. 


Cane sugar, hhds. of 
1,000 pounds. 


h 

li 
1 


MapIo molasses, gal- 
lons of. 


•s 

a 

s 

1 


a 

1 
1 


Manufactures, home* 
mode, value ot 




Dew rotted, tons 
of. 


Water rotted, tons 
of. 


Other prepared 
hemp. 




2 






400 


10 












491 
730 
887 
384 
931 
361 
400 
187 


7,762 
8,664 
16,931 
4,778 
9,008 
5.007 
5,088 
5,492 


•2,754 
9,361 
4,700 
8,660 
8,104 
2,889 
7,647 
4,839 


1521,811 
606.643 
430,559 
197, 721 
540,089 
379,067 
187,543 
318,559 


1 










4,332 

37,412 

50 

1,981 

25 






13 
1,940 


2 








772 


24 








3 














4 


1 






15 


75 


3 




395 


90 
11 


5 








• 


6 












......... 






7 








_ 




15 


459 






223 


8 
















3 






1,187 


109 


18 


44,259 




395 


2,277 


4,371 


62,730 


48,954 


3,181,992 















16 



STATE OF DELAWARE. 



1 
2 



COUNTIES. 



AGRICULTURE. 



Kent 

New CoNtlc 

SU8M?X 

Total.. 



ACRES OF LAND. 



Z 

E 



204,925 
190.456 
241, CW 



G37,065 



I 

a 



2 

c 

E 



6 



o 



104,037 

44,215 

218,358 



C8, 778, 258 

10,033,170 

6,014,923 



307,230 



31,420,337 



8 

• 2 






$223,222 
433,003 
101.058 



817,883 



C 

o 



5,208 
7,057 
4,297 



10,502 



LrVE STOCK. 



B 



1,092 
500 
702 



2.294 



o 
v 

.a 

I 



6,178 

11,228 

5,189 



22,505 



e 

o 
H 

O 



2,020 
1.717 
5,190 



9,530 






8,Cg7 

9,8:e 

7,657 



25^506 



c. 



5,314 
4,109 
9,174 



18.63: 



AGRICULTURE. 





COUNTIES. 












PRODt'CED. 














OB 

s 


■B 

•2 

t 

u 


Orchanl products, 
valuo of. 


o 

a 
o 

•a 

© 

n 




o 
a 

s. 
1" 


o 

•S 

s 

1 

« 

O 

.a 
(J 


1 


at 

•s 

p 

► 
c 

5 


•3 

S 

3 

o 


O 

n 

1 

m 

o 


1 


Kent 


500 

3,128 

18 


8,209 
3,924 
4,102 


C33,0S4 
05,342 
13,189 


153 
530 


$2,000 

35,379 

352 


271,560 
981,380 
177,562 


2 
6,309 

208 


5.150 

27,792 

4,031 


396 

3,194 

5 


439 

714 

12 


121 


«> 


New CaMtlo 


293 


3 


Snsfex 




Total 




f 




3,040 


16,355 


114,225 


083 


37,797 

• 


1,430,502 


6,579 


36,973 


3,505 


1,165 


414 







STATE OF DELAWARE. 



17 



AGRICULTURE. 



LIVE STOCK. 












PRODUCED. 














1 

> 

a 


o 

1 

i 


o 
m 

1 

1 


Indian corn, bushels 
of. 


Oats, bushels of. 

• 


o 

1 


«m' 

O 

1 

o 

•g 


Ginned cotton, bales 
of 400 lbs. each. 


g 
1 


Peas and beans, bush- 
els of. 


t 

•s 

Is 

p. 
1 


Sweet potatoes, bush- 
els of. 




15,062 
10,118 
21 7C8 


1911,930 
1, 423, 443 

800,327 


262,202 
544.295 
106,444 


18,551 
2,337 
6.321 


1,354,247 
1, 141, 963 
1, 396, 127 


317, 87C 

676,093 

52,939 




157 

8,700 

842 




17,532 
12,594 
20,075 


3,158 
1,541 
2,739 


107,735 

175, 548 

94,646 


49,803 

8,417 

83,993 


1 






2 






3 










47,848 


3, 144, 706 


912,941 


27,209 


3,892,337 


1,046,910 




9,699 




50,201 


7,438 


377,931 


142,213 











AGRICULTURE 



nzMP. 



§ 



I 



£ o 

u 

I 



t ft 



PRODUCED. 



o 

•9 

a 

o 

I 

fa 



5,076 



3,036 



8,112 



OB 




9 



2,014 
15 
97 



2,126 



i 

Oi 



a ^ 

9 O 



.^4 
CO 



§ 

&) o 

o 



•9 

.(3 
-" O 



I 






1 



1 s 



3 



I a 

o 



775 



717 

121 



1,613 



9 
K 



3G5 

10(5 

1,522 



1,993 



v4 

o 
« 

(3 



O 

o. 

ts 

o 

a 
o 



18, 111 

3,100 

44,926 



66,137 



Jo- 

t -a 
p > 



13,021 

59 

14, 511 



17,591 



o 
« 



-a 

► 

• 

t 

I 

00 
aa 

•a 
s 
-a 
< 



$173, 470 
190,096 
209,509 



573,075 



1 
2 
3 



18 



STATE OF FLORIDA. 



AGRICULTURE. 



1 

2 
3 
4 

5 

6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
SO 
21 
22 
29 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 



COUNTIES. 



Alachua 

Brevard 

Calhoun 

Clay 

Columbia 

Dado* 

Duval 

Eflcambla ... 
FranVllQ.... 

Gadsden 

Hamilton 

Hernando* . . 
Hillsborough 

Holmes 

Jackson 

Jefferson 

Lafayette 

Leon 

Levy 

Liberty ...... 

Madison 

Manatee 

Marion 

Monroe 

Nassau 

N«w lUvcr . . 

Orangfo 

Putnam 

Santa Rosa. . 
St John's . . . 
Suwannee... 

Snuiter 

Taylor 

Volusia 

Waliulla.... 

Walton 

Woshlugton . 



ACRES OF LAND. 



S 

a 



37,326 

340 

6,001 

4,747 

26,196 



M 

•2" 

► 

S 

a 



St 

•a 

> 

% 



153, 775 

1,887 

25,341 

18,625 

107, 621 



|1.4a%602 

23,340 

218, 540 

126,880 

612, 402 



el 

a 

l§ 

11 

.2 

a 



e 

fa 



$87,024 

440 

17, 650 

35,001 



LIVE STOCK. 






928 
41 
125 
270 
751 



a 
i 

m 
as 



747 
4 
115 
119 
359 



It 

8 

ra 



s 

M 

O 

3 

M 

u 



6,589 
1,374 
1,0*5 
2,100 
3,C82 



137 

13 

176 

267 

83 



.a 



11,373 
6,327 
3, 185 
5.429 
9,030 



a. 
t 

CO 



2.386 

5C6 
475 
855 



4,432 

890 

68 

67,235 

2,511 



40, 516 

6.976 

193 

187,125 

79,050 



220,317 

28, 875 

5,000 

1, 417, 050 

441,993 



11,490 

936 

650 

155, 450 

17,068 



298 

96 

2 

950 

553 



94 

32 
o 

827 
333 



1,080 



707 



3,358 
2,595 



6,682 
5,251 

7.'5,812 

69, 705 

6,500 

110,609 

7,773 

7,714 

59,328 
2,201 

S4,^6 

65 

4.833 

l.\ 147 
2,768 
7,441 
2,281 
1,504 

15,008 
4,950 
5,072 
3,008 

15,283 
9,G81 

11.245 



24,285 
11,950 

149,980 

199,466 
22,660 

532,222 
20.813 
54.688 

137,404 
5,602 

129,370 

17 

26,840 

52,088 

9,435 

21,270 

4,215 

14,172 

40,190 

15,342 

15,088 

11.042 

97, 931 

24,625 

14, 584 



178, 670 

62,753 

1, 366, 180 

1, 646, 074 

170, 090 

2, 482, 211 

84, 017 

373,940 

1, 400, 002 

97,095 
1,887,115 

11,300 
145, 455 
365,040 

90,555 
210,800 

23,285 

60,530 
300,207 
IW, 873 

75,025 

90,810 
287,330 
1&4, 071 

8(1, 083 



11,031 

5,856 

M,780 

88,293 

6,:>i4 

94,303 
3,518 
7,336 

01,319 
6,512 

83,790 

05 

5,832 

26,250 
8,681 

10, 130 

7r.8 

5,770 

16, 130 

2,302 

4,500 

9,672 

14,506 

12, 052 

11,800 



288 
159 

1,071 
923 
117 

1,063 

315 

185 

700 

188 

982 
o 

269 
566 
140 
257 
107 
229 
321 
327 
205 
159 
315 
303 
241 



68 

35 

930 

1,426 

98 

2,041 

272 

111 

1,050 

58 

1.061 



42 
170 

36 

103 

6 

31 
195 

82 



55 



21 
209 

65 
104 



4,932 
1,602 
5,950 
2, 670 

950 
3,134 
4,375 
1,479 
3,221 

556 
7,764 
3 
2,627 
5,317 
1,850 
1,934 

708 
1,785 
2,030 
5,388 
1,546 
1,755 
1,668 
3,646 
2,011 



475 
48 



696 
112 



99 
133 
933 
477 

64 
690 

28 
136 
26:i 
122 
353 



457 

103 

27 

56 

148 

45 

85 

70 

21 

88 

54 

408 

204 



4,166 
2,360 



10,483 
6,494 



32,789 
2,135 

12,527 
7,522 
2,052 
8,271 
7,610 
3,983 
6,061 

31,232 

19,905 



6,174 

18, 519 

4,759 

7,448 

1,509 

6,439 

4,504 

18,977 

3,447 

12,281 

4,813 

5,707 

174 



Total. 



6^1, 213 



2,266,015 



10, 4:1".. 727 



900.6(50 



13, 446 



10. 910 



92.074 



S33 
708 



2,350 
1,091 



476 
754 

2.7eo 

2,791 
258 

3,439 
433 
575 

1,707 
8 

2,202 






813 
1,007 



7,361 



287,725 



437 

46 

396 

104 

238 

20 

SD4 

2.1W 

340 

30, 1» 



* No return. 



STATE OF FLORIDA. 



19 



AGRICULTURE. 



LIVE STOCK. 


PRODUCED. 


1 

00 


1 

1 

•> 
> 


• 

1 

s. 

t 


o 
f 

•s 

s 


OB 

Xi 

1 

1 

a 


Q 
n 
% 

1 

1 


•9 

a 

1 

8 


« 

i 

O 

o 
H 


8 

A 
U 

5 


-3 

s 

1 


• 

1 
Is 

i 


■ 

•s 



1 


t 

c ^ 

1 




11 580 


$330,938 

15,780 

69,110 

85,049 

220,243 






118 


130,837 

1,395 

41,460 

25,097 

118, 913 


967 

• 


11,043 


8.070 


3,714 


4,125 


25,158 
2,119 
3,196 
1,635 

27,416 


1,187 

600 

50 

111 

1,197 


57,464 

4,215 

17,840 

17, 151 

6,023 


1 


1,164 




a 


2,507 
6,085 
2,245 










111,800 

100 

20,000 


612 

178 

1,284 


870 

360 

2,030 


3 






• 


176 
9,701 


4 


49 


5C4 


8,833 


5 
6 


3,859 
1.124 


47,669 

40,790 

50 

362,765 

177,176 




6 
8 


31,555 
5,790 


10 


2,030 
22,050 




« • • • 

168 


660 
1,376 


3,827 
1,660 


775 
70 
600 
711 
980 


25,082 

7,060 

700 

117,820 

38,410 

t 


7 






8 


50 










q 


15,824 
11,241 


50 
856 


255 
997 


257,565 
117,847 




22,500 
208 


553,701 
275 


4,335 
1,627 


5,831 
1,309 


32,253 
30,240 


10 


2,169 


11 
12 


7,584 

3,919 

23,125 

21, 144 


255,519 

58,250 

399,002 

398,893 

46,937 

503,526 

89,178 

75,257 

347, 410 

194,400 

447,268 


59 
15 


• 


43,501 
24, 615 

268,660 

357,972 
26, 617 

421,654 
15,245 
52,850 

296,361 
2,622 

151,179 


90 

355 

1,135 

1,725 

85 

1,275 

30 

765 

3,705 

20 

18,488 


312 
3,285 
5,115 


200 

280 

30,200 


88 

281 

8,635 

10,847 

918 

16,686 

151 

649 

6,438 

2 

3,999 


860 
1,497 
2,941 
8,310 
85 
6,556 

630 

2,573 

3,462 

10 

6,967 


3,431 
2,510 
9,405 
7,741 
3,277 

30,177 
4,627 
2,960 

47, 715 
1,890 

44,694 


389 
136 
385 
185 
152 
2,056 
512 
381 


55,425 
12,835 
84,099 
81,116 
10,528 
136,038 
12,274 
15,227 
82,986 
14, 915 
94,861 
100 
21,999 
38,690 
12,452 
21,585 
5,145 
15,144 
26,067 
15,690 
18,005 
13,135 
5,009 
26,444 
19,225 


13 


25 
S86 
830 

12 
1,908 


14 
15 


25 


16 


2,556 


1,620 
13,900 


175 
18,250 


17 


23,266 




18 


7,684 




19 


5,142 




149 
947 


29,875 
1,000 
2,700 

35,765 


34,900 
150 


20 


17,050 
2.805 


1,295 


21 


80 
3,407 


23 


15,797 


3 


15, 154 


680 


23 

24 


5,778 


138,811 
219,637 

58,295 
111,850 

30,248 

€7,800 
102, 148 
173,914 

58,124 
113,984 

98,026 
126,711 

87,998 






27,491 
61, 119 
9,835 
26,830 
10,568 
11,290 
56,389 
22,397 
27,100 
13,035 
78,708 
55,979 
41,915 




2,400 

19,530 

1,300 

500 

100 

8,900 

4,500 

1,050 

600 

1,900 

7,350 

10,260 

3,944 




154 

821 

128 

640 

8 

1 

653 

277 

90 

193 

794 

430 

a->2 


1,145 
1,904 


3,120 

14,653 

2,710 

8,699 

785 

2,413 

15,865 

1,416 

6,302 

3,575 

9,070 

5,510 

3,168 


75 
680 
187 
140 

12 
308 
555 
191 
324 
265 
1,009 
543 
513 


25 


14,965 
2,165 


30 
227 


189 


4,977 
451 


260 


26 
27 


6,653 








28 


1,627 


' 




55 




26 


29 


2,863 








30 


6,214 
4,S88 


20 


85 


662 


70 
600 
250 


780 

84 

210 


31 
32 


5,910 
3,840 


49 


28 


12 


33 
34 


8,106 






300 
182 
608 


7,300 

4,868 

36,686 


415 

3,733 

462 


35 


7,475 
5,407 


130 

• 


130 
115 


36 
37 








271,742 


5,S53,356 


2,606 


21,306 


2,634,391 


46,899 


223,701 


828,815 


65, l.'iS 


59,171 


363,217 


18,766 


1,129,759 





20 



STATE OF FLORIDA. 



AGBICULTUIIE. 





W ■ ■ T, ,t ■■■ ■ = 

COUNTIKS. 


PRODUCED. 




•3 


Buckwheat, bushels 
ot 


Orchard products, 
value of. 


«»4 

O 

t 

1 


Market-garden pro- 
ducts, value ol 


•3 
a 

i 

n 


o 

i 

O 


• 

O 

i 


1 

jo 

1 


Grass seeds, bushels 
of. 


1 

1 


1 


Alochua 


1 




11, 812 


93 


160 


32,851 

2,476 

9,850 

975 

15,239 


902 
130 


801 


• 




2 


Brevard. -- 










3 


Calhoun 


















***** 


4 


Clay 










500 
5,797 




5,584 
616 








5 


Columbia 






4,405 




35 








6 


Dade 














7 


Duval 






165 
1,200 




2,370 

100 

1,900 


3,255 
1,430 




137 
12 








8 


Escambia 






• 










9 


Franklin 
















10 


Qadsdcn 








153 


12,435 
13,785 












11 


Hamilton rr r 










• 










12 


Hernando 






















13 


HUlsboroueh 












24,410 
5,800 

24,908 

24,589 
3,950 

32,110 
3,654 
5,847 

34,339 
6,360 

51,804 


1,557^ 

140 

96 

1,579 

12 

100 


79 








14 


Holmes 






690 












15 


Jackson 






15 
40 












16 


Jefferson 


8,350 




30 

20 

225 


50 
54 










17 


LiOfavette ............. 












18 


Ijeon 


15 




50 


2,251 

8 

175 








19 


Levy 




607 








20 


*^> w J .................. 

Liberty 






350 












21 


Madison 


















22 


Manatc<?. 












475 
395 


3 

1,073 








23 


Marlon ................ 










10 
3,600 
1,100 
1,425 








24 


Monroo ................ 






100 

25 

4,111 

65 

50 










25 


Nassau - r...r..T t 








1,000 

12,104 

5,712 

9,365 

1,030 

5,383 

6,775 

12,100 

6,253 

3,570 

13,581 

13,655 

8,938 




106 
325 




\ 




26 


New River 








63 
40 








27 


Orange r ........ . 






35 








28 


Putnam 






150 


20 








39 


Santa Rosa 
















30 


St. John's 






500 
1,715 




2,010 
1,095 












31 


Suwanneo -T..,r..,T... 








62 


220 








32 


Sumter. 














33 


Taylor 






















34 


Volusia 






4,150 








2 








35 


Wakulla 


















36 


Walton 


3 




1,646 






145 
189 










,T7 


Waahineton 








66 


• 








Total 




















8,369 




21,250 


386 


20,828 


408,655 


5,280 


11,4TB 
















« 





STATE OF FLOEIDA. 



AORICULTCKE. 



™„»»a 


-i 




HEMF. 


I 

1 


1 I 


1 

i 


■5 

h 
1' 


1 




1 


ill 




1 

V 


1 

1 


1' 




1 







i 








K,S19 

3,523 
8.213 


301 


3,025 


*5,1B2 


(43. m 

1,900 
15,870 
14,965 
46,920 


^ 










1 




„ 






















S30 


4,ieo 




^ 


















ao 

S,3C2 




















4,005 







































a, 




^3»7 


• 


„ 


' 


14,084 


^ 


















^ 












































51 




87,000 

6. SOT 


1,180 


0,300 


2.CB8 


lfll,875 
54,978 






















































" 




Lnei 

SB. TOT 

4,a» 

3T,iS3 

B,aio 

ID.OT 


ana 


4.725 
5.583 
1.5(5 

530 


50 
5,390 
S,CJ2 
3,838 
3,708 

B.111 
5,132 


37.939 
100,198 

•11,893 
132.143 

13,113 

S4,9S9 
126,041 
5,580 

73,107 
































































1 










45 






. 1 








123 

I 




18 




1 














i 










,,« 


SO, 780 






1 






















S3l 




3C 


292 
















» 










1 










r 












5,T» 
3,388 

S.8M 






372 
90 


13,065 
39,453 
9,C8l 

2,927 
6,233 
26,617 
15,332 
18,129 
6,550 
31,897 
30,571 


"i 




1 










354 


B,?21 
1.W5 
1.190 






\ 


i 












1 


1 












. 


1 








ra 














» 




4,5aa 
s.sm 
e.m\ 

1,T38 
S,BM 

e,90T 
3,4M 








1 










>. 


■«, 


... 




t 














! 1 








45 




■- 


2.295 
lS,34,-i 
14,010 


2,521 
1.370 
6.!iei 




1 1 












11 


... 1 1 












1,«)7 


T 


i 










-1(1 


. . 1 1 ■ ■■■ 














■n 














1 


1 


1 


1 


.,0«3 




4M,33T 


10.899 


115,520 


1 , ,„ ™ 






1 













22 



STATE OF GEORGIA. 



AGRICULTURE. 



COUNTIES. 



1 
S 
3 
4 

5 

G 

7 

8 

9 
10 
H 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
4i 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 

5:j 

54 

55 

5(] 

57 

58 

59 

60 

61 

62 

la , 

64 , 

60 ! 

67 . 

68 ' 

69 I 
70 



Appling 

Baker .* 

Baldwin , 

BanVs 

Berrien , 

Bibb 

Brooks 

Bryan 

Ballock 

Burko 

Butts 

Calhonn 

Camden 

Campbell 

Carroll , 

Cass 

Catoosa 

Chattahoochee 

Charlton 

Chattooga 

Chatham 

Cherokee . .... 

Clark 

Clay 

Clayton 

Clinch 

Cobb , 

Colqaitt 

Columbia 

Coffee 

Coweta , 

Crawford 

Dade 

Dawson 

Decatar 

DeKoIb , 

Dooly , 

Dougherty ... 

Early 

Eckols 

Effingham . . . . . 

Elbert 

Emanuel , 

Fannin 

Fayette 

Floyd 

Forsyth 

Franklin 

Fulton , 

Gilmer 

Glasscock 

Glynn , 

Gordon 

Greene , 

Gwinnett . 

Hnbcnham 

Hall 

Hancock 

Haralson 

Hart 

Harris 

Heard 

Henry 

Houston 

Irwin 

Jackson 

Jiwpc'r , 

Jeffi'mon 

Johnson 

Jones 



ACRES OF LAND. 



S 



20,225 
57,385 
4.1, 982 
32.225 
15, 792 
59.822 
50,274 
17,343 
41,143 
250.814 
65, 432 
41,908 

19, 448 
50.937 
58, 042 
05, 582 
26, 471 
50, 861 

3,111 
41,953 
30,990 
54,894 
60,544 
38,474 
34,883 
11,602 
63,385 

7,837 
94,939 
12. 420 
138,909 
82,587 
15,049 

20. 507 
78.G64 
53,006 
85. 593 
91,427 
56.047 

7,185 
27.893 
74,859 
38,164 
15,910 
57, 141 
76, 249 
45.811 
40,238 
20,712 
28.030 
24,507 
17,810 
62,208 

120, 16.1 
64, 755 
32, 190 
54, 5.15 

111,205 
14,047 
34,802 

156, 685 
60, 76o 

105.882 

184, i:)2 

0.322 

'A 645 

148,919 

125, .328 
27,178 

173,149 



I 

a 



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O 


o 


Q 


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o 


s 


•a 


o. 


>• 


B 


•s 


B 


a 


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362, 957 
lO.*;. 220 
115,844 

96,250 
218, 960 

87,508 
216, 662 
155, 067 
480. 225 
309. 507 

56, 673 

96, 526 
162, 552 
12.'), 248 
154, 199 
166, 173 

52, 250 

71,070 

58.587 

89, 842 
116, 146 
124, 759 
110,924 

79,419 

62, 628 
154,393 
113,232 

67,912 
204.416 
250, 162 
153, 486 

98,073 

40,734 

88,020 
339, 237 

91.517 
285, 249 

99,048 
13.3,336 

48, 699 
206,716 
217, 182 
468,193 

68,140 
107, 475 
218, 474 

82. 149 
145,726 

69, 507 
110, 494 

47,390 

90,507 
113,670 
161, 712 
161. 166 
185, 764 
174, 3:k 
216. 462 

60. 749 
102,863 
139,404 
117,298 
1 19, 928 
186,487 
128.508 
170. 57rt 

88,208 
227,803 
144,213 

00. 757 



$364. 901 

1, 666, 965 

1, 1 10, 163 

248, 484 

474, 950 

1,414, aw 

1, 486, 140 

524. 561 

908, ai7 

4, 034, 000 

932. 303 

1,028,452 

901, 5-20 

1,255,086 

1, 351, 973 

2. 257, 227 

822, 760 

1, 027, 088 

61,955 

522,273 

3,216.604 

1,358,284 

1, 049, 800 

762,111 

600. 807 

368, 176 

1, 533, 869 

137, 187 

2,104,579 

273. 622 

2, 61», 497 
1,232,668 

415,160 

397,507 

2, 205, 996 

929,906 

1, 657, 347 

2, 995, 923 

1, 544, 969 
205, 971 
696, 413 

1,901,904 
2:W, 306 
3(>6,968 

1,069,^610 

2, 593. 322 
766, 896 
942, 449 
723, 345 
520,111 
345, 665 
614, 582 

2, 0O4, 875 

1,8.")5, 185 

1,116,021 

725, 083 

948, 172 

2, I70,.')78 

314,653 

738, 003 

1,946, 175 

1,14,3.428 

1,634,542 

3,524.107 

142,475 

1. 2.")6. 6.52 

1,513,478 

1,845, 175 

515,880 

1,607,323 



a 

g «^ 

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-I 



:.\ 






LIVE STOCK- 



127,679 
40, 439 
52.502 
21,841 
16,044 
45.506 
88, 9'.)4 
31.524 

43, 555 
9:1.565 
62. 202 
33, 962 
61,031 
54. 776 
52,450 
81,820 
23. 805 
35,889 

3.844 
50, 083 
C0,GS9 
46, 279 
44, 518 
32, &J2 
32, 751 
13.963 
63, 757 
4, 6<)0 

157, 512 
15,570 

106,079 
54,185 
!,=>, 200 
20,151 

131,318 
48,711 
32, 899 
62,672 

154, 170 
13, 017 
28.694 
76,633 
23,150 
13, 828 

44, (583 
150,403 

19, 534 
2:}. 220 
25, 801 
22. 559 
15,244 
46, 020 
73, Ot'O 
108. 946 
50, 876 
33,055 
46, 195 
70, 662 
24.638 
40, 131 
75, 780 
24, 288 
70, 180 
91.404 
9.615 
60. 657 
65,243 
82, 653 
18. 057 
40, 000 



• 

i 

t*4 


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1 

i 

s 

s 

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M 



to 

a 




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cc 


854 


116 


5,892 


238 


14,799 


7,1051 


561 


955 


2,300 


3:16 


4,276 


9.>.5 


737 


862 


1,1»69 


485 


2,96<j 


2,604 


1,178 


295 


1,243 


541 


1,373 


3.471 


582 


202 


4,479 


202 


9,849 


5,136 


604 


1,015 


1.535 


368 


3,743 


973 


657 


856 


3,897 


246 


10,654 


3,113 


480 


170 


2,238 


117 


5,009 


3.030 


1,250 


316 


4,064 


123 


11,213 


14,810 


2,311 


2,560 


4.646 


601 


11,132 


4,253 


801 


853 


1,616 


389 


3,354 


2.643 


515 


645 


I, 561 


219 


2,868 


1,560 


365 


7<> 


2,098 


364 


5,735 


1,155 


1,051 


879 


2,096 


879 


3,434 


4,239 


1, 578 


830 


2,970 


1,380 


4,281 


7,385 


1, .586 


1,064 


1,970 


641 


4,322 


4,142 


G34 


317 


929 


247 


1,300 


1,952 


560 


778 


1,453 


271 


2,999 


327 


177 


25 


1,982 


60 


4,112 


222 


1, 2,>l 


594 


1,502 


650 


3,3CO 


4,284 


620 


581 


1,861 


71 


4,101 


1^218 


1,318 


853 


2,136 


945 


3,666 


6,642 


1,240 


641 


1,824 


756 


2,967 


3,952 


408 


558 


1,270 


316 


2,014 


1,594 


558 


358 


910 


420 


1,967 


1,827 


324 


156 


2,992 


66 


7,995 


1,091 


1,6.15 


686 


1,926 


932 


3,070 


3,823 


2<)8 


70 


1,630 


65 


2,818 


1,7» 


3,341 


1, 507 


2,778 


1,031 


5,918 


6,087 


497 


127 


4,517 


205 


9,873 


5,629 


1,818 


1, 942 


3,412 


995 


5.235 


6,455 


850 


1,318 


1,874 


421 


3,812 


2,067 


518 


210 


461 


430 


1,256 


1,220 


615 


296 


880 


379 


1.335 


3,585 


1,489 


1,031 


5.548 


1,154 


21,090 


5,325 


1,246 


425 


1,462 


939 


2,803 


3,055 


1,413 


1,119 


3,329 


388 


8,931 


6,845 


521 


1, 694 


2,323 


301 


5.700 


1,234 


605 


913 


2,776 


464 


8,349 


5,414 


209 


100 


1,350 


24 


4,077 


4m 


674 


366 


2,338 


6 


6,387 


5,088 


1,557 


827 


2. 570 


976 


5,225 


5,941 


1,406 


196 


5,040 


353 


11,261 


17,938 


568 


85 


873 


457 


2,004 


3,942 


905 


727 


1,818 


713 


3,202 


2,961 


2,234 


1,378 


3,121 


1,396 


6,765 


7.653 


1,0<)9 


531 


1,281 


746 


1,930 


3.481 


1, 209 


250 


1,746 


809 


2, 510 


5,453 


642 


' 466 


1,009 


415 


1,505 


9B9 


7.38 


269 


1,389 


757 


2,055 


4,464 


390 


228 


775 


277 


1,022 


892 


355 


91 


1,601 


357 


4,549 


613 


1,640 


780 


1,825 


729 


2,962 


5,787 


1,780 


1,336 


2, 435 


785 


6,217 


5,954 


1,619 


708 


2,451 


1,073 


4,902 


6.454 


1, 106 


244 


1,603 


687 


1,703 


5.643 


1,2.10 


470 


1,7.10 


902 


2.781 


5,831 


1,559 


1,450 


a, 773 


1,047 


6, 501 


5,699 


463 


185 


796 


425 


1,093 


1,856 


l,0.-.8 


267 


1,615 


773 


3,150 


4,431 


1, 500 


2, 005 


3, 7i»3 


1,174 


6,264 


3,4:)8 


1,000 


880 


193 


554 


3,901 


3. 040 1 


1,482 


1,429 


2,596 


«« 


.5. 324 


4.C58 : 


1.438 


2.tf27 


2,25<> 


835 


6.047 


.^062 , 


:W5 


79 


3,413 


162 


5.586 ' 


2.6961 


1,73:1 


600 


2,032 


959 


2,233 


4.626 


1, 530 


1,473 


2,813 


810 


3. 272 


4,191 


l.-'V.IO 


1,300 


2,378 


63S 


5,713 


6,643 


675 


123 


1,345 


:i\2 


2,907 


4.326 


1.030 1 


1,430 


2,008 > 


062 


4.652 1 


5 47.> 



STATE OF GEORGIA. 



23 



AGRICULTURE. 



, -.L1-. 



H. ' .J-a i. 



LIVE STOCK. 



Si 



21. 


8136 


13. 


099 


16, 


080 


5. 


207 


14. 


487 


13. 


102 


18. 


029 


7. 


543 


22, 


287 


37, 


402 


12. 


421 


11. 


450 


3. 


331 


14. 


758 


19. 


415 


22. 


482 


5. 


534 


11, 


»35 


4. 


250 


15 


226 


6. 


459 


19. 


377 


11. 


095 


9. 


5&t 


6, 


043 


12, 


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15, 


481 


6. 


487 


19. 


692 


16, 


275 


26, 


332 


16, 


227 


5, 


161 


8. 


134 


26. 


449 


11. 


519 


24. 


904 


17, 


288 


IG. 


647 


8, 


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14. 


027 


13, 


734 


22. 


699 


7, 


442 


11, 


174 


25, 


611 


10, 


955 


9, 


803 


5, 


984 


13. 


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6. 


579 




683 


21, 


484 


22, 


587 


IG. 


637 


9. 


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12, 


688 


24. 


122 


6, 


572 


7, 


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26, 


552 


14, 


738 


20, 


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34. 


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21, 


026 


27, 


420 


10, 


187 


20. 


512 



o 



o 

o 
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1258,539 
259, 195 
314,300 
138, 520 
183,293 
301.109 
318. 199 
141,331 
344, 724 
7(J6, 079 
255,789 
194, 867 

94, 824 
288, 181 
302,755 
404,961 
120,281 
226, 193 

68,254 
258, 733 
217. 787 
316,222 
259, 100 
179, 323 
154, 946 
135. 751 
3:10,464 

76, 001 
471,753 
15)7,213 
619,956 
318.006 
111,270 
112,355 
507,581 
246,530 
456, 520 
429, 446 
466,063 
101,767 
194, 497 
330,349 
321,833 

95,585 
248. 871 
550,472 
211.490 
171, 418 
179, 937 
159, 877 

91.366 

79, 925 
36^1, 210 
424, 107 
330,203 
174. 809 
244, 189 
489,441 

99,652 
171,331 
590, 645 
283,215 
427, 893 
700,095 
119,882 
283,897 
423,084 
459.654 
141,779 
430,406 



PRODUCED. 



a 






429 

223 
13, 475 
14, 112 

433 
3,345 

405 



98 

5,083 

10,377 

652 



38,039 

37.278 

136,694 

31^494 

2, .322 



47, 310 



71, 373 
19,041 

1,274 
21,36:J 
322 
64,622 
48 
18,540 
• 53 
58,384 

9,228 
19, 089 
17, 469 



31, 864 

8,016 

533 

88 

236 

146 

21,260 

3, 972 

4,849 

34,009 

102,069 

41,738 

24,053 

16,202 

11, 145 

7,764 



112,380 
35,036 
41,774 
12, 119 
35,099 
24.508 
10,684 
27, 960 
31,507 
23,786 
57.980 
21,484 
214 
31,358 
36,682 
20,095 
4,474 
19,085 



•s 





253 

20 
1,031 

87 

93 

362 

1,914 

39 
229 
443 
381 

79 

10 

136 

417 

3,106 

40 
320 



293 

2; 000 

1,540 

686 

245 

164 

31 

598 

43 

458 

114 

729 

81 

369 

1,086 
7 
323 
482 
915 
36 
108 
185 

1,895 
327 

5,36:1 
396 

9,059 
648 
30:) 
268 

5,953 

80 

10 

263 

1,267 
272 

2,352 
766 
713 
141 
396 
116 
390 
584 
838 
142 
332 
219 

7,068 

1,020 
437 



.3 

.0 



O 

I 

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5 



O 



96,724 



212, 


570 


227, 


734 


139. 


750 


77. 


720 


239. 


370 


22:1, 


353 


61, 


816 


138, 


117 


703. 


842 


198. 


865 


181, 


972 


51, 


080 


232, 


380 


331, 


G92 


430, 


202 


160, 


240 


173, 


318 


18, 


834 


251, 


422 


w, 


977 


364, 


858 


196. 


17:j 


153, 


715 


11. "5, 


355 


62, 


931 


313, 


245 


27. 


339 


330, 


050 


61, 


182 


476, 


026 


274. 


645 


143. 


540 


142. 


890 


36:1, 


067 


000 


147 


340, 


701 


356, 


812 


222, 


875 


38, 


290 


128. 


370 


258, 


266 


150 


504 


115, 


044 


220, 


400 


52:), 


120 


231. 


778 


190, 


294 


123, 


730 


217, 


290 


74, 


X» 


39, 


137 


5:13, 


650 


304, 


205 


.325, 


440 


173, 


080 


330, 


645 


354, 


859 


101, 


289 


126, 


553 


497, 


950 


235, 


765 


347, 


296 


648, 


870 


40, 


887 


290, 


684 


327, 


214 


364, 


955 


94, 


362 


321. 


300 



■s 

a 

Xi 
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12, 
1 
7 
5 
7 

15 
6, 

7, 
3 

10 
1 

6, 

14 

29, 

8 

1 



20, 



11 

18 

4 

7, 

7, 

29, 

39 
4 

37, 
4 
3 

2 

9 
4 
1 
1 



13 
2, 

11 
7 

25 

14 
4 
3 
7 



315 
000 
705 
787 
016 
270 
911 
622 
132 
894 
144 
366 
40 
551 
316 
945 
684 
156 



577 
425 
251 
107 
784 
467 
535 
410 
833 
904 
830 
667 
204 
008 
811 
5 
349 

WM 

450 

434 

971 

100 

832 

680 

002 

082 

79:1 

587 

SSG 

488 

993 

597 

720 

18,681 

24, 442 

23,916 

6,289 

10,400 

38,528 

2,450 

7,971 

6,147 

8,615 

22,311 

9,403 

3,088 

13.364 

14, 178 

1,870 

406 

11,188 



•3 

a 

i 



34, 71>5 
1,000 



S8 
43,655 



22, 628 

1, 609, 676 

30,615 

4,316 

20 

851 

10,330,068 



1,060 



25,934,160 
o 

10 
13,540 



30,005 

138 

10, 325 



25 



39,577 



120 
50,155 



4,300 
500 

3,783 
253 

238,560 



2.885 
412 
395 



21 
417 

15 
230 



4, 842, 755 



1,765 
45 



60 
305 



I 



o 
H 



2,C87 



5< 



5,660 



242 

20 

■ 50 

125 

5,214 

16, 740 

6,700 



885 



144.583 

1,909 

60 



152 
3,267 



795 
126 



50 

8,463 

281,410 



80 
10 



1,255 

783 

9,531 

699 

133, 135' 

9,225 

3,412 

200 

25,486 



42, 945 

500 

4,733 

15.838 

15,420 



5,655 
4,712 



20 



26,972 


540 


11,331 


«i7 


100 


3,325 


70 


1,100 


100 


100 


40 


154 



, bale 
ach. 


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. 


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a 


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517 

8,713 
6,811 

6ai 

503 
6,122 
4,406 

402 

1,378 

23, 419 

5,4.34 

5,747 

630 
4,439 
3, 982 
4,407 
2 
7,206 

125 
2,152 

933 

978 
3,837 
5,292 
2,130 

216 
3,315 

282 
9,525 

469 

14, 930 

9,722 



.3:j 

7,990 

1,560 

9,977 

19.580 

9,116 

200 

517 

5,470 

1, 127 



4, 655 

7,804 

656 

793 

494 

132 

1,609 

688 

4.32 

8, &I3 

2,446 

78 

4&3 

13, 332 

609 

1,483 

14.906 

6.492 

9,237 

28,852 

322 

1,594 

9,255 

10, 420 

1.706 

9,560 



13,749 
1,190 
5.348 
5, 913 

10, .?82 
1,539 
8,497 
5.587 

29,773 
8,986 
4,435 
2,839 
1,745 
7,566 

12, 502 
7, .300 
3,230 
155 
140 
7,133 
4.480 
8,139 
7,2C8 
2,759 
3,033 
2,708 
7,086 
5, 435 

11, 927 

12,515 

10, 675 
2,405 
2,293 
5,422 

14,232 
4, 615 

14,424 



10,366 
1,088 
9,955 
8, 958 

47,929 
6, 675 
4,953 

13. 476 
4,762 
6.474 
992 
8.634 
1,506 
1,215 

11, 2C>2 
9,760 
9,022 
8, S82 

10. 176 
8.9.-)5 
2,662 
5,«>98 
5, .336 
5,283 
7,835 
1,996 
8,236 

10,106 
7,137 

13,700 
9,557 
9,199 





of 

§ 

CD 

a 

^4 



10,587 

11,557 

44,635 

3,219 

9.900 

8,752 

29. 016 

7,816 

18.357 

23,031 

3,207 

4,060 

5,037 

1,238 

4,380 

17 903 

510 

16,362 

589 

6,765 

16. 118 

7.447 

10,164 

23,176 

7.282 

7,025 

5.4.32 

4.019 

43,153 

7,491 

22,467 

7,190 

121 

1,703 

27,0S8 

6,475 

14,568 

23.061 

16,604 

16, 515 

4,656 

36,609 

14,772 

951 

1,791 

27, .363 

903 

3,793 

3.344 

4,523 

2,427 

4,943 

15, 312 

19,650 

9,265 

7.198 

5,959 

85, 495 

1,323 

11,704 

6,C95 

10, 940 

18,337 

11,634 

5,311 

7,932 

15,089 

9,127 

13,528 

21,338 



I 



151 



6,288 

1,528 

397 

3,738 

818 

181 

457 

3.662 

4,126 

587 

1,438 

677 

2,076 

5.919 

1.233 

1,068 



2,090 
6,010 
3.178 
2,749 
1,,'j68 
1,463 

240 
4,005 

127 
6,230 
27 
6,729 
10 
1,832 
2.308 
1.826 
2,283 
3,842 

435 

672 

5 

50 

3,704 

853 
6,110 

559 
9,925 

504 
1,114 
2,209 
8,268 

255 

398 
6,450 
6,318 
1,610 
6, .324 
3,113 
3,859 

605 
1,729 
4,168 
2,095 
3,129 
1,101 

191 
2,390 
2,795 
3,006 
62 
3,657 



•s 



.0 

I s 
5. *» 

» 

CO 



65,400 
54,760 
63,077 
24, 915 
47,404 
74,190 
70,163 
32,904 
62.039 

113.835 
26.156 
44.938 
34.088 
34,777 
56, 515 
43,103 
14.054 
37,008 
14,155 
31,006 
65.291 
44.333 
35.100 
47,219 
19.022 
27.193 
45.865 
21,553 
52,400 
62,192 
67, 479 
53,820 
7,509 
19, 124 

121,240 
43, 729 
88,923 
56.310 
70, 415 
26,210 
45,727 
38,023 
53,652 
8,651 
30,040 
59.904 
23,564 
27,054 
20.346 
21,856 
17,341 
33,010 
52, 595 
60,983 
48,466 
27,814 
36.980 
75, 844 
10.427 
28.374 
64,549 
40,575 
56,742 

140, 378 
40,655 
39,147 
49,380 
70,612 
31, 443 
53.830 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
U 
13 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
33 
33 
34 
35 
36 
.37 
38 
39 
40 
4L 
43 
4J 
44 
45 
46 
4? 
48 
49 
90 
51 
53 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
56 
59 
60 
61 
63 
63 
64 
65 
66 
67 
68 
69 
70 



STATE OF GEOEGIA. 



aobicultuhe. 





COUNTIEa. 


PRODUCED. 






J 
1 

1 


1 

r 
1 


f 

h 
1^ 


1 
1 


If 


t 
1 


1 
1 


i 


i 


1 


1 
1 

1 


















3o!oS6 
43,146 

J5!«4T 
3fl,7ll 
19,550 

34,612 
53. H5 
77,330 
18,499 
6. 333 
45.185 

7.'>,206 
5,835 

38,303 
3,310 

45,052 
3,3D7 

B4.096 

as,23S 

35,565 
3,918 

ff7,goi 

6,371 
69,472 

36^643 
13.0T2 
ai,709 
30,981 
5<^37T 
36, (WO 
16,867 
35,983 

8,aas 

ffi,361 
10,557 
33.475 

sz 

GI.OM 
43.058 

47,391 
»,43S 

6,075 


965 






















G 


















680 


1 


(2,130 
33 


$3,130 

la 


















• 














337 














1S3 




7,451 


539 


0,025 


1.453 
9 
703 
















80 


































BX«k" 






a, MO 

4.090 


1,814 


















as 




1.B50 




1 












110 






" 


























30 

s,m 

50 






S 














10 

«l 


25 




40 




















34 

108 




8 

lao 


1 








118 




1 










400 














1.W5 


B 






































3J 


s 




an 




MO 


1,343 
106 




30 










77 

s,!tae 


79,aao 

34 


' 














(rr 














91 




9 




a 














































isa 














U 


87 


1.059 


40 


1,143 


337 


" 
























ao 




3,415 


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aoo 




1.744 
















703 














169 




l,5fl7 


aa 


500 


SO 






u 












































IS8 


as 


5 




100 


* 


«» 














30 




! 








1 


















17 


























1,456 


















10 








































3UC 


1,S39 


135 




789 














70 




















185 
















.<! 


30 


m 


175 




110 


19 








iff, 












3.180 


lOO 






10 


^ 




















5 




41 


3.4^7 






















19 














31 


Bie 


1 


74 


' 


















































100 1 B3 




40 










' S3 


U 


8,711 
3,103 
S.S16 

1,S81 


Boe 

848 


7,407 68,956 




























15 


50 


693 
3,942 


' 


00 


39 










63,121 
50,177 

eo!7io 








































7 


86 






S 
fi,BE5 






1 
























13i 




4,589 


151 


1.645 


65.500 
138,940 

ei95i 

69,000 
43^413 
5.035 
58.037 














Rfrj 


575 















in 




373 


1,135 
















1.057 
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1,882 
































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STATE OF GEOEGIA. 



3S 



AGEICDLTUEE. 



FRODDCED. 


s 

■a 

< 




HEMF. 


1 
1 


1 
1 


1 
1 

i 


1 
t 


■5 

p 


t 
1 


i 

f ^ 

J 


J 


1 


1 
1 






1 

1 


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« 




«,'i« 




1,433 

671 

501 
350 

517 
163 


9 07s' Mfi.^> 


150, ma 

100,639 
46.124 
46,093 
03; 963 




















3. 770 
8.530 

10,993 
9,835 
4.453 
^039 
8.090 

14.640 


7.358 
17.493 


« 
















3,449 


















■"<i,asc.* 

499 

3T,SS3 
1.967 
<,5tr7 








































40 


















« 






















681 
819 






















1i!b34 
3,479 


71,393 
176, 174 
84,138 
ST. 632 

78,863 
93,750 
116.656 
33,513 




















11 






















































' 




8.7*9 
SM 

j{6J9 
0,(64 

l.ll» 

3.053 
LOSS 
4,H« 
403 

1,134 

384 

S.I99 

GO 

6,S03 

5,015 

80J 

367 

5,548 

50,433 

l.SEB 

as, 739 

8,501 

13.895 

1,945 

7,ose 




13 




















4925 
3!683 


13,771 
13,933 
15,035 
3,664 










































17 
IS 
















JiO 
10 
























60 


i^979 








































SO 

516 

807 

603 

S,39S 

asi 

S35 

399 
637 

EflB 


4,336 


11,001 

4,175 

lo!l30 
3.101 

nm 

I1W 
13.933 
8,989 
9,W9 
10,963 

3,194 

'S 

14,050 
11,896 
3,751 

S:i 

6,751 
4,608 

3,971 

17. 146 
11,619 
33,537 
34,178 

16!e47 

6! 897 
14, (TO 
30,364 

a. 397 
11,934 

6.134 


76,003 
16,095 
98.328 
84,934 
57,889 
39,131 
41,473 
99.346 
19.37B 
114,153 

leilsio 

80.819 
33,448 
34.135 
115.851 

68,910 
99,449 

01.699 
50.559 

69,679 
37,395 
82,81.7 

38^24 
50.816 
38.511 
53,810 

lo!593 

155,084 

169.828 
97,T1!7 

186!959 

13l!5Bl 

45.603 

151,761 


30 
















" 
























11,130 

sieu 

9,367 
38,472 
M.684 

33,911 
S,BJ3 
1,229 
5,302 
3,810 

11,687 
4,394 


33 














a 




















IB 


















« 
















































38 
39 

31 




















































• 
































































33 




































1. 










































< 






































;• 






373 
199 
161 

669 
631 

569 

1,060 
1,411 

69 

899 

IBl 
M 


1,690 
18,137 

8,560 
10.601 

4,512 

4723 
3.383 
8,618 

9. 578 
3,386 
1,100 

6!373 
19,660 

is! 2*2 

8.339 

12. HW 
30.673 
1.61,1 
5,190 
13,733 

1,070 
Si 


















































" 










338 


» 
















v.aao 






30 


m 


!. 


> 






6.736 
























se 


9 




136 






8,744 

asas 








































4,450 


48 




















ii,oe7 








IM 


» 














































11 




3,«0 






















13,399 

l!7C0 


M 


















so 


no 
























1S5 


10 










S,829 










u 








1^514 








































3,548 














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949 
























7,393 


















n. 




a34o 














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4, SOT 





















1,544 

i,8oe 

















ID 




























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70 



26 



STATE OF GEORGIA. 



AGRICULTURE. 



71 
73 
73 
74 
75 
76 
77 
78 
TJ 
80 
81 
82 
83 
81 
85 
86 
87 
68 
89 
90 
91 

93 

94 

95 

96 

97 

98 

99 

100 

101 

102 

103 

101 

103 

106 

107 

106 

109 

110 

111 

lis 

113 
114 
115 
116 
117 
118 
119 
ISO 
ISl 
122 
123 
124 

|0" 



COUNTIES. 



126 
127 
128 
129 
130 
131 
132 



ACRES OF LAND. 



Lanreni .*. . . 

Lee 

Liberty 

Lincoln 

Lowndes 

Lnnipkla 

Blacon 

Madison 

Marion 

Mclotosh 

Meriwether . 

MUler 

Milton 

Mitchell 

Monroe 

Montgomery t 

Morgan 

Murray 

MuKogce 

Newton 

Oglethorpe 

Paulding ^ 

Pickens 

Pierce 

Pike 

Polk 

Pnliiski 

Piitnam 

Quitman 

Rabun 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Schley 

Scriven 

Spalding 

Stewart 

Sumter 

Talbot 

Taliaferro 

Tatnall 

Taylor 

Telfair 

Terrell 

Thomas 

Towns 

Troup 

Twiggs 

Union 

Upsnn 

Walker 

Walton 

Wnrren 

Ware 

Washington 

Woyno 

Webster 

White 

Whitfield 

Wilcox 

Wilkes 

W'ilkinson 

Worth 

Total 



B 



60, 
85, 
46, 
67 
34 
IT 
88 
49, 
66, 
20, 

162, 
10, 
27 
26, 

194 
21 

135, 
37 
69, 

130 
88 
31 
17, 
7 
88 
42, 
65, 

128, 
31 
14 
80, 
51 
44 
77 
54 

145 

102, 

132 
40, 
22, 
47, 
18, 
51 
74 
13 

146 

102, 
21 
97 
57 

123, 

94 

9, 

145 
6, 
45, 
15 
45, 
13 

130 
94 
21 



8j6 
&10 
674 
105 
418 
506 
353 
533 
553 
037 
609 
G07 
361 
GOl) 
C67 
GOG 
426 
430 
063 
279 
330 
G84 
428 
G6S 
912 
434 
519 
004 
015 
366 
854 
313 
383 
210 
453 
982 
327 
933 
255 
646 
705 
852 
395 
423 
235 
245 
527 
076 
729 
173 
342 
51)8 
097 
79? 
b'92 
239 
COO 
042 
80G 
185 
373 
9^0 



8, 062, 758 



a 

8 

I 



241 

113, 

358 

74 

255, 

09 

108, 

136, 

85, 

107, 

144 

49 

41 

83, 

120, 

ail 

78 

90, 

74 
127 
170, 

60, 

72 
134 
106, 

76, 
255, 

97 

48 
125 
131 
159, 

58, 
330, 

57 
136, 
160, 
108, 

64 
491 
119, 
139 

97 
152 

49, 
113 
129 
100, 

97 
133 
120, 
109, 
197 
279, 
127, 

76 

65 
110 
127 
161 
154 



728 
172 
319 
053 
623 
552 
176 
506 
345 
574 
479 
220 
4G0 
523 
433 
095 
113 
593 
938 
564 
483 
864 
960 
209 
457 
226 
G86 
272 
469 
106 
360 
272 
735 
053 
792 
005 
742 
912 
452 
024 
778 
025 
169 
018 
673 
526 
682 
567 
363 
365 
759 
927 
075 
666 

orn 

915 
105 
165 
8G2 
428 
706 



116,414 



o 
a 

-a 
a 



91, 616. 319 

2, 140, 429 

617, 592 

782, 140 

1,258,205 

331,295 

1, 680, 768 

758,797 

1,140,302 

892, 061 

2, 432, 794 

314, 595 

327,085 

819, 057 

3, 153, 690 

389,038 

1, 394. 573 

1,254,805 

1, 514. 052 

1, 685. 836 

1, 766, 381 

671, 703 

384, 292 

208, 710 

1, 485, 948 

1,331,713 

1, 485. 870 

1,663,088 

574, 730 

274,926 

],443,6()d 

2, 105, 079 

737, 130 

1,444,732 

989, 600 

2, 502, 959 

S, 319, 466 

1, 957, 372 

661,670 

305, 905 

1, 078, 678 

295. 795 

1, 202, 955 

1, 530. 540 

260, 662 

2, 196, 064 

1,535,777 

352,560 

1, 413, 869 

1,469,831 

1, 342, 409 

1, 5-25. 824 

381,571 

2, 358, 562 

145,633 

852, 642 

326, 672 

1, 516, !Xo 

285,977 

1,601,158 

1, 974, 014 

527, 872 



18, 587, 732 



157,072,803 



c9 

a 

« o 

OB 04 

8 ► 

a » 



«0 

a o 



1 

cs 
Em 



$36,692 
82,433 
51. 131 
41,203 
44, 110 
18,150 
51, 624 
76, 561 
59,087 
68,476 

152, 066 
11,768 
14,558 
34,007 

132,542 
18, 081 
62, 080 
33,358 
96, 334 
92,671 
74, 107 
28,822 
22,457 
7,479 
60, 594 
49, 640 
76,617 

109,961 
20,468 
15, 422 
78,879 
62, 911 
31,130 
73,653 
45,589 

123, 214 

126,202 
88, 197 
26, 141 
26,762 
40, 513 
14,092 
39,443 
75, 757 
2,797 
92,230 
48, 074 
18,221 
68,447 
59,124 
51,476 
56,568 
10, 014 

100, 892 
8,491 
39,384 
16, 827 
49, 977 
16,066 
71,517 
72,025 
18,054 



6. 844, 387 



LIVE STOCK. 






1,346 
STJ 

1,073 
721 
580 
614 
913 

1,218 
650 
401 

1,570 
239 
698 
452 

1,644 
680 

1,215 

1,126 
711 

2,016 

1,976 
955 
587 
362 

1,074 
822 

1,157 

1,288 
320 
689 
912 

1,484 
436 

1,244 
602 

1,231 
919 

1,143 
751 
690 
827 
537 
576 
932 
654 

1,508 
998 
982 

1,043 

2,466 

1,981 

1,421 
340 

2,408 
331 
486 
630 

1,309 
408 

1,495 

1,426 
486 



130,771 



e 

9 

s 

s 

< 



560 

1,452 
336 
698 
574 
236 

1,314 
310 

1,110 
105 

S,406 
162 
304 
401 

2,284 
168 

1,305 
498 
843 

1,346 

899 

357 

254 

37 

1,260 
608 
904 

1,618 
427 
144 

1,122 
914 
661 
913 
831 

2,373 

1,552 

1,954 
456 
203 
730 
134 
874 

1,100 
148 

2,430 

1,480 
125 

1,344 

1,045 

935 

791 

58 

1,029 

25 

731 

186 

479 

85 

1,304 
951 
231 



t 

z 

•s 



3,983 
1,885 
5,235 
1,382 
3,525 
1,038 
2,085 
1,780 
1,853 
2,533 
3,7G0 
2,124 
1,022 

a30 
3,190 
4,365 
2,266 
1,342 
1,649 
2.911 
3,030 
1,343 

935 
2, 625 
2,081 
1,148 
4,113 
2, 528 

701 
1,122 
2,011 
2,122 

888 
4,171 
1,512 
3,284 
2,126 
3,306 
1,307 
4,871 
1,715 
3.056 
1,477 
3,GS9 

777 
3,095 
1,283 
1,278 
1,968 
2,471 
2,604 
2,03G 
2,115 
3,330 
2.335 
1,208 
. 816 
1,573 
2,930 
2, 602 
2,454 
3,245 



101, 069 



299,688 



i 

I 

o 



601 
512 
411 
557 
140 
539 
414 
975 
408 
274 

1,193 
274 
4G0 
262 

1,184 
321 
738 
632 
302 
980 

1,403 
736 
544 
45 
699 
644 
584 
646 
280 
384 
472 
185 
240 
166 
379 
850 
«*7 
875 
371 
220 
520 
522 
285 
566 
246 

1,144 
690 
612 
783 

1,117 

1,029 

1,020 
76 

1,309 
66 
262 
299 
711 
206 

1,215 
895 
213 



74,487 



4 
9 






8.471 
4,789 

12,a')0 
3. 424 
8,616 
1,831 
3,779 
2,481 
2,983 
5,611 
7.785 
5,033 
1,973 
4,513 
7,716 

10,049 
4.703 
2,129 
3,277 
5,477 
5.000 
1,703 
1,224 
6.644 
3,713 
2,478 
8,227 
5,786 
1,447 
1,326 
4,561 
3,522 
1,030 
9.288 
a.95G 
5,285 
4,163 
5,048 
2,703 

11.982 
4.319 
5.829 
3,160 
166 
1,678 
7,191 
4,324 
f,430 
4,969 
4,661 
4,:JS6 
4,301 
7,133 
6,341 
6,174 
1,779 
1,001 
2,503 
4,8-28 
6,709 
4.566 
6,034 



Oi 
00 



6,379 

i.6:x 

5.640 
3.955 
4,762 
2.899 

1,795] 
4, 577 I 

1.281 I 
1.354 I 
5,463' 

2,369 , 
2.116 
2,710 
5.392 
11,769 
3,7!>2 
3.763 

723 
5.023 
6,363 
3.153 
3.363 

969 
3,074 
2,279 
4,525 
4.415 

534 
2,776 
1.496 
2,220 

572 
6,711 
2,236 
2,672 
1.390 
2.S11 
S.d03 
10.514 
1,074 
9,041 
1,109 
6,023 
2,654 
4.833 
2,13B 
4.912 
3,070 
6,636 
5,236 
3,737 

734 
6.932 
1.S14 

495 
1,950 
4,072 
5,177 
6,674 
2;7S9 
2.239 



631,707 



512,618 



STATE OF GEOUGIA. 



AGBICrLTUBE. 



LIVE STOCK. 



19,0l>j 
EO,f« 
18.796 



141,435 
173, 3CT 



107, nic 
101, ISS 



Bi,094 
49,!3r 



181, 3::: 

310, 7M 
67,463 

3,344,913 1 1U,S33| 30,776,2 



a, lie 

C04-2 

e,::84 



6,sej 
n.i;78 

13,431 



B I 701, 640 I 



8,^81 



6,i5n 


10,342 








3.443 




9, MO 








4.1C9 


3,5^ 






a.6CC 


3.031 


6,ffia 


0,8.-rfi 




3.1^M 





fi™4 


3,525 
1,133 


a2,iej 


6. EM 


i,m 


08,380 




78 




a, 133 
9.5CT 


^'^ 


7.814 
80.138 


9.S-J2 
IB, 903 


1,010 


«;we 


23, res 


BIS 


52.593 



1.705,ai4 303,7ra 6,S»,S41 



1 


511, Ml 
130. 7J0 

ie!ooo 



28 



STATE OF GEORGIA, 



AGRICULTURE. 



71 

72 

73 

74 

73 

16 

77 

78 

79 

80 

81 

8S 

83 

84 

85 

86 

87 

88 

89 

90 

91 

99 

93 

94 

95 

96 

97 

98 

99 

100 

•101 

103 

103 

104 

105 

106 

107 

108 

109 

110 

111 

112 

113 

114 

115 

116 

117 

118 

119 

120 

121 

122 

123 

124 

125 

126 

127 

128 

129 

130 

131 

132 



COUNTIES. 



Laarem 

Le« 

Liberty 

Lincoln 

Lowndes 

Lumpkin . .. 

Macon 

Modliion 

Marion 

Mcintosh 

Meriwether . 

Miller 

Milton 

Mitchell 

Monroe 

Montgomery . 

Morgan 

Murray 

Muscogee 

Newton 

Oglethorpe . . 

Paulding 

Pickens 

Pierce 

Pike 

Polk 

Pulaski 

Putnam 

Quitman . . . . 

Rabun 

Randolph . . . 
Richmond . . . 

Schley 

Scriven . 

Spalding 

Stewart 

Sumter . . . . , 

Talbot 

Taliaferro . . . 

Tatnall 

Taylor 

Telfair , 

Terrell , 

Thomas 

Towns 

Troup 

Twiggs 

Union 

Upson 

Walker 

Walton , 

Warren 

Ware 

Washington 

Wayne 

Webster 

White 

Whitfield. . . 

Wilcox 

Wilkes 

Wilkinson . . 
Worth 



PRODUCED. 



.9 
I 

JO 
1 



21 
22 



8 
5 
4 
5 



Xi 

OB 

B 
.O 



i'i 



^ 
^ 



a 

n 



291 





a 

^ > 



$715 
380 



22 



3,097 
75 



25 
20,142 



o 

3 






106 
101 



199 



$20 



274 

227 

32 

342 



1,566 
5 



I 

d 
o 





16.247 
37,105 
18, 917 
27.533 
33.454 
24.238 
34,30G 
79.889 
42,501 



>4 

o 

•3 

.a 
O 



1.138 



575 



222 



a 
o 



3 



SG4 

54 

2 

16 









Q 



I 



4^ 



•9 

a 

I 

o 



30 



8 



Total. 



171 



1,520 



454 

5 

38 

646 

121 



251 
4 

30 
892 
300 



2 

20 

22 

110 

32 

36 

27 

707 

114 



39 



393 
5 

10 
694 

90 
152 

82 



12 



13 
10 



559 
4 



14,682 



429 



232 
22,661 



1,400 



120 



159 

5,117 

100 



7 
3 



90 

85 

1,390 

2,499 



117 

57 

3 

657 

184 

4 

25 



600 



375 



280 



10 

4,531 

50 

12, 031 

2,057 

145 

280 

6, 316 

266 



567 
116 
520 
710 
83 



20 
21 



29 



1,005 



42 
2,505 



1,020 

105 

257 

45 

3,710 



1,444 
205 



5 
413 

86 
174 

44 
450 
119 
670 
297 



135 



146 

12* 

7 

494 

20 

32 

1,517 



2,023 



2,230 

3,066 

80 

10 

60 

12,256 

882 

176, 048 



88 



136 
Si 
37 



3,038 
50 



27,646 



1,453 



47 

6,790 
63 



330 

558 



11 



50 
1 



59,310 



215 
200 



618 



2&2 



27 



61 



1,854 
12 



40 



3,497 
230 



150 



201,916 



147, 199 

5,359 

.36,779 

24, 717 

156,380 
15,537 
59, 435 
46, 179 
38,578 

104,672 
97, .•)45 
36.077 
23,721 
6.527 
87,917 
48.126 
27,0G0 
70,102 
14,213 
26.046 
5.820 
27,803 
19,976 
24, 401 
47, 746 
71,430 
37,297 
K»,989 
37, 940 
18. 870 
28,487 
9,978 
21,402 
31, 655 
19,197 
34,431 
27,469 
30,298 
67,654 
37,695 

108,631 

38,215 

4,726 

51,345 

6,475 

26,921 

17,383 

62,775 

8.r86 

59, rrr 

38,022 
16,C8l 

5,439,765 



46 



2,189 
185 



SO 



60 
268 



SO 



670 
405 



500 



200 
365 



205 



20 

93 

115 



25 

270 
1,094 



1,286 



15,587 



3 

2 



2 

1,905 

197 

579 

12 

2.298 

1,462 

2 



27 
873 



3 

83 



3^474 

593 

12 



1,529 



801 



61 
8 



51 

1,798 

11 



117 

423 

3 

1,952 



520 



46, 448 



10 



20 



10 



45 
59 



258 



23 



12 



10 
3 



31 



15 



75 



SB 
9 

105 



635 



2 



I 



2 ^ 

^ f 

387 I. 



1,914 



1S9 



STATE OF GEORGIA. 



29 



AGRICULTUBE. 



PRODUCED. 


s 

1 

1 

< 




HEMP. 


43 

a 



o 

s 


m 

"3 

•s 




1 • 

00 


m 

s 

1 


Vi 

o 


i 

3 ® 

11 

® 


t 

li 

o 


• 

u 

a 


o 

•3 

9 
1 


a 
I 

§ 


1. 

m a 
If 




Dew rotted, tons 
ot 


1 
t 

2 o 

1 


o 


















35 




693 

18,199 

3,TJ0 

C5 

13,295 

3,318 

7,622 

62 

3,C87 

4,464 

210 

7,701 


3,787 
1,150 


154 

48 

313 

• 237 

721 

456 

352 

* 489 

342 


1,801 
3,370 
1,285 
2,128 
11,6B3 
4,228 
7,761 
9,823 
6,631 


eiO,654 
24, 514 

5,530 
11,298 

9,146 

8,491 
96,281 

5,390 


e77,600 

118,771 

42,302 

69.4C8 

79, 17i 

38,789 

118, 975 

71, 814 

110, 186 

13,2:10 

217. 981 

24,548 

47,429 

38,939 

213, 406 

40,947 

104,944 

66.251 

84.212 

150,093 

124, 653 

S,"). 343 

C8, 019 

23.C07 

109,253 

72, 191 

11^881 

143,085 

34,179 

29,297 

105. 459 

135, 7C5 

63,275 

?9,0C8 

70,257- 

151, 423 

118, 037 

94.607 

50,288 

87.C8J 

82.C86 

?6,401 

66,422 

112.365 

25,701 

175.524 

114, 140 

33.298 

143, 741 

101, 646 

113, 617 

116.102 

29.246 

184,662 

20,683 

07,533 

25,839 

63, 15.1 

36,645 

126,694 

132,254 

45»430 


71 
79 
73 
74 

75 
76 
77 
78 
79 
80 
81 
82 
83 
84 
85 
88 
87 
88 
89 
on 
































36 




































180 








• 




209 


30 

• 






















f 










40 




1 1 
























1,043 
















2 






















2,488 

18 

422 

18 

954 

63 

210 

273 

148 

994 

311 

307 

330 

1,197 
658 
121 
296 
601 
439 
560 
649 
413 
273 
186 
2C8 

1,739 
375 

1,670 
405 
662 
167 


27,199 

293 

8,608 

1,250 

13,282 

6:ji 

1,290 
5,011 
4, 572 

14,542 
6,C80 

12, 411 
6,026 
9, 559 

11,452 
1.973 
1,944 
4,642 
6,992 
9, £82 

16,943 
5,155 
4,460 
1,053 
4,535 

24,394 
7,929 

18,003 
2,397 
8,397 
5,719 


30,133 

3,044 

14,877 

3,536 

16, 718 

18.703 

1,880 

40,959 

563 

30,030 

10, 510 

14, 118 

16,973 

4,047 

11,250 

10,739 

4,037 

3,995 

1,2C8 

7,511 

2,034 

404 

3,103 

5,765 

4,546 

4.890 

8,7:J2 

6.877 

4.042 

10, 800 

8,642 

7,241 

24,009 

32.875 

13,357 

2,742 

4,8.2 

14,794 

12.403 

14.200 

20.376 

7,979 

3.757 

26, 461 

1,421 

2,390 

11, 144 

10.4.12 

9.991 

5.184 

11, 915 

8.448 






















1 


































23 




10,460 












• 








1,184 
















IG 




9,861 
3,305 


























215 


3 










15, 244 












3 




710 
















2, 7 14 

575 

1,010 






















91 
92 
93 
94 








































3j639 
1.144 
2,326 
2,634 
9,105 
585 
513 
















7 
























Q*S 






















06 
















13 






97 






* 














98 
fi9 




* 




































2,658 


100 




















4,580 


101 






















102 
















2 

48 




7,983 

9,756 

CT 

1,591 

15^329 

57 

1,653 

17, 851 

81C 

11 549 

6.055 

35,C07 

5,776 




103 










••>■«■ 










104 


















30 


105 




















106 




•••.•... 












2 






107 


















1,450 


108 




















1C9 






















110 
















50 
23 






111 














• • • • • • 






112 














657 




998 


83 

40 

15 

119 

235 

463 

1,177 

92 

512 

499 

1,326 

182 

1,779 

667 

375 

139 

89 

288 

555 

47 


4,319 
3,186 
5,000 
2,155 
3,825 
4,070 

17,276 
5,884 

11,100 
7,279 
9,441 
7,945 

11, 145 

13,620 

6,707 

3,745 

528 

6. 610 

10,037 
680 


113 














154 




114 










****■• 










115 










■*•"•••"• 






2 






116 






; 










665 
9,590 




117 








1,110 


19 












118 




"'••*•*••• 












3,309 

50 

140 

385 

8 

175 


119 




















6,844 


120 




















1?t 












1 










122 














3 




1,723 


123 














' 




1^4 
















18 




775 
1,826 
4,163 


125 












4 






40 


126 








30 
150 


2 








127 
















9,194 


128 














15 




4,027 


129 




















630 


ICO 




















1.288 


131 
















2 




10, 214 




133 






















1 




30 


3,303 


96 


72 


l»91 


1,167 


so 


546,749 


103,490 


61,505 


953,915 


1,431,413 


10.908,204 











30 



STATE OF ILLINOIS. 



AGRICULTURE. 



COUNTIES. 



1 
S 
3 

4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
IS 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
SO 
SI 
S2 
S3 
24 
S5 
S6 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
3S 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
53 
53 
51 
53 
56 
57 
58 
SO 
60 
61 
69 



Adami 

Alexander.. 

Bond 

Boone 

Brown 

Bureau 

Calhoun 

Carroll 

Can 

Champaign. 
Christian... 

Clark 

Clay 

Clinton 

Coles 

Cook 

Crawford. . . 
Cumberland 

DeKolb 

De Witt.... 

Douglas 

Du Pago . . . 

Edgar 

Edwards . . . 
Effingham . . 

Fayette 

Ford 

Franklhx... 

Fulton 

Gallatin.... 

Greene 

Grundy .... 
Hamilton... 
Hancock . . . 

Hardin 

Henderson . 

Henry 

Iroquoitf.... 

Jackson 

Jasper 

Jefferson . . . 

Jersey 

Jo Daviess . 

Johnson 

Kane 

Kankakeo . . 
Kendall.... 

Knox 

Lake 

La Salle — 
Lawrence .. 

Lee 

Livlngstoo . 

Logan 

McDonough 
McHenry... 
McLean . . . . 

Macon 

Macoupin .. 

Madison 

Marion 

Maraban... 



ACRES OF LAND. 



a 



► 

p. 
S 



205,106 

9,503 

86,010 

139,173 

62.376 

283,433 

19,811 

118.655 

104,041 

169, 610 

133,260 

89,402 

105, 974 

111.879 

125,387 

867,927 

64,805 

38,757 

260, 218 

116,063 

94,923 

155,207 

206,811 

37,065 

52,219 

80,563 

10,155 

56,028 

223,193 

37,879 

141,034 

132,971 

46, 614 

212,336 

17,993 

108, 469 

200,078 

142,731 

43,027 

70, 145 

91,094 

95,944 

119,993 

42,406 

222,566 

142,074 

186,107 

248,884 

164, 745 

240, 4C3 

64,352 

152, 472 

110,738 

191,035 

161, 291 

184, 8^5 

333,427 

130,240 

233,613. 

167,039 

97,592 

139,746 



I 

.a 

V 

o 

p. 
B 

-a 



136,143 

22,869 

66,426 

26,%43 

71,879 

73,927 

1^,824 

71,016 

92,224 

77, 1C6 

54,098 

102,374 

116,655 

88,899 

87,571 

70,023 

75, 140 

39,612 

16,847 

44, 793 

53,483 

51,154 

96,199 

50,068 

70,042 

114,598 

16,436 

130,362 

132,604 

78,672 

118,896 

11,009 

112, 495 

120,842 

45,281 

72,022 

47,763 

81, 474 

87,914 

110, 919 

115, 049 

64.205 

136, 917 

111,906 

68,491 

48,463 

13, 815 

88,782 

44,842 

18,542 

86,536 

79, 779 

9,493 

50,322 

83,132 

116, GG5 

66,095 

37,652 

142,848 

96,816 

80,941 

26,840 





► 
.a 

a 



$9,228,170 

305,710 
1, 689, 845 
3, 085, 040 
2,084,951 
8, 557, 219 

669,390 
2,843,417 
4,260,382 
5,013,180 
2, 032, 005 
2,507,566 
2, 745, 904 
4, 073, 548 
4, 112, 628 
10, 005, 774 
1,742,235 
1,063,700 
5, 506, 102 
3,526,751 
2, 384, 660 
5,128,274 
5,662,398 

968, 015 
1,415,593 
1,824,588 

466, 616 
1, 567, 095 
8,3j8,867 
1,348,915 
4,606,965 
2, 573, 250 
1,233,170 
7, 065, 584 

442, 910 
3,334,410 
5, 274, 000 
3,035,168 

1, 602, rjo 

1, 997, 452 
1, 892, 813 
3,534,524 
4,761,210 
1, 070, 845 
7,799,711 
3,738,297 
4, 955, 320 
6, 996, 699 
4,881,6(M 
7, 715, 294 
1, 898, 935 
4, 80 J, 834 
3.430,450 
4.889,350 
4, 36 J, 421 
6, 753, 680 
8, 258, 690 
4,336,640 
6,481.325 
6,052,957 
3,054,215 
4,238,975 



a 

•a 

S| 

£ - 
p. >» 

a & 



$268,950 

21,890 

62,704 

216, 629 

88,263 

342,940 

38,750 

135, 852 

139, 213 

164,352 

131,484 

111,682 

110, 469 

160,203 

134, 243 

394,693 

78, 143 

40, 418 

350,739 

170,068 

82,807 

204.110 

225,892 

56,777 

62,178 

75,829 

10,183 

71, 725 

343, C59 

47, 979 

160,737 

99,931 

45,067 

262,703 

17,651 

144, 042 

246,864 

130,865 

70,839 

96,510 

109,359 

191,330 

223,103 

51, 961 

331,679 

184, 789 

317, 527 

320,648 

209,113 

861,495 

92,365 

257.286 

125, 098 

206,093 

163, 487 

299, 702 

298,566 

198,850 

293,692 

248,059 

82,342 

199,760 



LIVE STOCK. 



2 

o 

n 



9,299 
553 
4,156 
4,711 
3,726 

11,419 
1,089 
4,566 
4,510 
5,215 
4,107 
4,555 
3.868 
5,480 
5,818 

11.312 
3,854 
1,577 
9,570 
4,558 
3,373 
5,794 
8,897 
1,903 
1,917 
4,208 
399 
3,710 

10, 895 
1,996 
8,096 
3,935 
2,556 
8,498 
867 
4,353 
7.237 
4,973 
2,839 
2,977 
5,101 
4,242 
6,625 
2,376 
8,936 
5,780 
7^055 

12,029 
5,574 
9,912 
3,069 
6,471 
4,374 
6.901 
6,280 
7,453 

11, Oil 
4,755 
9,471 
8,727 
4,258 
5,146 



« 

a 
9 



1,193 
113 
128 

14 
284 
189 
117 

31 
695 
249 
594 
481 
374 
776 
326 

72 
216 
109 

79 
153 
362 

39 
251 
165 
121 
325 
7 
698 
294 
245 
754 

65 
232 
888 

71 
376 
187 
123 
356 
172 
1,145 
544 
194 
364 

37 
180 
120 
396 

21 

76 
270 

35 
142 
457 
549 

56 
241 
494 
1,585 
1,245 
499 
194 



I 

•8 

3 



7,787 
729 
3,300 
5,981 
2,857 
9,502 
1,111 
5,445 
3,188 
4,020 
2,981 
3,798 
3,912 
5,243 
4,725 

20,074 
3,212 
1,374 
9,299 
3,077 
2.369 
9,255 
6,760 
2,062 
2,235 
4,247 
295 
3,283 
9,392 
2,043 
5,240 
4,334 
8,215 
8,272 
941 
3,854 
7,301 
5,257 
2,608 
2,756 
4,667 
3,544 
7,957 
2,388 

11,559 
6,206 
7,009 
9,309 
8,790 
9,457 
2,568 
6,996 
3,637 
4.630 
5,065 

10, 421 
8,349 
3,927 
7,746 
7,548 
3,963 
4,999 



a 

8 

o 



o 



1,109 

324 

507 

707 

696 

499 

919 

628 

300 

1,077 

869 

825 

1,934 

1,134 

1,054 

1,791 

853 

674 

565 

528 

874 

475 

799 

332 

1,206 

1,392 

108 

2,241 

1,310 

1,204 

289 

250 

1,641 

1,810 

805 

675 

836 

1,098 

1,046 

1,958 

2,309 

574 

789 

1,714 

775 

713 

76 

552 

1,202 

290 

780 

336 

637 

450 

663 

1,475 

480 

821 

722 

972 

1.856 

146 



s 



« 



15,209 
1.298 
8,231 
7,231 
5,779 

17,854 
3,303 
7,601 
9,910 
7,525 
6,766 
8,261 
5,722 

10,525 
8,126 

19, 312 
4,693 
2.501 

14.060 
5,856 
4, 578 

10,035 

13, 595 
3,550 
4,982 
8,625 
554 
5,658 

14,278 
2,948 
9,349 
6,720 
3,684 

15,991 
1,793 
8,830 

10,690 
8,653 
4,781 
4.807 
8,672 
6,828 
3,112 
3,726 

16,203 
9,375 
8,657 

13, 942 

10, 515 

15,6J4 
4,888 
8,389 
6.047 
8,919 
9.133 

13, 547 

19,228 
6,618 

16,027 

13.795 
7,6S9 
6,383 



CO 



10,963 

mi 

8,204 
7,185 
7,091 
3,684 
1.151 
1,317 
4,571 
4,197 
4,978 

14,214 

10,119 
5,354 
9,925 
6.653 

15,028 
5,166 
3,962 
5,061 
4.212 

21,609 

19. 519 
8,907 
5,137 

11.900 
78 

10,278 

90.0J6 
3,566 

10,311 
256 
9,018 
9,133 
3,186 
3,900 
2,332 
5,088 
4.786 

10,091 

i2,295 
k.655 
3,U35 
6.940 

16,543 
3,035 
5.534 
7,010 

26.608 
9,833 
7.179 
2,210 
1,424 
6,&H 
8.230 

21.310 

12.510 
3,547 

10,762 
4,706 

ias» 

1.061 



STATE OF ILLINOIS. 



31 



AGRICULTURE. 



LIVE STOCK. 



« 



47,353 
5,015 

15. I41i 
4,972 

21.190 

39,159 
7,055 

14,253 

27, an 

20,083 
26,240 
27,531 
19, 947 
20,008 
30,058 
- 13, 587 
29,054 
10,910 

8,940 
18,030 
18,436 

8,118 
41, 944 
11,534 
13,051 
27,208 
719 
23,996 
07,753 
17,005 
29,207 

4,526 
18,223 
34,792 

8,447 
23,822 
15,066 
18,784 
21, 575 
19, 515 
29,811 
17,123 
19,601 
20,292 

9,191 
10,033 

8.153 
49,707 
-*7.982 
11,079 
19,199 
ll,30i 

7,508 
44. 515 
37,678 
10,636 
51,990 
24,203 
33,157 
39,200 
23,912 

9,113 



o 

9 

-a 






PRODUCED. 



$1, 302, 857 

79, 840 

353,916 

458, 578 

475, 433 

1,294,258 
163,685 
503, 8C5 
649, 730 
773,313 
600,145 
568,933 
590, 484 
739,741 
847, 989 

1,250,694 
518,004 
193,226 
927,988 
628,313 
514, 952 
748, 297 

1, 180, 482 
232,285 
208,671 
307,540 
43,876 
500,086 

1,415,080 
287,208 
898,808 
453,082 
364,832 

1,103,378 
103, 409 
699,489 
968,789 
649, 640 
354,225 
434, 315 
704,293 
558,934 
712,908 
350,258 

1,065,081 
728,373 
827,356 

1, 508, 794 
707, 963 

1,224,526 
362,328 
804, 870 
570, 493 
926,035 
757,058 

1, 043, 608 

1, 379, 757 
794,695 

1,277,298 

1,143,064 
591, 116 
693,387 






el 



382,624 

15, 293 

54,311 

315,227 

83,340 

888,700 

41,999 

500,315 

170, 745 

105,924 

143, 453 

84,575 

39.C63 

199,120 

92,928 

299,770 

99, 391 

27.937 

829,716 

151, 375 

08,a:o 

212,922 
136,631 
49, 859 
29,908 
83.650 
10, 748 
01, 407 
318,863 
59,438 

235, an 

54.334 

46. 198 
218,970 

24, 970 
211, 478 
578.806 

84,422 
138,236 

31, 570 

63,806 
286, 181 
257,887 

72,859 
421.416 
162, 819 
195. 078 
442, 127 
265,717 
291,775 

98,954 
637,518 
146,037 
254,985 
212, 884 
570, 612 
463, 750 
150,947 
306,670 
343,862 

77,879 
374,007 



o 

a 
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777 



3.051 

26,183 

2,900 

34,750 

135 

4,138 

4,135 

3,818 

5. 714 

5,818 

2.196 

1,755 

5,024 

20,455 

7,387 

1,500 

29,1C6 

3,209 

1,811 

2,283 

13,227 

20 

3,885 

9,748 

384 

596 

18,790 

380 

677 

15, 748 

450 

47,817 

402 

46,680 

9,902 

2,962 

6,455 

3,639 

917 

182 

6,322 

73 

26,087 

7,649 

2,217 

19,220 

4,196 

259 

2,551 

2,893 

3,556 

7, 05:J 

4,386 

26,416 

6,293 

2.647 

3,396 

835 

4,296 

23,312 



9 

-2 

o o 

d 

ea 

a 



2, 654, 197 

156,025 

002,435 

163,886 

743, 775 

1.522,501 

287,500 

592,445 

1, 503, 948 

2,071,690 

1, 380. 810 

1,073,638 

928,867 

1,033,008 

2, 232, 847 

877,062 

802,735 

401. 575 
496, 448 

1,409,251 

1,418,275 
409,134 

2, 120, 031 
342,550 
409, 034 
536,035 
90,300 
610, 878 

3, 195, 192 
532,070 

1, 100, 963 
709, 895 
456,128 

2, 056, 177 
209,675 

1, 604, 340 

1, 383, 816 
906,186 
404,385 

599. 576 
891,915 
756,540 
677,658 
518, 809 
550,392 
750,408 
909,828 

3, 155. 470 

181.468 

1,305,655 

544, 143 

490,137 

1, 002, 300 

2,655,744 

1,859.240 

305,620 

3,228,960 

1, 637, 450 

1,836,043 

1.498,915 

911,200 

1, 197, 151 



o 






es 

o 



116, 605 



30,223 

379,073 

50.536 

447,899 

8,988 

308,549 

55,191 

63,104 

120,239 

35.446 

20,134 

?35, 974 

44, 744 

1, 092, 340 

25,130 

11,216 

507,515 

36,369 

13,040 

600,376 

52,859 

19,583 

29,393 

29,472 

5,889 

9,854 

150,035 

4,806 

46,567 

81,705 

15,874 

71,073 

905 

71,677 

204,683 

76,155 

10, 807 

9.050 

19,138 

38,694 

422,247 

2,908 

501,038 

168,604 

325,880 

186, 941 

405, 595 

322,560 

21, 893 

391,035 

86,454 

126, 012 

64,626 

492,310 

175, 544 

95,200 

207,425 

185.927 

38,277 

143,189 



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15,210 



30 



6,310 

153 

3,200 



8,250 

0, 255 

2,400 

18,040 

47, 440 

1,125 

3,330 

4,000 

53,240 

12,422 

3,090 

6,680 



17, 942 

22,800 

5,652 

40,225 

28 

496,817 

25,471 

114, 270 

9,724 



456,290 

6,106 

43.625 



5,964 

30.150 

131, 930 

155,160 



1, 



283,816 
3.000 
2,127 



5,153 
34 



29,117 



140 

1,000 

12.597 



2,000 



9,201 

1, 275 

8, SIX) 

100 



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75 



126 



1 
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o 



o 



27,057 

1,247 
14. 491 
21,927 
19,728 

8,083 
641 

2,167 
12, 310 
12,728 
14, 167 
32,401 
24,292 

9,962 
20,727 
15 667 
35,345 

9,766 
15.662 
22,407 

9.670 
77,071 
54,705 
25.921 
12,192 
20,934 
110 
19,250 
77,308 

5,991 

27,318 

619 

15,404 

22,052 

4,639 

8,583 
211 

7,960 

«,915 
20,834 
25, 925 

6,913 

7,856 
13.523 
54,816 

6,371 
23,776 
19,046 
80,282 

8,192 
17.003 

7,341 

4,572 
16,133 
23,203 
62,008 
38,381 

7,523 
27,054 
12,261 
12.906 

2,668 



•s 

a 
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5 o 

s 



a 



109 



651 

105 

694 

3,002 

36 

78 

46 

2,310 

635 

1,799 

1,619 

922 

1.965 

4,941 

1,499 

545 

41 

962 

387 

1,612 

2,264 

656 

630 

980 

158 

5,225 

2,338 

865 

366 

362 

1,152 

2,622 

391 

1,192 

102 

1,223 

651 

1,868 

943 

153 

1,082 

1,765 

1,811 

1,243 

74 

1,455 

537 

251 

698 

51 

694 

789 

572 

499 

954 

165 

1,706 

470 

945 

248 



I 






s 



99,947 

2,126 

8,337 

50,203 

24,764 

102,946 
17,486 
43,092 
33,353 
68,464 
23,828 
31,576 
13,092 
21,777 
31, 757 

713, 195 
20,889 
8,749 
70,335 
31,691 
19,230 

221,536 
41,861 
9,619 
15,393 
19,726 
6,692 
13,280 
99,407 
15,902 
25,378 
41,861 
10,680 
88,675 
19, 374 
37,663 
64,868 
61.010 

. 17, 278 
15, 518 
21.367 
28,460 

132,775 
16,602 

107.753 
73,050 
71,949 
85,211 
82,285 
79,209 
19, 975 
46,044 
44, 918 
40,380 
47,379 
85,270 

119,590 
38,088 
34.954 

286,046 

1,487 

49.068 



9 

I 






2,094 

795 

1,116 



1.486 
623 



52 
332 
1.937 
4,682 
3,042 
2,019 
3,406 
3,593 
746 
3,799 
1,742 



2,454 

688 

177 

4,102 

1,233 

796 

1,211 

59 

5,320 

3,879 

3,166 

4,507 

693 

3,792 

4,036 

2,005 

1,605 

64 

394 

5,340 

1,767 

4,911 

7,622 

6 

13,272 

197 

365 

42 

3,368 

179 

392 

2,981 

2 

266 

1,240 

2,386 

561 

1,674 

2,272 

6,130 

9,773 

170 

755 



3 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 

n 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

33 

33 

34 

35 

36 

37 

38 

39 

40 

41 

42 

43 

44 

45 

46 

47 

48 

49 

50 

51 

53 

53 

54 

55 

56 

57 

58 

59 

60 

61 

69 



32 



STATE OF ILLINOIS. 



AGRICULTURE. 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
IG 
17 
18 
19 
2n 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
88 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
49 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
53 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
56 
S) 
60 
01 
69 



COUNTIES. 



Adomi 

Alexander.., 

Bond 

Boono 

Drown 

Bareaa 

Calhoun 

Carroll 

Cas) 

Champaign . . 
ChrLitian ... 

Clark , 

Clny 

Clinton 

Colci 

Cook 

Crawford — 
Camberland 

Do Eolb 

Do Witt 

Donglas 

Du Page — 

Edgar 

Edwards — 
ECQngham. . . 
Fayette .... 

Ford 

Franklin . . . 

Falton 

Gallatin 

Qrc«no 

Qmndy 

Hamilton — 
Hancock . . . 

Hardin 

Henderson.. 

Henry 

Iroquois 

Jackson 

Jasper 

Jefferson — 

Jersey , 

Jo DaTiosa . . 

Johnson 

Kane 

Kankokeo . . 

Kendall 

Knox 

Lake 

I^Salio 

Lawrence . . . 

Leo 

Livingston... 

Logan 

McDonough . 

HcHenry 

McLean 

Alocon 

Macoupin ... 

Madison 

Marton 

ManhaU .... 



PRODUCED. 



I 



» 



3,374 



.a 
"if *J 

a 




6,191 



u 

h 

I"- 

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s 

o 



$30,798 



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$1,970 



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I 



337,958 



8,175 



o 
m 

§ 



n 



19,492 



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o 



J9 

S 



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i 



1,138 



•3 

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o 



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250 
10,398 

940 
29,636 



33,944 

289 

8,004 

2,111 

2,264 

127 

1,680 

2,557 

42, 394 

391 

20 

100,937 

3,793 

37,421 

18, 110 

317 

226 

189 

403 

31 

8,726 

180 

748 

4,349 

8 

15,731 

10 

1,966 

10,866 

4,533 

].485 

205 

27 

1,330 

7,526 



48,647 
9,770 
3,213 

]7,85U 
9,374 

10,583 
1,067 

26, 8G8 
9,183 
6,131 
4,053 

22,333 

17,408 
6.093 
5.266 
7,236 



422 

102 

4,302 

1,684 

148 

177 

693 

9,478 

2,788 

8,599 

3,805 

1,539 

7,511 

19,629 

2,160 

5,755 

231 

11, 572 

5,649 

3,199 

7,525 

74 

4,700 

4,041 

702 

172 

20,406 

362 

1,054 

2,773 

173 

12,147 

50 

1,872 

116 

13, 743 

1,217 

3,859 

486 

666 

2,013 



11, 174 



2,496 
4,795 
56 
4,737 
1,099 
1,440 
2,980 

693 
6.694 
2,666 
9,183 
1,267 
4,947 
2,200 
4.544 
1,540 

950 
2,033 



13,064 

1,290 

14,C84 

18,340 

5,495 

2,488 

2,873 

6,667 

2,344 

9,657 

7,756 

6,794 

7,709 

7,373 

12,606 

2,039 

2,758 

11,367 

1,150 

14, 165 

22,301 

7,105 

4,663 

10,894 

50 

11,869 

30,974 

6,377 

8,384 

475 

10,663 

28,522 

2,365 

15, 741 

1.270 

3,605 

36,003 

4,935 

30,174 

14,669 

12,089 

20,361 

17, 712 

2,956 

915 

15.691 

4,097 

3,145 

14, 764 

4,899 

1,512 

12,273 

15,535 

7,779 

9,019 

1,540 

17,709 

40,438 

1.396 

13. 599 



7 
4.000 



26 

1,015 

90 



76 



1 
60 

487 

4 



126 



14,254 
170 



16 
5 
5 

99 
5 



117 
19 

920 
25 



89 

85 

40 

35 

19 

10 

312 

43 

762 

199 

54 

292 

271 

716 

36 



200 
104 
553 



10 

82 

744 

525 

320 



200 

3,619 

208 

19,950 

1,745 

3,984 

2,880 

4,934 

186 

252 

366 

282 

3,153 

51,005 

50 

203 

370 

580 

320 

2,809 

1,496 



473 

390 
5 

195 
1,714 
5,064 

255 
3.384 

280 
4,466 

155 

24,012 

1,200 

910 
9,793 

804 
9,000 

750 

11,525 

9,198 

3,068 

3,939 

200 
2,092 

632 

3,603 

1,851 

11,965 

517 

950 

537 
1.378 
2.093 
3,075 
3,462 
8,858 
20 
1,068 



133,855 
506,225 
186, 515 
473, 489 

15,565 
291, 244 
270,050 
227,155 
130,810 
188,221 
112, 515 
147,887 
216, 750 
1, 125, 559 
188,435 

60,200 
847,130 
211,315 
133, 451 
632,712 
363,963 

44,627 
103, 406 
154.222 

18, 400 
113,388 
666,638 

85,690 
147,152 
299,169 
101,003 
480,879 

26,448 
235,444 
438,493 
253,525 

76,590 
173,925 
237,054 
199, 325 
494,132 
134,773 
952, 219 
360,500 
602,320 
495, 915 
615,829 
728, 731 
122, 746 
471, 217 
J85, 146 
250,023 
222,792 
864,766 
426,099 
211,960 
325,843 
308,049 

26,743 
190.806 



2,101 

55,365 
3,335 

61,046 
250 

11,507 
2,480 
8,971 
6,270 

■ 2, 117 
4,064 
5,414 
4,169 

59,075 
4,828 
2,047 

56,711 
5,790 
4,700 

71,169 

19,900 

2,670 

1,624 

720 

70 

888 

30,979 



13,856 

26,890 

1,173 

22,994 

200 

2,845 

27,060 

13,783 

250 

1,919 

3,940 

4,407 

92,475 



99,207 
51,132 
45,845 
37,497 

174, 911 
28,618 
1,804 
25,916 
10,252 
5,700 
11,999 

126.804 
16, 951 



12,426 
7.654 
1,030 
7,836 



7, 
26, 

6 
46 

19, 
9 

15, 
6 
8 
3, 
5 
8, 
121 

5< 

2, 

48, 

6, 

5 

51 

15, 

4 

2, 

4 

1 
30, 

1 

11, 
27 

1 
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11 

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1 

4 

4, 

10, 

31 

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41 
59 
47 

4 
34 
23 

7, 
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57 
28 

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24 
19 

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236 
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1,875 
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939 
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211 
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24 
78 

787 
15 

161 



14 



21 
32 



226 

335 

20 



237 



46 
334 
47 
14 
44 
50 



1 

3.556 

3 

8 



2 

172 

2 

41 

134 

6 

14 

135 

23 

7 

156 

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1,416 

2 

254 

470 

328 

26 

128 

562 

6 

79 

106 

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55 

83 

671 

16 

5 

166 



10 
205 
727 

1,994 



1.081 

15 

2,006 

922 
1,026 

476 

.16 
1,416 
6,660 

374 
1,406 
4,240 

913 
1,809 
3,811 
3,482 
5,102 

717 

429 
16 

973 
4,404 

107 

1,2G9 

10.044 

420 

3,767 

8 

1,286 

1.036 

294 
88 

646 

892 

696 
1.798 
66 
8,700 
2,816 
16,641 
5,955 
7,293 
8,280 

742 
3,851 
3,498 

482 
3,850 
8,043 

248 

620 
3,561 
1,143 



160 
145 



350 
45 
22 

30 
5 

90 
4 

20 
1 

11 
93 

3 

17 

13 

94 

127 



S31 



2 
11 
84 
14 



166 
12 

321 

3,000 

20 

85 



56 
90 

8 

435 

18 



1,430 



10 



STATE OF ILLINOIS. 



33 



AGRICULTURE. 



PRODUCED. 


o 
o 



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1,795 




128 


11,880 


697 


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$4,296 


$468, 374 










■ •••••• 0m • 


















45 

250 

9,203 

80 

50 






5,742 

30 

14,991 

10,686 

70 

538 

3,467 

3,203 

6,159 

32,058 

20,063 

235 

23, 848 

1,521 

14,707 

15, 997 

494 

4,773 

2,092 

1,317 

25,154 

4,799 

7,192 

7,494 

525 

7,221 

50,184 

1,604 

4,428 

1,934 

7,391 

32,563 

422 

8,564 

27,159 

5,295 

3,148 

16,093 

14,834 

1,192 

1,950 

844 

4,008 

5,937 

43 

59,515 

95 

4,117 

9,528 

261 

3,776 

2,728 

27,507 

923 

5,519^ 

2,823 

6, 574 

190 

6,800 

5,341 


10 
200 

1,031 
987 
252 
14 
463 
940 
214 
956 
667 
610 
371 

1,328 

1,003 

536 

65 

443 

58 

1,537 
748 
336 

1,151 

1,128 

1 

244 

1,938 
221 
655 
111 
381 

1,421 

22 

506 

99 

477 

169 

1,346 

918 

128 

798 

92 

1,011 
612 
175 

1,071 

1,028 
287 
803 

385 

93 

813 

741 

8 

20 

1,745 

472 

915 

90 


120 
6,435 
23, 919 
10,890 
13,340 
2,600 
12.173 

17, 111 
13, 191 
19, 934 
33,380 

5,275 
15,275 
17,803 
16,756 
15, 116 
10,918 
20,994 

8,375 

18, 592 
21,565 

5,877 
22,641 
24,009 
220 
16, 018 
45, 442 

4,595 
17, 824 

9,793 

8,235 

43. 816 
868 

11,635 

2,190 

11,539 

5,200 

42,208 

26,363 

10, 211 

15,584 

599 

33, 747 

20,814 

865 

17,301 

5,173 

11,029 

13,956 

4,780 

7.454 

5, 156 

25,0f)3 

14, 244 

10, 669 

4,375 

42, 975 

11. 817 
2,140 
5,170 


5, 971 

55 

21,687 

'125 

1,590 

628 

3,5C8 

3, 624 

2,823 

17,839 

16, 344 

75 

7,355 

1,112 

23,376 

7,349 

1, 448 

3,583 

1,209 

628 

15,040 

6,392 

6,681 

13,820 

60 

22,093 

26,206 

5,342 

16, 409 


93, 161 

86, 240 

183, 534 

240, 345 

43, 988 

91, 411 

264,030 

254, 420 

89,687 

115, 549 

98,963 

85,568 

189,280 

110, 834 

154, 464 

30,666 

166,921 

227, 3ft) 

54,025 

126. 192 
147,820 

62,634 

74,792 

106,087 

6,539 

88,804 
529,300 

76, 810 
122,411 

52,392 

68,709 
298,277 

23,812 
182, 143 

149. 193 
80,910 

117,674 

68,627 
12:), 571 

97,876 
220,732 

81,685 
219,610 
124,715 
138,147 
203,440 

91,063 
177,966 

94, 792 
106, 219 

70,883 

96,516 
139, 129 
133,392 
221, 182 
197, 109 
393. 937 
366,550 

60,847 
108,693 






















100 


1,631 


34 
































1 














































1,393 




143 








600 
740 
180 


175 

209 

3 












5 


4,222 
1,810 




67 
551 




























40 
789 

12 
117 




895 

100 

2,103 

1,980 

100 

305 

20 

330 

10, 784 

50 

2,196 

360 




140 








13,500 
813 

280 




























1 












46 






104 
85 

319 

400 

50 

3,550 

551 


5 






06 
















30 


457 

8 

2 

10 

40 

9 

43 

8 






98 
987 






998 




























50 






60 
















215 
266 










m 








9,820 

351 

509 

454 

46 

5,725 

260 

240 

75 

3,501 
553 

6,810 
203 
468 




792 

777 

38 

12 
225 


























s 












'•mmmm^%^ ■ 








20 
157 
600 


15 

40 




25,538 

9,061 

3,126 

1,936 

6,040 

2,568 

8, 875 

18, 716 

28, 518 

705 

61,812 

27,260- 

5,942 

1,507 
















200 
















360 


20 




500 


1,000 
143 


70 

1,534 

4 

200 

52 










101 




55 

155 

3,622 

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1,840 


3 














































382 






1,374 

225 

2,195 

50 
1,571 

40 




155 


















3 


180 


15 






25 
















70 


8 
5 






64 


5,202 

2,068 

10 

12,003 

40 

1,784 

3,036 

6, 452 

2,827 

544 

265 

13, 151 

2,106 

2,002 

244 




























1 




812 
14 


47 




695 




195 




















491 

800 

3,624 




96 






















350 


101 






132 
20 

8 
















































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2 




510 

187 
























11,284 


150 




310 
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■ •••«•••■• 






.......... 



I 

2 
3 
4 
5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 
oo 

23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
5i) 
60 
61 
62 



5 



34 



STATE OF ILLINOIS- 



AGRICULTURE. 



G3 
64 
65 
66 
67 
68 
69 
70 
71 
72 
73 
74 
75 
76 
77 
78 
79 
80 
81 
82 
83 
84 
85 
86 
87 
88 
89 
90 
91 
92 
93 
94 
95 
96 
97 
98 
99 
100 
101 
102 



COUNTIES. 



Mason 

Massac 

Menard 

Mercer 

Monroe 

Montgomery 
Morgan ..... 

Moultrie 

Ogle 

Peoria 

Perry 

Piatt 

Pike 

Pope 

Pulaski 

Putnam 

Randolph .. 
lUchland . . . 
Rock Island 
St Clair ... 

Saline 

Sangamon.. 
Schuyler — 

Scott 

Shelby 

Stark 

Stephenson. 
Tazewell. . . 

Union 

Vermillion.. 
Wabash.... 

"Warren 

Washington 

Wayne 

White 

Whiteside . . 

WiU 

Williamson. 
Winnebago. 
Woodford . . 

Totnl.. 



ACRES OF LAND. 



i 



'a 

2 



119, 435 

25,914 

104, 231 

149,535 

76,526 

127,484 

202,838 

71,407 

260,190 

173, 557 

62,799 

97, 511 

172, 816 

30,100 

10,395 

50,038 

96,070 

45,630 

110, 593 

196,735 

46,150 

314, 271 

74,066 

66,641 

141,537 

125,214 

209,756 

215,266 

53,880 

247, 167 

37,083 

188, 161 

129,689 

67,194 

72,503 

101,602 

243, 086 

63,796 

194,646 

149,089 



13, 096, 374 



I 



> 

2 
a 



63, 

57 
49, 
95, 

110 
78 
80, 
31 

103, 
34 
77 
40, 

143 

83 
oo 

20, 

162, 

48 

59, 

120, 

111 

92, 
47, 

118 
21 
88, 

112, 
86 

136, 
43 
77 

106 
90, 

126 

114 
50, 

132, 
49 
66 



,611 
,521 
,545 
,484 
,566 
,187 
,236 
,974 
,019 
,612 
,929 
,074 
.135 
,518 
,795 
,019 
,020 
,216 
,715 
,954 
,521 
,241 
,582 
,031 
,309 
,728 
,275 
,429 
,280 
.426 
,603 
.395 
,154 
,508 
,472 
,140 
,889 
,605 
,115 
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of 



O 

9 



xi 

a 



13, 029, 529 
089, 940 
3, 466, 631 
4, 751, 115 
3,005,870 
3, 336, 107 
9, 019, 910 
1, 854, 903 
8, 226, 291 
6,812,219 
2, 256, 945 
2, 744, 850 
6, 570, 936 
720,814 
317, 939 
1, 882, 336 
3,345,607 
1,454,060 
3, 757, 900 

10, 721, 968 
1, 243, 220 

11, 866, 480 
2, 670, 885 
2, 649, 477 
4,224,487 
2, 979, 105 
7, 016, 265 
7, 198, 430 
1, 789, 223 
6, 900, 813 
1, 259, 800 
6, 448, 857 
3, 806, 752 
1,577,743 
2, 267, 274 
5, 308, 231 
6,824,080 
1, 812, 527 
6, 451. 329 
4, 685, 920 



a 

g > 
p. >> 
S S 
a 
fee 3 
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g 



1215, 

47 

141 

234 

138 

1G8 

237 

73 

388, 

314 

106 

68 

237 

36 

14 

69 

157 

54 

175, 

490, 

45, 

307 

93 

88, 

153, 

175, 

306, 

352 

93, 

221 

63 

243 

171 

68 

86, 

292, 

258 

83 

279, 

192, 



8G9 
005 
786 
282 
451 
461 



844 
471 
944 
188 
852 
909 
089 
382 
817 
073 
053 
750 
737 
815 
108 
882 
387 
112 
337 
046 
047 
448 
026 
550 
640 
206 
384 
945 
047 
066 
697 
331 
594 



7, 815, 615 



408.944,033 



17,235,472 



LIVE STOCK. 



CB 
V 

oa 

u 
o 

s 



3,730 
1,233 

5,348 
7,540 
4,756 
5,429 
7,795 



11, 071 
9,211 
4,127 
2,067 
8,727 
1,591 
631 
3,077 
7,289 
1,839 
4,677 
9,579 
2,579 

12,607 
3,946 
3,911 
6,140 
4,609 
8,723 

10, 144 
2,605 

10,801 
2,181 
8,381 
6,997 
2,857 
3,499 
6,585 
8,965 
3,429 
6,086 
6,026 



563,736 



a 

9 

«■ 

3 

< 



1,072 

2134 

559 

290 

453 

719 
1,006 

104 

169 

326 

703 

202 
1,W9 

224 
51 
30 

604 

172 

83 

1,890 

422 
1,715 

307 

429 

422 
65 

124 

363 

352 

192 

174 

724 
1,012 

269 

380 

118 

119 

547 
58 

100 



o 



3,492 
1,5-19 
3,418 
6, 246 
4,198 
4,009 
5,084 
2,066 

10, 471 
7,249 
3,475 
1,933 
7, 721 
1,733 
629 
2,107 
5,285 
1.922 
5,573 
7,801 
2,571 
8, 121 
3,665 
2,353 
4,967 
3,527 
9,176 
7,606 
2,623 
7,084 
1,772 
6,690 
5, 799 
2,756 
3,375 
8,255 

12,893 
3,434 
7,850 
5,074 



38,539 



522,634 



a 
o 

K 

O 

.3 

u 
O 



603 

66 

313 

651 

1,508 

632 

587 

445 

880 

295 

1,178 

661 

1,150 

1,242 

321 

50 

1,247 

642 

609 

1,164 

1,745 

479 

707 

216 

1,829 

134 

897 

231 

1.339 

662 

193 

641 

1,476 

1,688 

1,607 

1,029 

881 

2,656 

732 

182 



90,380 



u 
.a 



5,311 
2,794 
7,523 

10,429 
6,432 
7,912 

12,610 

4,966 

117, 014 

11.722 
6,075 
5, 897 

14,344 
2,347 
1,137 
3,740 

10,332 
2,898 
9,850 
9,552 
3,176 

17,363 
7,477 
5,4-20 

10,236 
5,750 

13,047 

10,099 
4,667 

13,794 
2,881 

13,025 

12,906 
5,519 
5,395 

10,841 

19, 575 
6,198 

11, 625 
7,207 



in 



I 



i.e>8 

2,&-.9 
6,5ia 
2,577 I 
1,585 I 
9,143 ! 
7,106 ' 
9. 810 
3,732 
2,649 
6,196 
3,303 1 
12,341 I 
5,139 

e-:8 

1.365 : 

6,118 ' 
5,917 ; 
1,621 
3,5Ci! j 

7,702 1 

45, 4X 

7,839 

4,163 

21,310 • 
I 
1,565 

6,018 

6,791 ' 

5,391 ! 

22,772 
5,386 
7,853 
7,641 

10,945 

10,037 
1,363 
8,880 

13.315 
7,746 I 
2,286] 



970,799 



769,135 



STATE OF ILLINOIS. 



35 



AGRICULTUllE. 



LIVE STOCK. 



PRODUCED 



a 



13,850 
11,264 
23,972 
38,007 
18, 785 
23.218 
43, 22G 
1G,580 
20,G25 
23,012 
15, 115 
15,315 
53,019 
14,627 

5,473 

6,371 
23,157 

8,556 
21,942 
37, 791 
21,208 
62, 917 
23,500 
18,a»0 
46, 341 

9,642 
247. 7G3 
30,207 
2L, 338 
37, 659 
12,908 
37, 472 
31,4;M 
22,332 
30,021 
12,827 
10,953 
30, 962 
10,620 
13,426 



2,503,308 



> 

M 
u 

2 
> 



$644 

181 
771 

1,042 
586, 
746, 

1,411 

40(; 

1,353 

1,227 
566 
433, 

1, 162, 
221 
70 
328 
721 
217 
668 

1,242, 
839 

1,926 
490 
455 
950, 
393 
960, 

1,227, 
351 

1,214 
253, 

1,123 
790 
394 
504 
868, 

1, 013, 
491 
816, 
679 



660 
481 
731 
551 
422 
364 
490 
385 
405 
978 
222 
870 
590 
512 
234 
070 
025 
916 
232 
462 
661 
25-1 
903 
667 
407 
248 



577 



511 
629 
677 
142 
231 
193 
967 
940 
650 
059 
387 
879 
888 



72,501,225 



.a 



08 
O 



237 

57, 

78, 

343 

366, 

158 

208, 

40 

1,153 

323, 

95, 

75 

468 

43, 

20, 

114 

342 

47 

295, 

885, 

42 

303, 

95, 

181 

128 

• 350 

822 

318 

168 

86 

87 

282 

177 

56 

101 

608 

251 

97, 

685. 

280, 



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,157 

,272 

,020 

,181 

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,970 

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,326 

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,872 

,840 

,933 

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,627 

.614 

,847 

,180 

,747 

,381 

,442 

,750 

,240- 

,874 

,884 

,530 

,911 

,271 

.407 

,875 

1,800 

,243 

,574 

,483 

,842 

,915 

,779 



23, 837, 023 



•s 



27,029 

1,132 

3,373 

29,863 

799 

2,734 

9,150 

4.219 

51,405 

94,030 

384 

2,424 

1, 747 

678 

31 

7,116 

1,876 

1,007 

6,892 

240 

348 

11,695 

1,09C 

1,919 

19, 142 

5,648 

40,465 

33,525 

650 

12, 407 

287 

15,462 

515 

123 

1,114 

6,260 

1,915 

375 

43, 521 

5,242 



951, 281 



» 

a 
a 



1,940,879 
279,270 

1, 544, 810 

2, 042, 636 
560,515 ' 
814,037 

2, 452, 100 

1, C88, 241 
858, 155 

2, 465, 162 
411,892 

1,593,280 

2, 193, 022 
321,565 
92,105 
487,305 
736,803 
334,595 

1, 176, 436 

1, 671, 763 
485, 103 

3, 509, 405 
916, 798 
699, 690 

1, 659, 11)9 
667.627 
893, 318 

2, 592, 560 
508, 670 

2, 172, 428 
375, 378 

3, 205, 102 

% 178, 825 
609, 579 
864, 930 
793,713 

1, 020, 989 
690, 195 
497, 973 

1, 502, 435 



ja 



a 
O 



07,138 
87.523 



158 
132, 
102, 
70 
34 
737, 

2o:j, 

39 

30, 

75 

3 

1 

83 

9" 
o 

132, 

245 

9 

180, 

42, 

11 

66 

123 

570 

225, 

15, 

88 

15 

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135, 

23 

44 

320, 

797 

7 

396 

187 



082 
726 
264 
081 
532 
254 
203 
832 
033 
576 
272 
404 
320 
618 
234 
344 
409 
447 
025 
339 
237 
253 
i to 
542 
814 
052 
181 
390 
969 
675 
788 
021 
930 
530 
732 
374 
733 



113, 174, 777 



15,220,029 



a 

o 






o 
m 

a 





o 
o 



100 

48,480 

3,373 



30 

930 

4,860 

8,275 

100 

3,485 

870 



16,325 

475,300 

10,585 

1,098 

705 

5,395 

10, 213 

40 

1, 043, 456 

3,700 

8,285 



13, 142 



3,230 



17,302 

17,127 

3, 124 

5,021 

8,725 

94,542 

254,310 

1,382 



1, 708, 137 



200 






a CI 

I - 

rs o 

a o 



17 
1 



104 



00 
105 



12 



150 



o 

OB 



a 



4,592 

5, 145 

19,628 

9,149 

5,378 

31,964 

19,336 

28,062 

10,020 

8,400 

14, 251 

9,175 

19, 180 

9,097 

1,526 

4,650 

13,002 

12,778 

5,025 

9,071 

15,384 

139, 117 

19,455 

13, 112 

43,221 

4,893 

20,289 

15,622 

12,563 

74,098 

12, 170 

22,049 

14, "552 

25, 914 

21,507 

3,545 

17, 825 

21, 447 

26,855 

8,296 



6, 885, 262 



1,482 



1,089,567 



•s 


.O 
an* 

a . 

a 
a 

aa 
es 
o 



V 



507 

1,985 

445 

864 

147 

943 

263 

536 

387 

1,730 

1,961 

1,754 

513 

660 

156 

274 

1,309 

624 

560 

816 

3,743 

466 

582 

162 

616 

127 

472 

879 

1,113 

2,655 

452 

M5 

5,416 

3,024 

970 

566 

2,223 

4,169 

1,781 

203 



108,028 










.a 



31,551 
21,556 
18,614 
57, 481 
31,890 
19,359 
39,354 
12,843 
7J,511 

132,330 
11,040 
21.683 
60,927 
29,146 
6,529 
68,112 
31,132 
14, 487 
89,044 

159, 071 
20,575 
70,295 
30,254 
15, 620 
33,183 
17, 947 
93,036 
75,370 
29,672 
51,017 
11,712 
60,334 
18,045 
14,700 
16,558 
62, 840 

167, 957 
19, 792 
74, 738 
54,022 



•s 

a 

* 

m 

I" 

Ml 
V 



484 
6,422 
2,620 
1,640 
1,045 
4,397 
3,830 

928 

274 
2,193 
0,671 

975 
4,070 
2,978 
3,211 

906 

20,182 

2,225 

227 

10,847 

9,340 

3,349 

580 
1,208 
2,265 

184 

39 

3,359 

21,596 

2,560 

2,428 

1,087 

17,428 

2,074 

5,160 

311 

694 
18,005 

109 

673 



5,540.390 



306,154 



63 
64 
65 
66 
67 
68 
69 
70 
71 
72 
73 
74 
75 
76 
77 
78 
79 
80 
81 
82 
83 
84 
85 
86 
87 
88 
89 
90 
91 
92 
93 
94 
95 
96 
97 
98 
99 
ICO 
101 
103 



\ 



3G 



STATE OF ILLINOIS 



AGRICULTURE. 



63 
C4 
65 
66 
67 
68 
69 
70 
71 
72 
T3 
74 
75 
76 
77 
78 
79 
80 
81 
82 
83 
84 
85 
86 
87 
88 
89 
90 
91 
92 
93 
94 
95 
96 
97 
98 
99 
100 
101 
102 



COUNTIES. 



MoBon 

MoBsac 

Menard 

Mercer 

Monroe 

Montgomery 

Morgan 

Moultrie 

Ogle 

Peorio 

Perry 

Piatt 

Piko 

Po-po 

Pulaski 

Putnam 

Rxmdolph 

Richland 

Rock Island . 

St. Clair 

Salino 

Sangamon... 

Schuyler 

Scott 

Shelby 

Stark 

Stephenson.. 

Tazewell 

Union 

Vermillion... 

Wabash 

Warren 

Washington . 

Wayne 

White 

Whiteside . . . 

Will 

Williamson.. 
Winnebago. . 
Woodford . . . 



Total. 



PRODUCED. 



o 

St 

d 

>, 

o 

d 



630 

196 

670 

8,028 

46,929 

2,609 

1,116 

394 

67,482 

445 

1,501 

892 

8 



6.043 

4, 421 

44 

12,505 

112, 924 

27 

12, 707 

1,100 

6 

1,341 

3,485 

49,041 

22,263 



1,210 

282 

9,800 

504 

219 

HI 

18,799 

19,384 

40 

19, 315 

13, 315 



BO 



ti 

a 



3,772 

387 
1,280 
3,162 

900 
3,971 
1,557 
3,804 

484 
7,595 

496 

3,225 

3,192 

33 



1,076 
590 
851 

1,965 

1,319 
398 

3,009 

6,364 
458 

3,666 
616 
746 

5,418 

173 

13,670 

429 

3,877 
871 

2,231 
791 
650 

7,453 
223 
140 

4,910 



1, 006, 308 



324,117 



a 
O 



$705 

6,530 

8,221 

13,820 

2,035 

10, 724 

11,848 

5,741 

9,090 

21,307 

5,081 

1,050 

17,229 

8,659 

2,061 

10, 421 

12,369 

7,667 

16,448 

57,043 

9,745 

18,328 

9,410 

7,920 

4,883 

3,023 

3,707 

19, 480 

32,894 

17,286 

11, 214 

5,250 

9,340 

16.626 

14,007 

12,445 

5,475 

35,088 

5,065 

6,796 



1,120,323 



«4 

O 

m 


O 

I 

© 

a 



50 



16 



14,044 

20 

156 



371 

1,498 

40 



35 

310 

4 

146 
233 



47 

2,105 

300 

63 

90 

190 

30 



378 
178 



1,169 



702 
138 
214 
680 
425 



23 
105 



8 

O 

n 

M 



$244 

10,550 

1,906 

2,158 

100 

668 

20,220 

295 

3,253 

14, 688 

55 



365 
129 

2,070 
784 

2,194 

120 

11,459 

26,464 

447 

3, 155 
177 
128 

2,667 
200 

4,871 

1, /02 

7,784 
13,169 

4,493 
143 
552 
136 
646 

1,969 

10,465 

50 

2,868 
200 



s 

o 



n 



37, 

90, 
137, 
370 

27, 
205, 
292, 
103, 
836, 
393, 

81 

87 
263 

57 

17 
110, 
152, 

79 
344 
211 
134 
aT7 
100 

78 
236, 
128 
641 
302 

73, 
317 

88, 
304 
192 
134 
107, 
572 
834 
189 
554 
200, 



726 
976 
772 
239 
605 
371 
020 
090 
161 
948 
197 
890 
507 
009 
805 
072 
220 
064 
741 
239 
550 
013 
895 
917 
162 
846 
708 
146 
035 
137 
462 
540 
185 
081 
614 
734 
096 
280 
873 
945 





%; 


d 





a 


a 




u 


«s 


s 


b 


.a 


C8 





u 



2,803 

727 

6,175 

15, Oil 
9,054 
4,455 
3,463 
1,210 

38.393 

18,035 
5,967 
4,890 

.5,349 



9,203 

5,155 

8,570 

19, 185 

46,988 

1,045 

9,260 

9,157 

5,825 

4,313 

10,598 

37,561 

21,188 

20 

15, 978 

4,374 

9,924 

2,000 

2,325 

1,047 

57,260 

76,905 

345 

49,295 

11,425 



50,690 



387,027 



28, 052, 551 



1,848,557 



1,778 

819 

7,743 

24,243 

3,017 

10, 757 

19,318 

3,243 

39,792 

29,465 

2,734 

4,181 

12,407 

244 

364 

6,780 

5,498 

4,212 

23,572 

11,593 

901 

26,278 

8,274 

5,314 

7,867 

12,762 

36,104 

24,137 

1,807 

13,659 

4,134 

28,826 

5,683 

3,435 

2,259 

39,489 

75,343 

1,103 

29,698 

16,979 



.a 
3 






► 



S5 

9 

16 

105 

8 

6 

61 

64 

1,313 

204 

1 



455 



17 



45 



9 

27 

13 

238 

634 

176 

49 

31 

208 

550 

2 

106 

635 

21 
o 

2 
337 
505 
597 

1 

35 
127 



1,774,554 



18,831 



.a 

m 
O 
.0 



a 

o 



202 

165 

941 

3,040 

5 

2,663 

1,323 

405 

4.138 

3,^3 

140 

321 

431 

6 

30 

436 

500 

482 

1,102 

68 

306 

3,222 

1,096 

273 

1,085 

1,630 

1,272 

1,679 

18 

1,092 

620 

5,414 

321 

812 

(X» 

1,441 

2,507 

52 

791 

1,481 



fl 
a 
c 



c 



66 
97 



7 

104 

12 

40 

15 

4 

26 

20 
2D 
33 

167 

O 

10 

65 
57 
60 

36 
38 

144 

2> 

5 

6 
4L 
33 

40 
19 



•i 



I 



191,273 



7,254 



STATE OF ILLINOIS. 



37 



AGRICULTURE. 



PRODUCED. 



HEMP. 



a 
S 

* 



10 



8 
o 



20 



a 
o 

o 



c3 



§ 



p. a 

•2 
o 



•3 

a 

§ 



8 



100 

8 

16 



100 



1 
102 



25 
5 



195 
15 



40 
60 



158 

582 

20 



75 



30 



20 



100 
50 



243 



5L 



1,208 



1,445 
250 
140 



o 
49 
.a 

T3 

ss 

H 

c3 



a 
a 
o 

a «»: 

9 O 



O 
QQ 



aa 

d 
o 



5) o 



Pi 



100 

15 

2 



191 
91 

140 
3 
1 

510 

218 



1,082 
80 



40 



200 

2 

705 

927 

238 



424 

1,628 

745 

10 



130 



48,235 



100 

37 

53 

5 



10 



56 



12 



65 



20 

50 

3,7G8 

745 



100 
120 



1,355 



932 

485 



1,525 



640 






9) v: 

1 s 






10 



49 
4 

16 

5 

1,563 

25 
8 
4 
140 
2 
6 
4 



200 
30 



65 



712 

810 

6,586 

1, i.'89 

750 



6,376 
915 

1,836 

16,167 

760 

200 



89 



4,235 
770 
290 

2,986 
250 



8,070 



1,545 



134, 195 



105 



5 



5 



142 



91 

147 



297 



206 
45 



15 

35 

378 

126 

35 



220 



380 
3,095 
4,353 



2 



124 

450 

664 

20 



20,048 



d' 



•2 vJ 

a 

o 

I "* 



1,826 

204 

3,430 

20,318 



4,659 

1,779 

11,491 

7,108 

12, 784 

898 
2, 521 
3,076 
1,414 

170 
4,014 
1,213 
7,775 
9,095 

178 
4,876 

355 
20,987 

4G3 

20.835 

5,745 

4,344 

1,814 

258 
15,4^ 



37,168 
4,845 

15,760 
6,855 
8,042 
811 
9,405 
1,402 
3,603 



806,589 



•9 




a 

a 
I 



165 
235 
490 
653 
10 
565 
907 
542 
565 
701 
115 
719 
733 
17 
123 
394 
187 
75 
593 
778 
466 
497 
570 
440 

1,107 
147 
220 
967 
616 

2,175 
203 
238 

1,432 
877 
275 
591 
684 
313 
407 
301 



56,730 



o 

oa 



ta 
o 



5,345 

5,742 

11,357 

16, 485 

50 

13,397 

8,605 
11,491 
13,438 
21,339 

4, 549 

2,721 

12,792 

420 

4,683 
12,168 

5,809 

6, 913 
12, 401 

7,872 

5,907 
30,722 
14,066 

7,793 
27,837 

2,946 

7,768 
16, 318 
11, 112 
34, 215 

6,977 
18,655 
13,937 
25,577 

8,750 
15,374 
17, 619 

6,150 
12,132 
11,865 



1,346,803 



2 -a 

> 

a 

§ s 



$1,507 
24,007 
27,100 
16, 512 



9,753 
4,733 
8, 959 
1,319 
1,260 
4,405 
320 

10,408 
9,998 
356 
124 
4,148 
9,504 
2,349 

21,103 

44, 670 

5,115 

6,004 

890 

19,650 

653 

1,277 

3,042 

15,262 

16,052 
8,229 
4,252 
7,884 

22,000 

21, 910 

3,313 

679 

76,043 
1,082 

16,622 



923,220 



o 
o 



t 

■a 
§ 

"a 
•i 



105,335 

54,198 

81.849 

103, 144 

15, 813 

172, 138 

658,252 

45,605 

216, 164 

298, 957 

60,323 



403,126 

57, 731 

17, 347 

47,388 

124, 001 

60,893 

147, 226 

225,445 

99,419 

579, 160 

161,600 

202, 973 

69, 490 

122, 319 

183,801 

320,930 

83,381 

183, 515 

71,047 

127, 426 

117, 526 

94, 401 

141, 916 

122, 752 

173, 726 

137,508 

114, 151 

124,2i>l 



63 
64 
65 
66 
67 
68 
69 
70 
71 
72 
73 
74 
75 
76 
77 
78 
79 
80 
81 
82 
83 
84 
85 
86 
87 
88 
89 
90 
91 
92 
93 
94 
95 
96 
97 
98 
99 
100 
101 
102 



15,032,433 



38 



STATE OF INDIANA. 



AGRICULTURE. 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 



25 



26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

32 

33 

34 

35 

36 

37 

38 

39 

40 

41 

42 

43 

44 

45 

46 

47 



ACRES OF LAND. 



COUNTIES. 



Adnmi 

Allen 

Bartholomew 

Benton 

Blackford 

Boono 

Brown 

Carroll 

Cass 

Clark 

Clay 

Clinton 

Crawford 

DavicEB 

Dearborn 

Decatur 

DoKalb 

Delaware . . . 

Dubois 

Elkhart 

Fayette 

Floyd , 

Fountain 

Franklin 

Fulton 

Gibson 

Grant 

Green 

Hamilton 

Hancock 

Harrison 

Hendricks . . . . 
Henry 

Howard 

Huntington... 

Jackson 

Ja«per 

Jny 

Jefferson 

JcnnlugH 

Johnmon 

Knox 

Kosciusko 

Ln Grange ... 

Lake 

I^port< 

Lawrence 



o 

► 
o 
u 
o. 

8 



48,359 

1C8, C75 

I 
Ill,C93 • 

15,019 j 

20.376 

92,835 1 

I 

33,791 I 

I 

84,502 

8],0C5 

91,793 I 

64,719 

87, :J88 

41,813 

99,400 

102, 198 

123, 973 

C6,C56 

97, 449 

58,279 

118, 3G2 

64,257 

34, 9G7 

105, 351 

180. 125 

59, 469 

100,066 

72, 8-16 

108,200 

100,537 

80,880 

104,821 

149, 018 

117,531 

55,373 

62, 394 

114,704 

48, 780 , 

I 
61,470 

109,028 ' 
I 
68.943 

99, 143 

73,321 * 

83,705 

79, 857 

62,066 

129,434 

156,812 I 



g 






60,202 
147, GC8 
103, 8G1 

31. 312 

119, C8G 
77,391 

94, 436 
101, 626 

87,503 

E8, 131 

113,003 

99,203 

119, 963 

82.C58 

68.377 

85,271 

105, 5G0 

138,008 

117,451 

50,260 

34,900 

99,430 

106, 872 

95, 219 
144, 129 

47, 760 

171, C87 

94, 342 

86, 170 

119,437 

54,488 

94, 946 

71, 876 

84,613 

119,335 

27, 344 

88, 482 

99,830 

I 

81,476 

6:1,941 ; 

106, 430 j 

126, 551 

79, 073 

74, 141 

87,190 

1 10. 434 



o 

9 

-a 

>■ 



$1,657,480 

5, C32, eeo 

1,211,4C0 
757, 3-10 
4,563,114 
900, 7&3 
4,413,332 
4, 433, 050 
4, C88, 631 
2, 469, 134 

4, 595, 945 
954,283 

2, 792, 551 

5, 457, 900 
6,6.')G,198 
2, 980, 858 
5, 044, 006 
1.319,575 

6, 504, 577 
5,808,011 

,1, 745, 483 

4, 539, 201 

5, 656, 614 

2, 340, 200 

3,981,G97 

3, 104, 998 

3, 196, 695 

5, 647, 273 

4,031,219 

2, 918, 010 

4, 771, 120 

6, 893, 320 

2, 514, 795 

3,405,861 

4,336,.'')(;6 , 

I 

1,103,119 I 

2, 600, 610 I 

4,870,570 , 

i 

2,003,454 , 
6,245,805 i 
2,316,23.1 I 
4,081,327 I 

3, 6G7. 472 , 
2, 057, 788 

6, 415, 512 

I 

3,846.524 ' 



C3 

a 

•• o 

2 o 

R > 
o _ 

— a 
tt 3 

c -3 

B 

u 
a 



LIVE STOCK. 



$69, 6-15 
107,243 I 
133. 180 j 

12, 184 

19, 596 
133, 143 

37,314 i 
185, 996 
135, 276 
110, 103 

86,681 
103, 624 

41, 769 
111, 190 
169, 843 
174, 496 

86, 313 
147, 646 

93, 906 
184, 258 
151,280 

51,695 
149, 800 
15G, C89 

83,116 
168, 727 

99, C15 
111,766 
173, 078 
105, 338 
133,8^4 
131,529 
189,785 

84,047 

104,255 

l.?8,7(;2 

36, 075 

74,044 

135,968 

57,597 j 

153. 252 

102,613 

132, 199 

111,993 

85,316 

148,480 

113,847 I 



3,213 

6,572 

5,851 

1,899 

1,557 

7,081 

1,533 

4,698 

5,254 

4,649 

3,594 

5,047 

1,902 

4,529 

4,982 

6,123 

3,672 

5, 724 

3,410 

5,476 

5,007 

1,7G2 

5,965 

6,134 

3,394 

5,159 

3,876 

5,415 

6,615 

4,534 

5, 154 

6,856 

6,805 

3,586 

3,913 

5, 5(53 

1,800 

3,728 

6, 375 

3,490 

6,413 

4, 362 

4. 5.97 

3,523 

2.515 

4, 502 

5, 072 . 



S 
§ 



ae 
oa 

-Si 



25 



53 

525 

58 t 

39 

437 

154 

40 

59 

243 

150 

120 

75 

336 

221 

704 

5 

22 

60 

12 

170 

47 
007 

137 

95 
303 

35 
149 
l:i8 

91 
229 
509 
100 

56 

34 
506 

.30 
133 
208 
305 
420 
29-1 

8 ! 

11 

49 

105 

1,032 



o 
u 

.a 



3,148 
7,292 
4.901 
1,309 
1,407 
4,631 
1,557 
4, 498 
4,955 
4,274 
3,250 
4,888 
1,791 
4,168 
4, 567 
4,M2 
4,397 
4,608 
3,404 
6,077 
2,918 
1,759 
4,508 
5,604 
929 
4,508 
3,449 
5,101 
5,183 
3,027 
4.481 
4,585 
4,962 
3,121 
3,633 
4,943 
2, 270 

3. ioG 
5,412 
4,066 
4,100 
3.741 
5,2:}1 
3.7in> 

4. (M5 
4, .339 I 
4, 1.32 



a 

M 

O 

a 



463 

1,238 

595 

97 

89 

465 

634 

274 

439 

5C8 



725 



248 
703 

1,030 
685 
563 
975 
330 

1,406 
855 
77 
844 
199 
503 
918 

1,263 



255 



1,748 
270 
194 

J570 

/ 
'383 

459 

449 

306 

934 

308 

631 

700 

771 

212 

476 

1,181 ; 

795 

789 

801 

9iH) 






4,014 
10,876 
7,012 
4,959 
2,573 
G,753 
2,351 
6.100 
7,713 ; 
6,612 
5,060 
6,215 
2,445 
8,134 
4.862 
8,192 
7,114 
7,322 
5, 971 
7,909 
5,461 
1,755 
7,074 
5,496 
5.986 
6,642 
4,855 
8,995 
8,681 
5,289 
5,768 
10,691 
8,055 
4,185 
5,711 
6,207 
5, 575 I 
4,536 j 
t;, 775 i 

6.399 I 

8,137 '' 

I 

9,083 
6,209 
6.010 

6,a:i2 

I 
9, 137 i 



00 



6,546 
15,361 
10.666 

3,849 

4,720 
14,105 

5,668 
13,049 
12,551 

9.886 

9.848 
13,952 

6,056 
14,026 

5.906 
10, 746 
18,264 

14, 820 ' 

i 

8,460 I 

16,082 

I 
7. 315 j 

2,793 
15,070 

6.GS3 

8,412 
12,004 I 
13,885 
15.402 
13,269 
12,568 
12,361 
16,404 
12,125 

8,739| 
12.237 
11. 722 1 
3.534 ; 

10, tm i 

14, 169 ; 
11.716 
11,775 
12,611 . 

i7.oa» 

30,4-25 j 
1,702 

6,022 

I 
15,732 I 



STATE OF INDIANA. 



39 



AGRICULTURE. 



LIVE STOCK. 



45, 472 
32,168 
27,C22 
13,800 
5,233 
11,931 
38, 712 



PRODUCED. 





o 




o 

•3 


• 

o 

a 


Livo stock. 


15 476 


$802, 950 


- 31,371 


612,836 


50,420 


772,705 


7,212 


202,638 


10, 515 


10, 521 


42,353 


784, 494 


146,009 


176, 236 


30,368 


505,074 


29,266 


611,227 


30,239 


585,665 


27,530 


475, 945 


39,160 


698, 479 


11,606 


276,783 


32,284 


512, 408 


18,408 


573, 584 


42,783 


915, 943 


~ 18, 917 


413,035 


33,375 


669,962 


25,596 


357, 461 


16,540 


637,031 


35,506 


650,539 


7,970 


212, 461 


37,903 


791,606 


34,567 


672.249 


17,553 


403, 816 


53,437 


775,216 


27,255 


410, 480 


44,376 


687,431 


42,238 


830,923 


32,165 


517, 895 


27,551 


537,792 


36,972 


902,108 


31, 495 


827, 108 


24.264 


373,847 


25,137 


443,867 


41,123 


702.622 


5,251 


270,639 


2S,864 


389, 117 


24,923 


7A 237 


21,163 


347,739 



859,074 I 
475,104 I 
659,438 ' 
478, 2C2 
359, 830 
5-23, 706 
802,791 



o 



.a 



105, 701 
223,892 
3-n, 265 
5,536 
153, 410 
135, 098 

56,410 
282,771 
295, 818 
Ifrl, 467 
109,857 
201, 746 

57, 852 
130,797 
213, 245 
334,696 
154,083 
218, 537 

83,440 
370,776 
202,163 

54,761 
981, 433 
303,778 
137, 134 
248,556 
151,783 
141, 919 
238,760 
163, 170 
287,877 
140, 706 
273,361 
122, 962 
167,225 
168, 769 

24,287 

90,675 
107,990 
150, 820 
202,383 
135,155 
249, 699 
236,386 

67,579 
430,104 
U9,392 






8,836 

14,238 

3,099 

1,534 

359 

974 

4,812 

2,460 

1,625 

4,043 

2.279 

1,152 

1,372 

613 

14,450 

4,163 

9,259 

1,802 

1,528 

4,500 

887 

3,392 

8,189 

7,457 

3,062 

560 

584 

2,786 

489 

2,049 

7,016 

1,228 

595 

840 

1,850 

3,017 

1,602 

I 
4,271 ' 

1 
8, 182 j 

1,951 j 

3,005 ' 

2,998 I 



3,696 



a 
u 



a 
a 

a 



12,228 
3,306 

772 

1 

12, 181 i 



244, 945 
652, 235 

1,412,285 
346,888 
174,605 

1,031,016 
220, 496 
793, 591 
787,823 
661, 713 
630, 6G8 

2, 102, 005 
211, 373 
822, 946 
682,407 

1, 114, 324 
94, 749 
925,936 
297, 662 
621, 281 
895,948 
144,864 

1,394,856 

1,041,116 
396, 140 

1, 441, 095 
690,677 
957, 167 

1,326,171 
7D8, 855 
479, 470 

1, 157, 305 

1, 025, 818 
761, 739 
539,561 

1, 177, 815 
254, 915 
404, 010 
555, 691 
372,890 

1,331,522 
877,188 
701, 808 
472, 847 
283,420 
751, 140 
811, 134 



Xi 



a 

O 



51,037 
124, 068 

105, 774 
8,871 

12, 850 
58,198 

90, 357 
50,250 
98.280 
19,100 
67,319 
15,568 
19, 596 
60,422 
88,353 
74,991 
52,903 
39,843 
82, 451 
54 842 
31,722 
63,003 

121, 744 
14,908 
32,882 
50, 648 
24, 792 
70, 737 
62,074 
65,233 
90,2J6 

129,219 
32, 921 
61,502 

106, 757 
18, 071 
38, 297 
09, (wl 
42, 755 
65, 089 
17, .303 
56,580 
&1,865 

111,029 
84, 172 
98, 614 



a 

O 

a* 

u 



m 

•a 

c 


i-3 

a & 


9 

o 


i « 


p* 


o a 




•o 8 


.a 
o 


(J -T 




E- 


O 



41,411 
4,010 

17, 130 

400 

4, 401 

47, 749 

170, 715 

5,877 

4,150 

20,900 

17, 492 
4,000 

312,064 

56,908 

465 

9,250 

300 

6,250 

420, 472 

120 

3,600 

1,975 

12, 121 

4,600 

12, 465 

132, K^2 

18, 782 
457, 051 
114, 487 

60, 432 
3, 494 
13. 274 
30, 705 
21,848 
32,955 
22,597 ; 

5:)0 

15,707 ' 
17,200 ! 
8, 295 . 
32, 108 j 
32 I 
1,078 
193 
2,791 
1,200 
8,512 i 



o 

oa 
"O 

fl 
9 
O 
P. 



21, 157 
40, 341 
26, 494 
5,061 
10, 825 
38, 189 
10, 047 
30, 025 
31,927 
17, 708 
21,375 
37,594 
12, 813 
28,488 
15. 569 

48,207 
43, 017 
10,238 
42,155 
31, 315 

7, 312 
48,968 
26,083 
20,565 
32, 145 
34,736 
35,109 
34,326 
25,918 
27,383 
39,050 
28, 459 
20,774 
28,480 
27,125 

7,227 

30, 055 

I 

30, 138 ; 

20, . '150 I 
33,511 ! 
24,037 
42, 050 I 
50,478 
5, 105 
15, 451 
36, 170 






o o 

§ 



3 

&4 



347 

270 
1,815 



380 

1,988 

737 

665 

187 

965 

1,231 

35 

1,915 

497 

1,298 

1,739 

538 



4,194 

76 

220 

551 

1, 524 

1,255 

40 

231 

777 

820 

1,0G1 
345 

2,417 

588 

418 

931 

91 

1,816 
451 

61H i 

I 

7ai ■ 

2,7(.W i 



267 



446 

1,171 

1,022 

199 

641 ; 



S 



8 ^ 
o o 

5 — 



-5 



38,185 
155,029 
30,588 
2,949 
13,428 
41,903 
15,269 
57,467 
63, 002 
33,689 
28,399 
63,450 
13, 315 
25, 535 
57, 780 
31, 442 
78, 288 
41,532 
18, 876 
123,909 
18, 164 
54,205 
45,860 
42, 452 
53,813 
23,242 
34,293 
22, 498 
60,253 
23,758 
85,233 
35,392 
29,333 
45, 021 
6,417 
23,392 
15, 142 
41,0i)7 i 
43, (K)! I 
25,:M1 j 
10,238 
17,387 
82,901 

46,320 
97,995 
11,424 



I 






190 

683 

5,6D7 



173 
2,326 
1,414 
2,377 
2,064 
10,960 
2,156 

1.814 
3,187 
2,277 
4,052 

197 
1,274 

047 

326 
5,209 
6,929 
2,523 
2,702 

634 



1 

2 

» 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 



5.227 ! 26 



1,990 


27 


2,775 


28 


3,962 


29 


3,051 


30 


6, 452 


31 


6,860 


33 


6,542 


:<i 


4,634 


34 


1,428 


35 


3,819 


36 


8 


37 


1,161 


38 


2, 240 


39 


2,120 


40 


5, 279 


41 


4,951 


42 


1,129 


43 


191 


44 


76 


45 


2,364 


46 


3,999 


47 



40 



STATE OF INDIANA 



AGRICULTURE. 



1 

o 

3 
4 

5 

G 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

16 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 



25 



26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

32 

33 

34 

35 

36 

37 

38 

39 

40 

41 

42 

43 

44 

45 

46 

47 



COUNTIES. 



Adams 

Allen 

Bartholomew. 

Bonton 

Blackford . . . . 

Boono 

Brown 

Carroll , 

Cass 

Clark 

Clay 

Clinton 

Crawford 

Daviofls 

Dearborn 

Decatur , 

DoKalb 

DelaM'aro — 

Dubois 

Elkhart , 

Foyctt<j , 

Floyd , 

Fountain 

Franklin .... 

Fulton 

Gibson 

Grant 

Green 

Hamilton 

Hancock 

Harrison 

Hendricks 

Henry 

Howard 

Huntington.. 

Jackson 

Jasper 

Jay 

Jeffenon 

Jennings 

Johnt»ou 

Kno.x 

KotsciuKko . . . 
La Grange .. 

Lako 

La|x>rto 

Lawrence . . . 



PRODUCED. 



ca 
J3 



C3 



399 
1,397 
7,053 



850 
2,126 

239 
1,574 
2,146 
1,210 
1,612 
1,769 



301 

32,253 

665 

1,476 

4,040 

4,906 

23 

4,011 

462 

365 

19, 992 

362 

898 

410 

178 

1,228 

3,561 

283 

135 

6,741 

1,732 

1,722 

271 

104 

1,040 

20, 228 

2,362 

1,G17 

1,879 

2,0C3 

637 

1,929 

6,641 

40 



OB 

.ca 

■At 

S3 






11, 162 

16,626 

2,780 

716 

5,318 

4,511 

2,063 

5,063 

8,136 

634 

2,811 

7,302 

18 

1,471 

2,901 

4, 862 

14,058 
9,630 
339 
2,138 
1,322 
141 
3,847 
4,607 
9,394 
1,964 
7,875 
2,040 
5,367 
6,841 
50 
1,643 
9,400 
2,151 
8,275 
1,196 
824 

11,510 

1,661 

1,876 

4, 025 

676 

9,308 

7,638 

5,003 

6,546 
040 



5 

a 

ft « 

o 
s 



$1, 669 
26,590 

8,382 
296 

2,714 
19,860 

1,711 
27,022 
27,041 
15, 441 
16,763 
19, 447 

3,996 

5,893 

5,474 

728 

12,647 

17, 148 

6,114 
30,837 

9,828 
10, 493 
30,190 

9,048 

6,987 
33,519 
16,051 

8,696 
23,272 
18, 968 
14,053 
21,568 
38, a^ 

5,403 
10,794 

1,581 

2,217 

8,602 
10,541 

1,902 
2.J, 548 

9.70:1 
19,32.", 
16, 116 

3, 526 
■ 17,1157 

5,925 i 



o 

s 

o 

t 

.a 



459 

216 



18 

346 

251 

82 

10 

19,111 

175 



715 

59 

26, 572 

177 

27 

220 

15 

151 

162 

1,533 

20 

5,392 

260 

206 



70 



2,760 



27 



2 

654 
o 



525 



5,i:)0 

117 
41 



6 

1,373 

16 

260 

59 1 



2 

o 



$25 

6,350 

128 



3,684 



587 

13,423 

1,594 

13,^0 

179 



3,721 

11,814 

3,176 

331 

790 

812 

17 



7,938 

40,226 

3,147 

25,980 

3,329 

4,460 

150 

885 

915 

100 

738 

413 

32 

1,390 



5,648 
4,239 

261 
12,278 

349 
1,.T82 
1,7;)0 

316 
2,632 

151 
3,207 

100 ' 



•9 

o 
c 

u 

•** 
a 



206,802 
406,994 
319, 840 
6,350 
103,053 
249,733 

57, 016 
389,412 
365,410 
254,447 
213, 404 
210,880 

57,097 

80,543 
257,258 
278, 261 
334,011 
233,371 

62,841 
389,833 
213,038 

87,168 
154,661 
290,600 
162, 980 
227,605 
185,666 
139,581 
290,843 
226, 573 
162, 544 
233,335 
382,846 
109,241 
215, 941 
279,996 

61,279 
206,988 
6,921 
120,263 
257, 527 
109, 15:i 
328, 128 
249, 926 
inn, 115 
3ie, 575 
176, 813 



a 
o 

© 

ao 

V 

o 
.a 
(J 



7,533 
6,^4 
5,354 



46,059 
5,477 
516 
1,641 
2,440 
1,750 
3,696 
3,456 
90 
8,220 

11,051 
8,222 

40,279 

9,227 

530 

18,206 
8,060 
400 
8,214 
5,780 
8,429 
2,362 
4,237 
5,532 
7,737 
1,282 
54 
4,641 
6,020 
360 
3,210 
3,982 
8,522 
6,231 

10, 643 

1,659 

8,197 

2.>0 

3,789 

15,168 

32, 86 1 

10, 665 
3,327 



a 
9 






9,257 

17,286 

5,568 

1,073 

2,256 

6,892 

1,534 

5,651 

9,963 

5,877 

4,642 

7,290 

1,797 

4,763 

14, 495 

8,007 

12,340 

6,289 

2,639 

15, 112 

8.102 

3,560 

7,587 

6,652 

11,107 

5,802 

4,575 

4,679 

6,360 

3,765 

3,270 

6,099 

6,592 

3,464 

6,863 

4,936 

9,354 

5,217 

13 

5,300 

5,177 

4,317 

10, 722 

13, 166 

24, 986 

12,635 

4,114 



JO 

m 
k 

► 
O 



607 

2,186 

272 



80 

55 

42 

603 

1,004 

8 

154 

313 

3 

85 

48 

1,204 

3,658 

196 

3 

6,665 

254 



57 
143 
805 
429 

83 
189 
281 
335 
1,111 
186 
544 
133 
991 

44 



56 

501 

13 

151 

151 

3, 157 

4,859 

251 
20 



.0 



1) o 



3 
o 



111 

285 



103 
2C8 
218 
208 
757 
481 
457 
332 
172 
79 
129 
384 
247 
590 
46 
37 
903 
123 
568 
543 
203 
160 
531 
489 
321 
284 
135 
370 
551 
150 
155 
111 
145 
504 
1,075 
124 
462 
162 . 

927 

679 

84 

1.460 



a 
p. 
p. 
o 



a. 
c 



19. 
202 ! 



120 f 
135 

50 

63 
124 



415 

8 
23 
29 

1,505 




2 

36 

158 

2,328 

169 

14 

23 

23 

i 
14 ! 

t 

5' 

i 
I 

4 

31 
9 

62 
7 

16 
4 

30 




244 

73 

91 

I 

10 I 
38 



STATE OF INDIANA. 



41 



AGRICULTUIIE 



PRODUCED. 









Q 



HEMP. 

a 
o 

•8 

•*' 

hi 



S ft 

c- a 

.4 



hi 

o 



-3 

g 

M 

C3 



250 



363 
53 






O 
S 
^ 

b 



OB 

a 

8 

o 
u 

J4 
00 



3 

o 

u 

a %i 

to o 



es 






.c 
.a 






Is 






C3 
t4> 



B I 
o 



» 
5 ca 

a 

hi 
O 
OS 



11 



8 



5 



53 



rooo 



503 



3,138 

1,996 

3,465 

73 

T7 

500 
1,218 

337 
3,B-15 

918 



105 
515 

1,125 

3 

10 

66 

220 

402 

473 

707 

1C7 

241 

1,525 

265 

190 

1,097 
TOO 

155 

956 

242 

1, 119 

15, C80 

4,447 

15,C83 



1,221 

65 

435 



290 



21 



108 



307 
240 



50 



82 



2,921 

388 

79 

2,951 

223 

3 

106 

7,837 

69 

97 

49 

71 

200 

9,915 

10 

1 

935 

6 

254 

1,105 

37 

161 

4,685 

127 

1,299 

3,696 

101 

320 

14, 638 

425 

2,601 

73 

003 

16,755 

663 

67 

467 



5 



071 
102 



1,169 • 



57 



70 



13, 403 

34,477 

0,945 



7 
74 
64 
23 

1 



5 



10,223 
27,822 

9,045 
23, 719 
14,735 

9,509 
10, 971 
24, 512 

6,402 

2,407 

1,436 
11,397 
68,257 
15,623 

2,048 

128,556 

946 

346 

44,324 

6,579 
14, 731 
14,420 
33,0S7 

4,995 
20,054 

5,50-1 

1,315 
13, 063 
34,571 
30, 117 
3D,tS31 

0,3D5 



25,733 

5,C2l 

3, 052 

11,292 

14,004 

50,657 

28,392 

125 

17, 818 

15,622 



1,540 
1, 040 
3,843 



1,473 
6,036 
1,503 
2,972 
3, <J>/u 
2,349 
1,233 
3,484 
1,851 

275 
1,153 
3,454 
1,652 
1,851 

346 
6,038 
5,283 
1,437 
3,011 
5,293 
1,461 
1,834 

905 
2,327 
4, 093 
1,404 
1,259 



2 T'^T 

4r, i M»kJ 



11, 731 

2,051 

1,907 

881 



2,675 



2,565 



62J 

3,836 
1,314 
2,973 
1,192 



702 
3.337 



2,£G9 
8,C23 
5,711 



1,471 

30, 096 

9,467 

8,642 

11, 286 

2,453 

19, 916 

11,384 

3,413 

10,767 

2,012 

5,731 

3,744 

13,636 

2,914 

9,153 

8,923 

£€7 

8,274 

4,063 

15,042 

9,267 

17,563 

2D, 302 

27,739 

10,998 

8,093 

19, 718 

8,271 

16, 247 

11,483 

4,206 

8,740 

10, 260 

5,316 



2,23G 



23,C65 
1,983 
18, '536 
13,156 
2,073 
4,605 
7,207 



o 

a 
a 
o 



w 
O 

a 



f£7 
151 



755 

863 

83 

462 

1,074 

C4 

318 

353 

11 

94 

29 

563 

762 

323 

33 

65 

86 

30 

861 

89 

735 

336 

603 

538 

194 

146 

87 

536 

404 

324 

323 

183 

43 

253 

237 

61 

311 

66 

1,114 

1,377 

553 

307 

214 



o 

a 

a 
o 

o 


O 



16, 442 

£8,128 

6,768 

775 

18,507 

32,277 

4,534 

19,253 

19, 127 

11,208 

10,046 

27,292 

2,523 

5,711 

2,483 

9,340 

1,231 

20,120 

612 

4,622 

7,C87 

1,135 

21, 874 

6,685 

21,236 

18, 711 

18, 742 

15,063 

IP, 843 

11,868 

5,583 

15, 960 

16, 519 

25,063 

16,602 

12, 637 






22, 044 
17, 457 

5, 595 
15.804 

9,G22 






19. 912 

11, 6;i7 

9,327 

11.825 



o 

wb a 

t -a 

g i 



$7,735 
6,113 
9,664 



6, 0&3 

23,850 

7,493 

10, 616 

6,350 

10,805 

12,531 

12,830 

9,086 

19,127 

1,523 

10, 789 

0,787 

14,531 

3, 735 

3,835 

998 

1,833 

8,326 

2,913 

5,087 

£7, 912 

12,539 

19,478 

13,706 

10, 175 

13,874 

16, ec8 

6,214 
10, 182 

8,G38 
15, 314 

2,516 
15,334 
12, 7^6 
12,109 
14. 167 

8,834 
11,429 

2,330 

023 

601 

16,897 



o 
o 
a 

•a 

.a 



-a 

a 

u 

< 



t64,C23 

160, 407 

119, 703 

2,062 

30, 812 

116,254 

39, 378 

152,599 

183,038 

212, 285 

60,384 

91, 397 

53, 110 

130, C51 

154,007 

100,133 

83,970 

1C8, 786 

68,519 

122,600 

103, 774 

45,531 

127, 101 

137,341 

82,385 

196,445 

67, 761 

99,529 

116, 100 

70,397 

121,216 

92, 573 

128, 919 

6H,953 

06,083 

206,861 

30,681 

60,581 

131, 738 

77,569 

120,340 

112, 513 

125,667 

74,807 

53,219 

84.293 



1 

3 
4 

5 
G 

7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
£8 
29 
30 
31 
33 
33 
34 
35 
30 
37 
38 
:» 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 



224,545 ! 47 



42 



STATE OF INDIANA. 



AGRICULTURE. 



48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
53 
CO 
Gl 
02 
G3 
64 
C5 
C6 
C7 
C8 

(yj 

TJ 
71 
72 
73 
74 
75 
70 
77 
78 
79 
60 
81 
82 
63 
84 
85 
80 
87 

80 
90 
91 
92 



COUNTIES. 



Madison 

Marion 

Morftholl 

Martin 

Miami 

Mouroo 

Montgomery . 

Moi*san 

Newton 

Koblo 

Ohio 

Orange 

Owen 

Purko 

Perry 

Piko 

Porter 

Poicy 

Puloitld 

Putnum 

Randolph 

Ripicy 

Rush 

St. JoHcpb... 
Scott 



Shelby 



Spencer 

Stark 

Steuben 

Sullivan 

Switzerland . 
Tippecanoe.. 

Tipton 

Union 

Vanderburgh 



Vermillion . 
Vigo 



Wabash.... 

Warren 

Wiirrick.... 
Washington 

Wayne 

Well* 

White 

Wbiacy.... 



ACRES OP LAND. 



■2 
> 

2 

p. 

S 



Total 



103,004 

133,221 

23,231 

44, 102 

85,723 

125, 392 

200,922 

142,092 

27,441 

03,285 

31, 284 

95, 752 

130,355 

1C8. 042 

37, 134 

03, 107 

73,123 

79, 712 

41s 300 

245, 817 

114, 104 

C8, 990 

145, 508 

88,250 

45,050 

130,013 

72,801 

9,541 

00, 305 

91, 907 

77, 485 

109, 912 

42, 431 

59, C8G 

53, 850 

07, 017 

95,737 

100,093 

120, 0G8 

78, 223 

143,819 

152,003 

57,042 

84, 002 

55,374 



1^ 



a 

i 

> 

g 

p. 

a 



97,722 

C3, C81 

40, 385 

83,507 

95, r59 

77,3C7 

117, 404 

113, 343 

39,048 

93, 190 

27,114 

1C8, 504 

82, 5S7 

115, 113 

93, 974 

83, 230 

50,819 

79, 534 

54, 077 

43,031 

123, C77 

117,407 

108,255 

90,503 

53, 744 

107, 581 

111,840 

30,847 

80,330 

102, 072 

51,214 

130, 074 

71, 190 

41, 800 

40,999 

80,599 

90,315 

110,004 

75, 980 

109,035 

144, 920 

115, 454 

74, 950 

69, 481 

70,402 



I 

a 

o 

o 
s 

> 

1 



$5,001,358 

10, 923, 433 

1, 032, 420 

1,137,020 

4, 470, 525 
3,054,150 
7, 607, 182 
5, 707, 548 

904, 571 
3, 242, 207 
2, 020, 700 
2, 450. 913 
3, 530, 527 

5, 081, 953 
1,038,473 
1,050,220 
3, 307, 730 
3, 780, 090 
1,005.370 
7, 755, 034 
5, 852, 790 
3,702,002 

10,200,041 
4,210,e75 
1, 170, 590 
7,790,350 
2, 790, 195 
411,050 
2, 420, 995 
2, 548, 305 
4, 508, 770 
8, 257, COO 
2, 020, 033 
4, 350, 027 
1,912,594 
2, 477, 892 
3, 958, 905 
4,913,070 
3, 915, 395 
3, 000, 049 

11,583,148 
2, 393, 243 
2, 861, 063 
2, 921, 590 



c3 

a 

^ - 

— U 



d 

h 



$143,221 

219, 970 

oo, t/C3 

47, 202 

137,017 

95,073 

2C7,00G 

138, 935 

23,092 

07,300 

19, 7S0 

95,540 

112. 527 

154,013 

37, 218 

78,781 

85,015 

47, 95-1 

33,740 

183,021 

101^092 

119, 042 

222, 793 

131, 434 

42, 711 

199.049 

1C7, 190 

15, 245 

82,715 

107,723 

133,905 

198, 804 

40, 879 

145, 129 

54,582 

92,840 

114, 459 

159,729 

102, 453 

103, 017 

175, 839 

309,023 

08,794 

79.000 

77, Oil 



LIVE STOCK. 



i 

o 



4,359 

7, leo 

1,518 
2,055 
5, 104 
5,400 
10,133 
0,356 
1,230 
3,398 
1,405 
3,995 
5,459 
0,399 
1,831 
3,365 
2,855 
4,207 
1,017 
8,035 
0,023 
5,3M 
8,500 
4,208 
2,399 
7, G24 
107, 489 
335 
3,116 
4.880 
3,578 
9,059 
2.395 
3,C86 
2,283 
4,205 
5,543 
0,140 
5,333 
3,811 
0,297 
8,327 
3,531 
3,058 
3,198 



i 

•a 
§ 

3 

< 



C9 

9 

63 

57 

301 

804 

444 

70 

21 

111 

538 

155 

400 

33 

133 

22 

355 

51 

1,308 

77 

3:c 

303 

73 
176 
249 
293 

19 

9 

200 

1C8 

323 

45 
125 
454 

90 
209 

81 
207 
447 
596 
105 

55 
122 
126 



t 

s 

u 



4,050 
6,093 
1,603 
1,927 
4,922 
3,979 
7,066 
4,025 
1,285 
4,280 
1,099 
3,079 
4,356 
4,403 
2,200 
2,655 
3,909 
3,490 
2,625 
6,122 
5,990 
5,489 
5,490 
4,516 
2,071 
5,388 
3,167 
847 
4,188 
3,943 
2,924 
6,828 
2,309 
2,046 
2,595 
3,074 
4,264 
5,638 
4,401 
3,248 
5,047 
6, 572 
3,398 
3,741 
3,532 



H 

o 

o 

►■_. 



410 
374 
441 
927 
432 
C85 
418 
559 
SG5 
673 
65 
093 
607 
037 
1,063 
1,257 
748 
875 
817 
693 
535 
1,511 
268 
772 



c3 
.0 



6,276 
7,234 
3,119 
4,228 
8.390 
7,393 

14,184 
9,221 
3,230 
6,741 
1,515 
5,191 
8,072 
8,352 
2,478 
3,742 
5,468 
5,548 
3,827 

13, 578 
6.990 
7,323 

12.074 
6,48G 



8, 242, lai 



8, 146, 109 i 35^), 712, 175 ; 10, 457, 897 



520, 077 



28,893 



363,553 



217 


S,69C 


2,975 


316 


7.105 


11.341 


1,037 


4.3G9 


7.511 


512 


1,082 


505 


1,204 


5,095 


16,631 


557 


8,568 


15,423 


463 


2,788 


5,706 


314 


13,579 


12,433 


2,383 


4,941 


6.039 


16 


3,002 


3,737 


414 


2,205 


2,679 


219 


5,280 


8,353 


434 


6,960 


9,991 


025 


8,409 


16,018 


180 


11,503 


7,699 


1,638 


5,212 


9,406 


829 


8,115 


16.337 


157 


11,511 


12,094 


379 


4,190 


10,291 


714 


8,010 


9,904 


733 


5.123 


10.583 


117,687 


568.144 


1 
901, 175 



Cm 

o 
CO 



11.634 
10,933 

O neyi ! 
«», «#^^ 

e,C87 ' 
14, 717 
13,992 
24,924 
15,072 

1,668 
15.699 

3,563 

12,674 

! 
15,710 

18,516 [ 

5,070 

9,019 

5.564 

7,802 

3.921 

19,359 

14,305 

12,100 

15,563 

7,930 



STATE OF INDIANA. 



43 



AGRICULTURE. 



LIVE STOCK. 



6 

a 

i 



28,8C8 
47. 052 

8,457 
13, C75 
29,077 
34,145 
52, 317 
C4,0C8 

5,C91 
20,D3G 

7, 21G 
20,3GG 
47,7-X) 
44, 790 
15, 184 
31, 625 
12,040 
33, 1C7 

7,310 
C2, 005 
33; 592 
£5, 479 
75,G24 
1C,123 
13, GIG 
47, C76 
24, 4DG 

2,535 
- 7,80C 
£8,63C 
13, 979 
3C,779 
19,485 
27,592 

9,C97 
17,587 
30,891 
35,C35 
21,285 
2G,113 
w7, ^Xj 
40,877 
25,787 
12,470 
17, 387 



o 
o 
a 

-a 



o 



PRODUCED. 



3,099,110 



$502,402 
S75, 4CI 
1C7, 942 
- £80,57G 
507,322 
C17,91C 

1, 225, 8C2 
S3J, C87 
182,783 
428, 949 
143, 177 
514,353 
572,741 
788, 475 
222, C50 
413, 491 
417, 48G 
4C7, 131 
218, COG 

1, 453, C33 
739,910 
58D, 805 

1, 178, DC3 
443, 176 
282,201 
979,394 
473,153 
70,508 
452, IIG 
556,907 
4G8,7G3 

1, 12C, 764 
334,348 
509,743 
206,738 
490,509 
638,243 
711, 595 
735, 715 
519, 780 
8D4, 141 

1,145,801 
3C7,2G2 
461, 18G 
300, 453 



o 

o 

•s 



200,112 
331,165 

94,878 

61, 945 
274,046 
109, 571 
2G4, 340 
17a 997 

11,573 
205, 202 
100,400 
110, 571 
182,155 
203,637 

54,303 
108,386 
149, 151 
199, 4-27 

59,967 
140, 191 
154,208 
305, 161 
371, 885 
362, 870 

67,77^ 
359,999 
131, 763 
9, 3 If 
133,953 
135, 269 
181, r89 
225, 7:8 

50,681 
127,128 

83,684 
108,875 
179, 159 
289, 576 

53,441 
151, C&l 
221, 994 
344, 131 
132, 91G 

63,033 
141,835 



•s 



o 



751 

2,106 

1,113 

913 

3,261 

2,765 

6,934 

4,342 

227 

7,761 

4,227 

7,931 

31,711 

4,843 

392 

£83 

3,762 

57 

3,455 

18, 646 

4,113 

17,268 

4,620 

4,565 

843 

1,553 

1,070 

2,479 

19,900 

1,622 

9,813 

47,453 

565 

647 

C30 

11,652 

2,747 

2,278 
92 
7,002 
841 
4,911 
4,190 
3,003 



.3 

b 

.a 

w 



JO 

8 

a 



1,IC8,C87 

1, 545, 690 
273.619 
3i8, 021 
808,997 
0C8,C94 

1,551,705 

1,630,056 
150,255 
471,053 
293, 751 
433, C83 
589,450 

1, 354, 070 
£86, 75-1 
616. 183 
404, 605 

1, 039, 211 
225,102 

1, 751, 839 
680, 944 
428. C43 

1, 847, 065 
573,074 
223,226 

1, 749, 752 
669,256 
55, 988 
334, 288 
850. 545 
4:S,C8G 

2,384,400 

530,121 

« 

655,625 

429,405 

•1, 060, 983 

1,284,532 
990,869 

1,221,195 
610, 854 
731, 70G 

1, 387, 232 
423, 020 
573,038 
410, 307 



CI 

•s 





O 



42,309 

110,621 

15,657 

25,230 

59, 711 

C3,C87 

118, 148 

76, 618 

9, 524 

81, 091 

7,107 

74, 843 

62, 571 

50,375 

16,551 

19, 374 

73, C44 

20, 847 

8,207 

123, 473 

120, 703 

53,047 

136, 082 

57. 137 

32, 172 

72,323 

^,511 

773 

30, 015 

9,093 

12,858 

63,094 

15,072 

64,626 

15, 482 

• 37,936 

25,197 

80,173 

30, 129 

22,196 

162, 908 

202, 194 

40, 439 

14,477 

42, 780 



o 








o 

OB 

•a 

a 



s. 

u 



o 



o a 

9 ® 

C3 



42, 125 

6,C80 

£03 

150,089 

16, 748 

13. 782 

17, 194 

10, 50-1 



i,8:o 

630 

33,590 

73,080 

14, 679 

136,031 

717, 426 



3,570 

2,490 

16, 763 

27,920 

6,590 

330 



18, 056 

170,250 

1, 145, 095 

595 

2,210 

950 

2,075 

6,833 

5,120 

12,450 

71,023 

510 

9,494 

41,292 

450 

1, 731, 833 

81, 945 

181, ^3 

9,110 

5,351 

2, CO J 



41,855,539 



16,848,267 



463, 495 



71, 588, 919 



5,317,831 



7,993,378 



"Wool, pounds of. 


.£} 

CM 

It 

s 

s 


1 

•s 



S s 

•2 

•-< 


• 

1 

OQ 




31,229 


1,021 


38,383 


2,337 


48 


28,083 


2,770 


139, 213 


15,107 


49 


10, 440 


29-1 


29,907 


601 


53 


10, 770 


201 


11, 215 


1,573 


51 


33,783 


457 


81,698 


2,631 


53 


20,947 


1,067 


15, 102 


2,141 


53 


C8,CC7 


2,403 


40,259 


5,983 


54 


3G, 850 


1,486 


28,505 


6,126 


55 




770 
216 


1,036 
86,223 




56 


39, 992 


471 


57 


4,950 


1,090 


22,009 


22,013 


58 


31,725 


349 


8,508 


3, 074 


59 


33,736 


QG 


20, OCl 


3,660 


60 


53,426 


258 


29,511 


7,043 


61 


10, 074 


733 


35, 424 


875 


62 


910 


. 1,055 


12, 2S2 


2,113 


63 


18,950 


723 


48, 907 


34 


Gl 


12, 117 


2 


29.877 


1,045 


65 


9,761 


521 


34,311 


328 


CG 


55,644 


2,915 


31,603 


7,260 


67 


43, 600 


828 


42,728 


2,960 


G3 


26,351 


2,511 


45, 839 


2,976 


C9 


50,077 


34 


28,304 


4,268 


70 


22,514 


365 


90,509 


1.936 


71 


19, 964 


662 


11,164 


2,465 


72 


30,913 


640 

9 


35,167 


5,113 


73 


15,062 


1,798 


50,257 


4,884 


74 


1,324 


145 


10, 999 


117 


75 


.•i^,5Gl 


927 


60,803 


95 


76 


32,005 


175 


18, 607 


. 0,925 


77 


17,367 


1,179 


65,907 


1,951 


78 


49,424 


1,089 


93,936 


2,756 


73 


13,829 


69 


29,116 


1,345 


83 


15,184 


96 


6,099 


1,030 


61 


5,716 


184 


24,106 


1,773 


83 


23,260 


883 


24,677 


1,326 


83 


21,063 


1,253 


44,390 


5,611 


84 


40, 419 


676 


84,265 


8,499 


65 


25,777 


40 


27,202 


876 


66 


17,915 


237 


. 19, 301 


9,000 


87 


42, 501) 


1,405 


18, 502 


4,783 


83 


30, 005 


33G 


47, 790 


15, 124 


89 


25, 474 


319 


58,571 


C79 


90 


33, 372 


048 


42, 728 


397 


91 


23,993 


202 


59,281 


1,116 


93 


2,552,318 


79,902 


3,866,647 


399,516 





44 



STATE OF INDIANA 



AGRICULTURE. 



cr 



48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
C3 
54 
£5 
5G 
£7 
58 
SO 
CO 
61 
C2 
C3 
CI 

a> 

iS 
C7 
CS 
C9 
70 
71 
72 
73 
74 
75 
7C 
77 
78 
70 
60 
81 
62 
83 
84 
85 

ec 

87 

to 

£0 
SI 
C2 



COUNTIES. 



Bf adiBon 

Marion 

Marshall 

Martla 

Miami 

Monroo 

Montgomery.. 

Morgan 

Newton 

Noblo 

Ohio 

Ornngo 

Owen 

Purke 

Perry 

' Piko 

Porter 

PoBcy 

Pulnaki , 

Putnam 

Handolph 

Ripley 

Rush , 

St. Jottcph — 

Scott 

Shelby 

Spencer 

Stark 

Steuben 

Sulllran 

Switzerland . 
Tippecanoe... 

Tipton 

Union 

Vanderburgh 
Vermillion . . . 

Vigo 

Wabash 

Warren 

Warrick , 

Washington ., 
Wayno 



vrc'iis 

Vt'LIto 

V*'hl:lcy..., 

Total. 



PRODUCED. 



w 

•2 

O 



n 







o 

P 









OB 

a 

O 

a 



a o 
I- a 

es 



a 



o 

u 

o 

■*^ 

o 



2,C73 
3, 7.^2 



127 



4,200 

5,241 
223 



CCS 

1,580 

70 

C73 
4,181 

DC3 



1,710 

5, C42 

153 

25G 

C,C22 

5, CC9 

2,2C0 

C,317 

C8i 

18, C87 

10, nc2 



745 

49 

C,473 

3,501 

75 

11,5C3 

18,620 

631 

3,273 

4,234 

22C 

CO 

63 

18, irj 

2,770 

81 

5G3 



9, 045 ! 

5,0T6 

3,CG0 

744 
5,G45 

5G9 
3, 492 



2,9C8 



13,570 
1,CC3 



5 



2,557 
1,450 

u. a 

83 

4,425 

5GJ 

) 5,120 

7^ 

lO.CCG 

3,129 

1,2C9 

5,657 

1C3 

C.373 

7C7 

2,413 

14, 107 

090 

2,579 

10, 172 

2,3C5 

1, C74 

375 

4,800 

2,175 

e,764 

5,546 

40 

135 

3,6S7 

11,352 

ll,C73 

9, 132 



$1G,G27 

48, 175 

0,150 

• 1,473 
IQ.COO 
10, 073 
37,705 
19, 942 



15, ZSd 






8,384 
10, G75 
21, 175 

0,533 

7,313 
11,201 

9, 180 

080 

30,553 

20,280 

9, CCS 
30, 840 
22, 491 

1,688 



cm ocy* 



13,290 

342 

14, 851 

16, 218 

0,851 

29, 400 

1,500 

4.991 

9,040 

7,549 

11,284 

20,118 

12, 370 

14,421 

17, 103 

20.013 

5,430 

3, 5JC) 

7,C£3 



20 

81 

39 

CSO 

CtCtA 

133 



25 



1,001 



$2, 235 1 

41, 395 

3,570 

3,C50 

CI7 






4,710 
1,000 



222, 945 
301, 140 
73,377 
84,773 
227,452 
195, 470 
375, 434 
220,020 



2, C51 



40 



CC5 

288 

10 

1,499 

9 



810 



488 



82 

50 



4,314 

50 



42 

10,390 

C 

410 

21 



8 
23 

1,470 



20 

20 



2,477 
2,583 



1,374 



411 
2,0C3 

i, i)\jO 

101,311 

1,480 

5C0 

3 

1,C04 

C39 

190 

G,eC7 

8,912 

Gl 

800 

280 

190 

1,140 

310 

7,795 

9, COO 

130 

4, 321 

5, 130 

9,001 

9,454 

1,352 

100 



325 

9,8:0 
370 
100 



253,515 

90, 207 
142, 123 
148, 720 
181,103 

40, 0G8 

1,C85 

109,205 

92, 735 

81,400 
350, 180 
374, 688 
210, 444 
335, 143 
245, 001 

80, 451 
250, 078 
1C4, 088 

27,490 
205, 030 
100, 403 
195, 547 
233, C40 
100^42 
173, 1C3 

C9, 937 
130, 935 
170, C84 
342, 208 
135,385 
lOG, 099 
257, 953 
378, Zs*j 
199, GGO 
120, COG 
104, C23 



a 

o 

S 

u 
O 



1,423 

3.170 

4,287 

100 

2,482 

4,5C8 

17,C37 

13,328 



15, 673 

3,'/29 

2,923 

2,315 

12, 001 

015 

1,911 

14,815 

G 

880 

8,901 

8,328 

23,010 

3,149 

4,470 

ICO 

G, 790 

C25 

140 

24, 598 

1,313 

10, 697 

1,754 

CO 

3,140 

351 

2,682 

1,407 

10, 195 

6,005 



OC-) 



4,182 
7,7IG 
4, 433 
4,105 i 
2.851 



382, 245 



396. 989 



1,258,942 



102, 895 



546,153 



18, 300, 651 



605, 795 



a 

o 






C,145 
9,157 
3.524 
1,377 
7,303 
4,250 
947 
4,6e8 
1.131 
11,733 
3,400 
1,020 
4,139 
7,371 



2,275 



1,911 

17,730 
3,117 
9,000 
8,747 
7,100 

10, 342 
7,141 

13, 749 
2,099 
4. 948 
3, 750 
3,(^7 

14, 801 
4,525 

14, 192 
9,937 
2,425 
3,500 
4,093 
3,851 
9,978 
8.104 
9,270 
3,838 
7,080 
9, 204 
0,182 

10, 353 
7,201 





.a 



> 
o 





.a 



•3 13 



381 
93 
772 
47 
951 
192 
734 
263 



4,277 

48 

103 

107 

405 

1 

101 

70 

333 

103 

378 

110 

43 

414 

1,844 

3b 

243 

11 

&19 

2,056 

IG 

49 

C7 

13 

120 

25 

75 

199 

1,196 

18 

32 

8 

Col 

283 



1,407 



50 



3 

CS 



128 
264 
241 
254 

1, C62 ; 

cai 

550 



30 

477 

• 

1,555 

C7G 

344 

£5 

79 

318 

40 

34 

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STATE OF IOWA. 



AGRICULTURE. 



1 
s 

3 
4 

5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
23 
23 
24 
25 
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27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
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43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
63 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 
63 
61 
63 



COUNTIES. 



Adair 

Adami 

Allamakee .. 
Appanoose .. 
Andabon . . . 

Benton 

Black Hawk. 

Boone 

Bremer 

Buchanan . . . 
Bnena Vlata . 
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Batler 

Calbonn 

Carroll 

Cast 

Cedar 

Cerro Gordo. 

Cherokee 

Chickasaw . . 

Clarke 

Clay 

Clayton 

Clinton 

Crawford 

Dallas 

Davis 

Decatur 

Delaware 

Des Moines. . 
Dickinson . . . 
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Emmett 

Fayette 

Floyd 

Franklin.... 

Fr6mont 

Greene 

Grundy 

Guthrie 

Hamilton 

Hancock 

Hardin 

Harrison 

Henry 

Howard 

Humboldt . . . 

Ida 

Iowa 

Jackson 

Jasper 

Jefferson . . . . 

Johnson 

Jones 

Keokuk 

Kossuth 

Leo 

Unn 

Louisa 

Lucas 

Madison 



ACRES OP LAND. 



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28,093 

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108, 691 

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87,909 

54,645 

97,034 

107,531 

367 

109,038 

107 

55,747 

21,522 

6,506 

28,687 

7,227 

5,458 

18,477 

8,237 

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22,:93 

12,276 

114,270 

16,388 

1,110 

248 

43, 192 

107,554 

58.772 

99,357 

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146,832 

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61,568 

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STATE OF IOWA 



47 



AGRICULTURE. 



LIVE STOCK 



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3,285 

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29,140 

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101,497 

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39,875 

1,450 

125, 421 

194, 829 

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13,450 

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412,085 

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559, 182 

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133,225 

53,115 

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115, 837 

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108,094 

5.020 

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301, 455 

022,530 

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581,292 

454,741 

481,057 

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12,025 

836, 251 

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479,450 

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59,807 

1,780 

3,209 

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592,117 

4,2i;8 

54,061 

28,233 

17,982 

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208,877 

48,850 

14, 742 

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11,799 

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2,424 

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60,071 

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260 

104,629 

339,120 

100,827 

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177,404 

263,806 

116, 470 

1,150 

141, 844 

251,256 

144, 354 

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143,590 

5,580 

16,865 

116,304 

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35,995 

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470,023 

1, 263, 794 

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119,356 

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17,138 

14,088 

8,209 

1,518 

46,803 

29,900 

36, 852 

50,572 

950 

150 

94,360 

302,332 

70, 849 

36,929 

161,452 

193, 144 

81,836 

1,101 

42,047 

222,224 

35,531 

30,779 

39,787 

77,969 



1,835 
225 
204 



620 



100 

9,137 

30 

2,008 

353 

140 

3,072 

i28,6J5 

23,074 

3,133 

2,382 



394 



S5S 

456 

535 

35 

1,543 
525 

2,271 
180 



2,635 

2,381 

24,545 

1,100 



1,505 
1,170 
4, 615 



25 



3,000 
2,734 
2,218 



29,799 

967 

2,808 

4,732 

10,860 

19, 643 



1,044 



67 

1,012 

5,057 

421 



6,C67 
8,563 



5, X6 

1,278 
145 

9,550 
32,803 
17,326 

4,219 
14,757 



6,870 



179 

39 

43 

309 

476 

79 



112 

582 

3 

594 

958 

95 

439 

1,212 

991 

389 

868 



1,107 



10,525 


80 


2,711 


234 


188 


48 


6, 944 


401 


2,341 


134 


846 


72 


4,075 


378 


625 


60 


100 


12 


4,628 


363 


1,868 


575 


19,135 


1,500 


1,094 


120 


54 


12 




13 


4,313 


502 


11,898 


1,100 


10,066 


468 


27,069 


490 


12,574 


21 


10,094 


549 


22,583 


835 




2 


26,196 


1,134 


16,291 


732 


10,000 


239 


9,855 


619 


8,674 


1,270 


35,348 


532 



30,572 

1,030 

1,260 

8,222 

56,067 

10,268 

190 

46,772 

18,370 

150 

91,634 

90,851 

2,102 

20,364 

22.487 

26,634 

56,947 

57,598 

1,360 

125.854 

590 

61,250 

37,380 

9.009 

17,220 

5,404 

6,816 

11,293 

10,212 

2,945 

24,843 

16,814 

53,465 

32.775 

2,321 

265 

48.896 

70,150 

41,461 

38,761 

69,591 

56,035 

44, 325 

5,430 

92, 213 

60,050 

38.938 

10, 728 

29.496 

37,431 



12 



39 
1,958 



525 



520 
202 



394 

701 

486 

29 

2,360 



72 



11 



19L 
12 



156 



3,593 



127 



722 



3,370 

581 


357 


3,636 


4,778 
684 


1,975 
722 


551 


2,492 



48 



STATE OF IOWA. 



AGRICULTURE. 



COUNTIES. 



1 
2 
3 
4 

5 ! 
C 

7 

e 

9 
10 

11 

10 

la 

14 

15 

IG 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

^ 

2G 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

32 

33 

34 

35 

3G 

37 

38 

39 

40 

41 

42 

43 

4-1 

45 

4(> 

47 

48 

49 

50 

51 

52 

53 

54 

55 

5G 

57 

58 

59 

00 

61 

82 



Adair 

A Jams 

Allatuakeo . . 
Appanooso . . 
Audubon ... 

neutoii 

Dlack Ilnwk. 

Doono 

Bremer 

Buchanan . . . 
Bucua Vista. 
Buncombo... 

Butler 

Calhoun 

Carroll 

C:u>8 

Cedar 

Cerro Gordo. 
Cherokee ... 
Chickasaw .. 

Clarke 

Clay 

Cluyton 

Clinton 

Crawford 

Dallas 

DavU 

Decatur 

Delaware . . . 
Dc8 Moines . . 
Dickinson . . . 
Dubuque . . . 

Emmctt 

Fayctto 

Floyd 

Franklin 

Fr6iuont 

Greene 

Grundy 

Qnthrio 

Hamilton 

Hancock .... 

Hardin 

Ilarririon 

Henry 

Howard 

Humboldt ... 



Ida. 



Iowa 

Jackson . . 
Jaiipcr . . . 
Jefferson . 
Johnson . . 

Jones 

Keokuk . . 
^KoMEuth . . 

Loo 

Linn 

Louisa . . 
Lucas . . . 
Madison . 
Mahaska 



PRODUCED. 



.£3 




a 



7,404 



877 

1,413 

89 

019 

954 



82 



2 

1G,54G 
18 



475 

10 



10,929 

37,152 

10 

12 

CS7 

109 

10,GC4 

C, 475 



28,707 



•s 





.a 



9 
C3 






O 



a 






C 9 

r. <* 

"*- 

IB 

•- -ft 



a 


O 



2C8 

819 

CyAe 

1G,CC7 

111 

259 

i:]0 

1,404 

142 

95 



50 



242 

2JC 
130 



79 
5,421 



880 

454 

18 

C52 

12, 804 

11,892 

C75 

8, 591 

117 

1,331 



4,237 

485 



509 



C72 

1C7 

101 

2,488 



900 



70 

325 

3,018 

3,028 



1,112 
5, IC8 
1, 257 
1,013 
4,520 
5,9:]G 
2,fi59 



11,1G2 

3, G23 

381 



21 

93 

224 



251 

190 

10, 924 

141 

50 



9G2 

4,Gai 

712 

12,045 

G04 

84 

5.980 



512 
3,033 1 



10,800 
512 
2,191 
9.122 
5,G37 
2,4C0 



tGO 
535 



17 
20 



2,520 



127 
316 



33 
477 

50 

205 

21,934 



1,247 
10 



513 



40 



5 



3 

9 
o 



9,290 



75 
5,327 

22G 
C,330 
1,024 

533 

1,708 



20,239 
1,510 
8,129 



402 

2.054 



11 
5 



18 
840 



98 



197 



250 

105 

32 

91 

20 

9 
o 



131 

38 



$325 
434 



120 
3,74G 



50 
1,CC0 



1 
43 



429 

2,203 
447 



ooo 



5,070 



555 



32 

238 

12 

3o8 

28,005 



3,490 



12 
1,523 
1,217 

45 



25 



1,111 
22, 113 



25 



403 

30 

2,530 

3, 902 

G45 
4,500 



10.504 
C25 



18, 205 

29, rro 

]P8.4i:i) 

321, -197 

8,eJ0 

KG, a^ 

145, 370 

114,770 

155, iSJ 

350 



28.0fil 
1,999 



€8, 550 

5,185 

3,578 

31,958 

38fi,677 

19, 8:J5 

400 

110,825 

107, 97G 

850 

341,714 

3C8, 729 

4.C89 

97, 107 

235. 8 19 

132, 367 

246,810 

275,547 

1,800 

390, 280 

1,C80 

287.560 

72,903 

21,281 

110,586 

17,818 

32,385 

66.684 

40, 810 

5,000 

79.270 

75,381 

296.974 

85,171 

5,050 

1,250 

168,429 

374, 044 

172, 430 

257,044 

212, 792 

261,694 

221.603 

12,134 

362,363 

229. 760 

252,002 

149, 335 

145. 435 

189,115 



a 



o 

o 




O 






at 


s 

CI 

> 
o 



•3 



.a 






S 

u 



485 
1,125 

16,813 
8,159 
1.CG5 
9.851 

17.131 
8, 431 
9,821 

14,203 



7, 832 
525 



14, 570 

38, 739 

2,240 



7,680 

2,787 

400 

14, 220 

28, 064 

500 

6, 126 

9. 152 

10,8J3 

60,683 

2,600 



31,443 

400 

11,567 

9,100 

1. 980 

7,727 

703 
8,190 
1,900 

820 

100 

3,321 

8,331 

19, 092 

6,535 

50 



1,768 

2,327 
11,C87 
14,032 

1,068 
15,249 
12,412 

6,711 

10,653 

13, 244 

60 



12,396 

25,704 

14, 899 

5.514 

12, 575 

33.188 

13.033 

60 

82.054 

25,822 

5,177 

6,823 

7.179 

13,247 



264 



12 



7,898 
484 
454 

3, 704 
20. 932 

2,002 

la'J 

12.281 

5,286 

K^ 

25.687 

28, 488 

802 

3,588 
10, 991 

5,050 
22.035 
15, 634 

33,682 

197 

20.323 

8, 442 

2,891 

1,462 

2, 220 

2,481 

5,249 

3, 742 

419 

6,972 

6,016 

16,122 

8,588 

590 

210 

12,458 

22,687 

13,141 

13,218 

20,516 

24,415 

8,114 

1,203 

19.759 

26,502 

12,237 

5.660 

10.958 

14.782 



4 

163 



743 
3 



4 

360 
3 



63 

5 

15 

19 



21 



9 



94 



176 



10 
26 



303 
13 
25 
66 



39 

31 
6 



49 
1 



.32 

C5 
248 I 
3,r.09 



^& 

572 
3G4 
344 
357 



230 



41 

1,816 

8 



68 
23C 



456 
1,596 



123 

5,721 

795 

617 

2,101 



925 



323 

210 

119 

272 

50 

213 

97 

45 



182 

23 

2,399 

41 



239 
1,071 

133 
0,174 
1.341 

075 

254 



5,G2G 
1,242 
1,946 
1,013 
471 
1.273 



o 
a 



o 



c 
c 



24 



11 
32 



I 



6 ! 
86 i 



14 



115 



j< 



17 
104 



( 



12 
42 



104 



39 

5 
o 

37 



10 



224 



100 
9 

141 

7 

61 

4 



81 
45 



44l 



STATE OF IOWA. 



AOKICULTURE. 



rnoDL-CED. 


1 

1 




,.„. 


1 

i 


c 


I 

1 


! 

s 

1 


li 


i 

k 

a 

i 


1^ 

ll 

1 


1 

1 


1 
1 

1 


i 
1 




1 


1 


















2,7W 
4.772 

1.233 
E9,C9I 

10,303 
7,100 

10,162 
5,434 
9,435 


916 


40,430 

7,795 
S.103 
13,C85 

5.299 


$435 
1,495 
1,20(1 

ai,2sj 

3,554 

1,043 


8.081 
80,311 










■ 430 


11 

310 




















75,553 

i,ej5 




B35 




































505 

3,710 
330 


28 




E3,638 
23,137 




133 

CTl 


301 
B56 














29,579 1 ^ 






















' 1 g 






















1 




.:::::::::: .:::::. 


















12 


' 




3G8 


U 




TBS 






4,081 
G8 

3,085 

23,000 

190 


53 


2,085 
125 


666 






















112 




... 








702 
G.293 










172 






J^ 


























40 




























' ,g 








a,iB5 


»1 




13. K9 




203 


031 
25,154 


50 

lei 


3,983 


4,607 














29.468 SI 






















'Z 


w 




lO.SlO 




= 


4, 073 
9,l8fi 

26,913 
40,680 
30,3CD 

14, ail 


1.101 
SS7 


B,2b7 
7,013 
1,810 
10,013 
00,518 
28,303 
6,017 
28,454 


1,0-29 














95,243 M 
2,900 25 
30,325 SO 
















118 
5 




3,702 




06 


5.601 
19,383 
lOilOl 
S,053 
3,390 




.. 




94 












2,811 
















^ 


73!s33 29 




































723 




107 


2,703 

1,703 

417 

3,836 
1,210 

1,000 


4^ 


8,074 


2.013 


135,113 33 






' 












S 


'. 




10,579 
ni,4.T4 






*i 


3.733 

20,110 

100 
1,594 
300 


1.073 














14 


23.793 35 




















..... . .......J ... 






33 


191 










430 


sm 


s 


S3! 




33 




















« 










S 












3,170 










....... ...........|..... 
















200 
Hi 


m 




4,355 




200 


9,013 
9,175 
52,234 


z 

l.WT 


3,507 

21. wr. 

25,706 


753 






















30 


7,820 
1,000 




400 












14,873 46 
















^ 




































405 
90 


aa 

300 
463 






19,091 
13,391 
48.893 
34.585 

12,680 

24,6Dli 

22,895 

30,134 
53,491 


1,835 
3,113 


18.496 

33.613 
7.690 
6,960 

28.162 


10,190 
2,3i8 
5,904 

2,083 
- 8,392 












32,783 




10 
9 


























00 
395 
















)U3, 171 
79,078 

201.072 
89,3:0 

153. D05 
58,383 
40,113 
60,457 











^ 


83 






















- , 1 


"ifi 








^ 


HO 




9,234 

1,150 




382 
36 


1,109 
1.013 

335 
1,238 
1,322 


30,531 
10.010 

18,037 

37,101 


8,5.-2 
1,906 

7,708 

10, nee 


































am 

4C8 


;i 








20 






» 


10,945 












1 


6J 



50 



STATE OF IOWA 



AGmCULTURE. 



G3 
(A 
G5 
GG 
C7 
C8 
G9 
70 
71 
72 
73 
74 
75 
76 
77 
78 

rj 

80 

81 

82 

83 

84 

85 

8G 

87 

88 

89 

90 

91 

92 

93 

94 

95 

96 

97 

I« 

99 



COUNTIES. 



Manona 

Marion 

Manball 

Mill! 

Mitchell 

Monroo 

Montgomery., 
ilascatlno .... 

Osceola* 

O'Brien 

Pago 

Pocaboutai ... 

Palo Alto 

Plymouth 

Polk 

Pottawatomie 
Poweshiek — 

Ringgold 

Sac 

Scott 

Shelby 

Sioux* 

Story 

Tama 

Toylor 

Union 

Van Daren . . . 

Wapello 

Warren 

Washington . . 

Wayne 

Webster 

Winnebago.. 
Winneshiek . . 
Woodbury . . 

Worth 

Wright 



ACRES OP LAND. 



> 
o 



t 

3 

a 



o 

I 
1 



a 
§'^ 

« o 
c ^ 

B a 
c u 

I 

C9 



2,883 
78,759 
34,120 
29,531 
17, 549 
51.120 
5,770 
112,899 



14,915 
123,833 
79,585 
73,700 
665,615 
91,295 
18, 414 
73,666 



192,435 
2, 778, 960 
1,017,015 
1, 330, 710 

607,070 
1, 997, 648 

232,082 
3,886,294 



16,610 

122,907 

57,022 

59,919 

33,664 

73,354 

8,858 

145, 405 



LIVE STOCK. 



% 

u 

O 



136 
4,174 
1,623 
1, 410 

683 
2,283 

318 
4,926 



i 
a 


OB 

s 

s 
•< 



8 
•3 



5 



156 

20 

48 

6 

96 



200 



231 
4,332 
1.628 
1,571 
1,063 
2,367 

325 
5,389 



a 

8 

to 



143 
1,241 
377 
SG5 
534 
821 
143 
941 



cS 

.a 



320 
8,020 
2,067 
2.710 
1,184 
3,796 

465 
7,067 



c 
an 



l«f 
9,6« 
3,440 

2,011 

3:a 

6,4» 

517 

l,rJ3 



25 

26,425 

139 

345 

1,316 

45,010 

17,066 

36,702 

16,875 

903 

151,053 

3,910 



135 

65,824 

656 

1,384 

4,286 

73,473 

35,240 

61,253 

39,076 

2,683 

43,209 

14,558 



800 

1, 045, 890 

2,700 

4,650 

32,810 

1, 892, 316 

424,211 

975,925 

425,098 

41,850 

4, 405, 186 

127, 610 



43, 896 

170 

415 

1,805 

62,274 

23,565 

38,304 

18, 491 

1,700 

209,274 

6,541 



1,568 
4 

12 

29 

2,550 

940 

1, 614 

919 

45 

5,334 

259 



40 



1 
42 
27 
46 
26 



184 
2 



4 

1,445 

28 

49 

78 

2,558 

1, 198 

1,500 

789 

75 

5,662 

312 



4 

721 

20 

31 

75 

584 

382 

403 

411 

34 

936 

141 



7 

2,C4G 

63 

100 

146 
3,742 
2,138 
2,2W 
1,177 

109 
7,338 

322 



4,012 



4.067 

4,«>4 

84 
1,3«J 

228 



Total 



24,711 

10, 615 

18,288 

12,456 

91, 914 

65,477 

47,906 

109,863 

41,015 

10, 101 

36-1 

06,211 

2,696 

2, 325 

1,685 



48,674 

5, 956 

62,556 

30, 131 

121,564 
82,831 
96.930 

113,043 

97 071 

20,754 

3, 579 

158, 557 

12. 194 

18, 405 

4, 934 



3,792,792 



6,277,115 



(K6, 574 

313, 943 

577, 647 

377,447 

2,800.2(M 

2, 064 023 

1, 843, 000 

3, 304, 843 

1, 185, 586 

257, 465 

11,900 

2, 22 1, 697 

127. 608 

120.800 

49, 095 



119, 899, W7 



30,004 

18,066 

23,007 

19, 295 

123, 876 

61,303 

72,094 

143,116 

46,300 

13,122 

1,2<)8 

152,387 

7, 199 

8,232 

3,815 



5,327,033 



1,107 

&15 
1, 097 

569 
4,688 
2,909 
2,689 
4.380 
1,800 

489 

7 

2,804 

19(J 
82 
69 



175, 088 



12 
9 

24 

28 
230 
283 

42 
179 

50 



22 

4 

o 

1 



5,734 



1,211 

629 

991 

689 

4,809 

3, 013 

2,530 

4,847 

1,877 

616 

42 

4, 195 

128 



297 
148 
524 
315 
860 
TJ5 
510 

1,139 

829 

302 

30 

2,167 

1C2 

214 

38 



189,802 



56,964 



1,460 

918 

1,292 

7G3 

9,812 

5,865 

4,199 

7,108 

2,6(« 

885 

58 

5.922 

413 

350 

213 



293,322 



1, 'JOJ 

4-2? 

2,o:«.;i 

^ • 

ll.3:<»i 

9,4«)! 
4. ?.«U ' 
6,7117 

5.a» 

11 
3, 0.V» 

i:u 

K'vt 

41 

2»,(M1 



No reiuru. 



STATE OF IOWA. 



51 



AGRICULTURE. 



LIVE STOCK. 


PRODUCED. 


m 

1 

CO 


1 

i 


O 

1 

3 


o 

•s 

.a 


•s 



p 


1 

s 
1 


a 



a 

3 


1 

o 
o 


. c: 

c & 

8 2 

a «M 
B « 
O 


o 
a 

i 
1 


t 

.C3 

§ 

1 


• 

•s 




ff 

1 
ll 

CO 




950 


$27,167 
566,456 
216,706 
203,124 
110, 070 
324,708 
50,667 
657,605 


4,326 
119,836 
81.801 
77,053 
63,961 
38.538 
10,605 
346,481 


78 
7,811 
1,736 
1,957 
1,249 
4,179 
353 
15,590 


25,745 

1.571,066 

477, 775 

393,880 

' 101,489 

730,856 

103,700 

1,144,985 


4,020 

84,o:m 

83,285 
38,103 
51,833 
29,699 
4,514 
111, 142 








1,890 

23,221 

8,959 

4,829 

625 

.19, 548 

1,751 

4,795 


221 
601 
354 

1,017 
243 
914 
214 

1,105 


4,871 
43,899 
25,885 
22,303 
39,425 
21,455 

4,434 
117, 138 




61 


8,293 
5,908 




5,007 




2,844 
70 
62 


64 






65 


9,178 




200 

2,595 

14,208 




66 


1,877 






67 


16,163 






989 


68 


3.269 






69 


23,525 




1,880 


** 


3,986 


70 








71 


8 


350 

207,543 

2,000 

3,125 

8,C85 

£83,756 

134, 363 

215, 044 

99,289 

7,875 

616,530 

37,516 


30 

47, 444 

50 

10 
2,121 

75,210 

52,817 

71, 612 

10,640 

769 

746, 634 

9,300 




100 

368,380 

1,280 

1,705 

9,040 

1,553,000 

234,530 

542,615 

204,319 

6,670 

1,015,796 

45, £75 


5 
16,525 












30 

15,140 

650 

2,550 

2,970 

29,218 

21,731 

24, 911 

10, 318 

1,395 

164,484 

4,180 




72 


9,193 
27 


124 




5,398 




10,182 


635 


169 


73 






74 


38 




110 

50 

47,772 

22,124 

49,639 

10. 157 

1,562 

267,970 

3,563 










10 




75 


227 














76 


11,686 
3,399 


343 

691 

no 

891 




20 
50 




10,682 
1,487 
8,838 
2,429 

146 
5,121 

750 


76 
690 


752 
8 

81 


77 




— - 


78 


8,914 




79 


6,161 




3,623 




449 

46 

1,199 

121 


80 


182 








>R] 


18,538 


2,225 




625 




925 


89! 


2,322 






83 














84 


3,392 


116,260 

77,064 

123,051 

83,650 

550,185 

356,279 

351,658 

658,476 

247, 615 

60,4C8 

3,055 

439,280 

34,077 

26,970 

13, 146 


33, 411 

29, 364 

19, 489 

10,725 

63,480 

44.490 

72,756 

164, 443 

15, 518 

7,186 

633 

341, 973 

3,559 

6,492 

4.530 


137 
5,462 

533 

852 
9,389 
5,533 

450 
6,242 
2,409 

438 


194, 127 

127,205 

202,200 

160,635 

1, 155, 573 

992,060 

872, 949 

1, 410, 420 

573, 164 

63,466 

3,120 

331,676 

24, 434 

18. 667 

7,660 


17,744 

23,995 

7,609 

7,581 

27,384 

28.955 

60,882 

76.625 

25,471 

7,916 

350 

321,203 

2,787 

2,703 

2,967 




5,630 
1,177 
2,590 
643 
5,807 
1,910 
5, G26 
2,680 
9,956 




3,116 

1,380 

5,144 

1,174 

27,777 

25.200 

13.757 

18,953 

13,268 

813 

27 

10,286 

350 

386 

98 


266 
206 
427 
210 
975 
325 
485 
739 
621 
165 
17 
570 
956 
29 
55 


18,164 

10, 575 

14, 153 

9,887 

33,713 

25,900 

29,938 

55,966 

15,255 

16,649 

2,225 

80,788 

6.510 

8,641 

3,090 


51 

40 

231 

36 

1,855 

209 

2,156 

1,968 

493 

22 


85 


2,038 






86 


10,899 






87 


4,350 






88 


25,180 






89 


17,725 






90 


19,990 






91 


29,805 






92 


14,239 




« 


93 


1,932 






94 


43 








95 


10, 912 


1,203 
170 
825 








10 


96 


1,077 








97 


374 








• ••■•« •.««•• 


98 


167 








99 
















934,830 


22,476,293 


8.449,403 


183,022 


42,410,686 


5,887,645 




303.168 




660,858 


41,081 


2,806,720 


51,362 













52 



STATE OF IOWA. 



AGRICULTURE. 



63 

64 

65 

66 

67 

68 

69 

70 

71 

72 

73 

74 

75 

76 

77 

78 

79 

89 

81 

82 

83 

84 

85 

86 

87 

88 

89 

SO 

91 

92 

93 

94 

95 

S6 

97 

98 

99 



COUNTPJS. 



Manona 

Marion 

Maniball 

Mllli 

MitcheU 

Monroe 

Montgomery . , 

Maflcatluo 

Oitceola 

O'Brien 

Pttg® 

Pocahontoi. . . 

Polo Alto 

Plymouth . . . . 

Polk 

Pottawatomie 

Poweshiek 

Ringgold 

Sac 

Scott 

Shelby 

Sioux 

Story 

Tama 

Toylor 

Union 

Von Buren . . . 

Wapello 

Warren 

Wnishlngton . 

Woyne 

Webster 

Winnebago. . . 
Winneshiek .. 
Woodbury . . . 

Worth 

Wright 



PRODUCED. 



3 

•3 



712 

573 

495 

4,559 



29,719 



.3 

•s 
J5 

o 

n 



ej 

o 



4,198 
109 
2,291 
363 
8,_CCG 
1,059 
2,199 



$821 

59 

136 



5,198 



o 
« 
a 
o 






o 

'S'a 

&■« 



589 
3 



375 



o 



S 

a 
P 



$30 
621 



143 

153 

7,231 



12,475 
228.532 
106,838 
112,271 

72,795 
171, 243 

21,395 
272,595 



o 

-3 

a 



V 



1.400 

23,502 

9,398 

7,739 

12,125 

6,386 

2,300 

25,540 



a 
S 



1,357 
9,474 
7.879 
7,465 
9,112 
8,625 
1,547 
19,572 




.O 



u 

o 

► 



11 



6 
2 



•2 



.a 






68G 

155 

2 

116 

3,49S 

35 

4,714 



o 
5 



o 



4 1 



193 



71 



2,264 



150 



5,722 



1,985 
306 



28 
222,126 



197 

506 

532 

4,913 



81 



365 

155 

6.169 

10 



1,122 
157 



8,570 



76 
2 



21,658 
50 



100 

95.651 

1,350 

2,125 

3,195 

146, 907 

81,970 

91,876 

53.541 

5,200 

353,337 

16, 740 



100 
3,745 
1,000 



100 
6,077 
3.281 
4.560 
2,716 

550 
32,173 

465 



30 

1,932 

222 

430 

475 

10. 247 

5.545 

4,158 

4,778 

505 

22,100 

1,859 



277 



293 



506 



45 

70 

63 

209 



1,675 



123 



27 



122 



Total 



29 

260 

70 

88 

2,174 

64 

1,689 

4,819 

10 

110 

10 

20,415 

10 

319 



467,103 



110 

155 

3,924 

2,072 

17,336 

7,141 

3,288 

7,803 

9,501 

609 

40 

192 

30 

157 

30 



10 
150 



9,659 
223 



7,454 



215,705 



118,377 



5 
286 



11 
10 
10 



66 



3,369 



20 



55 



212 

100 

300 

65 



65 



169,870 



99,757 

39,009 

66,004 

40,105 

299,632 

155,900 

128,900 

298,188 

170, 887 

58, 005 

3,353 

320,988 

6.882 

21,080 

7,690 



11, 953, 666 



2,335 
4.389 
4,661 
6.551 

i8,5ai 

4,501 
7,887 

23,238 

5,820 

2,490 

200 

24,843 
1,500 
2,300 
2,515 



918,633 



6,829 

807 

4,549 

3,704 

13,937 

10, 910 

9,955 

11. 857 

9,601 

4,686 

433 

29,563 

•l,057 

2,525 

1,375 



813, 173 



174 



131 



46 

575 

133 

49 

3.931 

2,385 

550 

816 

2,152 

5 



13 



593 



3,454 



G9.366 



14 

Id 



30 

11 

35 

4 

15 



10 1 



2,(^9 



STATE OF IOWA. 



53 



AGRICULTURE. 



PRODUCED. 



DKMP. 



a 

o 



1° 




o 

c9 









o 

d 
o 

s 



a) 

.a 
o 

M 



497 
1,C23 



130 

83!) 

25 

28 



23 
97 



2 
28 

1 
25 



oa 
d 
o 

Pi 
- O 



§ 






in 

a 
a 
o 
p< 



P 



C3 









3 





o 












a 

if 

to 

u 
O 



5.830 
1 



30 



14 



1G8 



18 



1,315 
G7,C80 
14, 217 

8,302 

873 

29.832 

18,100 



•3 

a 
a 
o 
a, 

H 

a 






•a 

a 





a 

o 



B 9 



216 

1,G09 

179 

778 

20 
957 

84 
436 



2,720 
37.887 

(),CC6 

10, 681 

9C6 

25.022 

4,685 
10, 999 



$304 

15,383 

1, 552 

7,808 

425 

14, 145 

1,010 

2,077 



o 

o 

•a 

> 

•a 

B 

d 



$4,679 

126, S60 
32,490 
61,866 
18,8C9 
73, 743 
10.495 

108. 295 



63 

64 

65 

6G 

67 

68 

69 

70 

71 

72 

73 

74 

75 

76 

77 

78 

79 

80 

81 

82 

83 

84 

85 

86 

87 

88 

89 

90 

91 

92 

93 

94 

95 

96 

97 

98 

99 



122 



2,402 



400 



147 
50 



20 



15, 243 



942 



18,926 



oo 



2,808 



25 

40 
150 



139 



24,038 

2,679 

10,7;,9 

7,704 

261 

6,321 

930 



WO 

209 

30 

227 



209 
70 



20,701 
4.628 
2,085 
8,176 



4,991 
7,100 



7,188 . 



5,041 
690 

1,268 

1,439 
130 

1,470 
82 



50 

37,797 

170 

315 

1,059 

47.395 

22,075 

29,630 

21, 722 

1,675 

121,367 

8,410 



55 



30 



149 



20 



100 



£81 



168 



872 

101 

1,407 



482 



32 
6 



3,499 



132 



65 
5 



8 

28 



10 



30,226 



5,921 



50 
7,625 



1,377 



25 



124 



5,032 
9,859 



315,436 



515 
104 



784 



10,404 

6,619 

10, 416 

8,543 

41.457 

30,255 

51, 410 

46,022 

14,092 

983 



444 

9 



11,405 



2,015 
560 
121 
200 

1,211,512 



149 

58 

606 

180 

1,338 
650 

1,109 
476 
418 
113 



4,515 

1,224 
10,155 

5,357 
36,230 
24,828 
30,817 
21,453 
12,555 

1,872 



127 
15 



34,226 



3,586 
520 



»17,877 



2,346 

1,425 

3,507 

831 

12.454 

12. 618 

8,489 

7,688 

8,527 

150 



2,008 



40 



317,600 



16,aT8 
9,503 

20,875 

9,684 

156,825 

64.310 

77. 719 
121,082 

37,550 

11.858 
645 

81,076 
4,265 
3,913 
1,414 

4,430,030 



54 



STATE OF KANSAS. 



AGRICULTURE. 



1 

2 
3 
4 



5 



6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
2G 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 



COUNTIES. 



Allen 

Anderson . 

Atchison 

Bourbon 

Breckinridge . 

Brown 

Butler I. 

Chase 

Clay 

Coffee 

Davis 

Dickinson 

Doniphan 

Dom 

Douglas , 

Franklin 

Godfrey* ... . 

Greenwood 

Iluntcr 

Jackson 

Jefferson 

Johnson 

Leavenworth. . 

Linn 

Lykins 

Madison , 

Marlon 

Marshall 

McGhco 

Morris 

Nemeha 

Osa^ 

Otoo* 

Pottawatomie . 

RUey 

Shawnee 

Wabaaaiee 

Washington*.. 

WUson* 

Woodson 

Wyondott 



ACRES OP LAND. 



> 

a 



a 

o 
> 
o 

B 






a 



S 



c8 

a 

* o 

S. o 

B > 

— a 

c o 



I 

ft 



13,326 

9,894 

£7,60(1 

22,404 

21,541 

13,C48 

1,031 

2,851 

481 

12,206 

2, 959 

423 

20,071 

34 

36,905 

10,995 



103. G86 

30,545 

53,383 

107,483 

02,051 

40, C69 

0,527 

12, 019 

2,446 

40, 541 

10, -279 

2,185 

59,670 

0C8 

104,772 

10,808 



$200,719 

201,235 

055, 193 

452,123 

040,355 

348,005 

32,300 

91,820 

9,200 

344,040 

95,050 

8,400 

801, 878 

375 

1, 427, 795 

570, 848 



$38,054 

11,744 

43,305 

54,274 

31,594 

25,700 

3,633 

5,000 

975 

22,875 

0,810 

1,580 

35,123 

380 

08,351 

25,778 



LIVE STOCK. 



CI 

u 

o 



p 

a 



907 
453 



Hi 



9 

1,708 , 
7iH> ! 
713 
51 
89 
18 
590 
136 
23 
1,182 
20 
1,828 ' 
810 



53 

22 

232 

99 

37 

22 

5 

7 

1 

24 

9 

3 

73 

2 

126 

48 



8 

.a 



1,319 

704 

1,508 

2.203 

3,231 

892 

207 

205 

44 

1,049 

290 

46 

1,480 

20 

2,579 

1,047 



a 

V 
H 

o 

u 

a 



o 



1,364 

479 

1,380 

1,939 

1,039 

614 

145 

206 

26 

7.13 



227 



40 

960 

4 

1,538 
767 



cs 

41 

.a 



2,325 

987 
3,034 
2,3r» 
1,444 

1,131 

loy 

310 

44 

1,226 

369 

72 

2,484 

16 

4,011 

2,207 






719 

875 

1, 512 I 

2,045 

509 

748 t 

47 

81 



203 
33 

4 

1,774 



907 
794 



1,534 

524 

5,294 

22,910 

23,502 

27,330 

29,f89 

20,004 

3,975 

80 

2,332 

3,792 

3,908 

8, 978 

4.030 



6,866 

1,076 

18,796 

53,094 

38,425 

65,350 

80,120 

60,478 

13, 851 

80 

8,039 

41, 048 

15, 471 

44,004 

19,775 



08,200 

0,700 

210,900 

599, 705 

003,305 

1, 247, 410 

073,153 

094,035 

102, 800 

2,000 

52,900 

03,305 

111, 310 

227,055 

133,130 



4,745 
800 
12, 515 
26,156 
28,415 
45, 182 
41,000 
, • 37,964 

6,808 
80 

2,364 
14.088 

5,757 
10,821 
12, 449 



135 

18 

327 

964 

884 

1,355 

1,472 

1,168 

115 

1 

152 

516 

178 

404 

215 



34 

117 

129 

80 

67 



5 



12 
35 
28 
72 
23 



204 

41 

446 

1,288 

899 

1,599 

1,697 

1,663 

245 

4 

193 

621 

362 

722 

416 



156 

46 

110 

817 

655 

1,150 

1,415 

1,423 

205 

6 

243 

572 

300 

465 

294 



488 

74 

1,293 

2,238 

1,660 

2,221 

2,326 

1,993 

281 

10 

334 

886 

387 

965 

825 



66 
110 
584 

786 

58 

1.672 

i.rjo 

612 
8 



157 
579 
109 
135 
65 



8,877 

3,832 

10,652 

6,829 



38,456 
11,523 
39,758 
35,989 



231, 475 
161.300 
511, 700 
234,250 



22,926 

9,586 

37,070 

16,460 



388 
186 
674 
311 



13 
4 

88 
2 



831 
265 
997 

558 



562 
171 
590 
461 



1,392 
393 

1,637 
799 



210 
6| 
94 
100 



Total. 



2,917 
3,301 



12,169 
11,066 



115,500 
199,450 



8,005 
17, 315 



165 
365 



8 
10 



343 
332 



278 
172 



405^468 



1,372,932 



12, 258, 239 



727,694 



20,344 



1,496 



28,550 



21,551 



397 



43,354 



144 



17, £09 



* No return. 



STATE OF KANSAS. 



55 



AGRICULTURE. 



LIVE STOCK. 








PRODUCED. 








6 
a 

cc 


o 
o 

a 

•a 

1 

to 

o 

> 


o 

1 

a 
.a 

1 


Hi 

o 

at 

1 


en 
m 

a 

i 


i»4 

O 
at 

•2 

if 
1 


1 

u 


%4 

O 

•3 

c 

1 

i 

O 

H 


• 

il 

•c 8 
§"3 

5 


O 

•3 

1 
1 


fl 

•g 



.o 

V 
3 


t 

1 

t 


t 

1 

.o 

h 

1 

CO 




3.000 


$146, 205 

73, 8C9 

157, 397 

250, 852 

147,205 

101, 8G7 

17, 174 

25,144 

4,125 

94, 098 

16, 051 

5,390 

159,395 

1,929 

263, 101 

152,275 


1,883 

2,222 

8,462 

2,436 

13,232 

12,662 

240 

1,835 

156 

5,771 

20,220 

90 

26,306 




112,479 

100,580 

531,600 

248, 952 

210, 915 

211,287 

13,660 

41,590 

8,550 

158," XO 

55,975 

7,300 

457,208 

200 

553.558 

275,780 


GO 
1,963 
7,752 
2,838 
2,058 
5,343 




' 




860 

25 

3,132 

3,658 

995 
1,470 


29 
123 


2,891 

5,361 

24,273 

6,319 

5,653 

11,865 

375 

2,120 

602 

7,277 

4,244 

370 

26,970 

5 

31,137 

9,487 


10 

69 

1,197 

261 

192 

15 
.15 

59 




2,899 


29 
165 








1 


9,565 




492 
2,195 
1,585 
1,975 




2 
3 


8,070 






113 
495 
227 

23 
176 

69 

265 

176 

3 

188 


4,020 








4 


4,110 


256 






5 
6 


240 






872 


45 


250 

95 

895 

619 




31 




110 


7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

13 


356 






3,959 


14 
1,461 




2,125 
SO 




127 


481 


1,289 






284 










13,381 


1,120 


12,909 




1,015 

50 

153 

1,055 


60 


3,017 


800 


18 




14 
14 
15 
16 
17 


9,903 


23,082 
5,438 




14,185 
3,054 




• 




1,560 
294 


1,079 
464 


5, 898 


1 






1,385 








669 


22,800 

5,565 

58,091 

108,505 

125, 929 

198, 7a'> 

220,305 

20-1,900 

26,500 

200 

19,925 

75,003 

38,450 

73,880 

47,127 


159 

600 

3,559 

4,057 

7,911 

1.092 

7,083 

7,972 

1,538 

50 

573 

1,447 

1,481 

4,554 

1,190 




26,650 

4,437 

194,500 

344,160 

268,010 

517,600 

389,971 

309,030 

46,000 

300 

36, 250 

31,450 

48, 575 

115, 760 

75, 470 






525 




151 


99 

11 

71 

406 

673 

1,090 

814 

353 

83 


1,506 
145 

4,578 
12,489 
10, 652 
29,690 
10,872 

8,589 

1,334 


63 


55 










xa 
19 
20 
21 


1,995 




440 
2,058 
4,615 
' 4,333 
6,705 
3,026 
36 












10,430 


••■•«•■••. 




595 
20 




2,381 


290 
149 
1, 842 
465 
4GI 
47 


4,062 








10, 101 








2,008 

3,013 

90 


23 
24 


7,693 


9 




1,813 


1 


7,932 




954 






540 




2o 
26 

4.m 


40 




"•"• 






844 


50 
50 
26 
50 


lOO 
965 
359 
1,075 
463 




95 

1,940 

250 




232 

650 
30 


226 

2 

101 

15 

280 




4,915 

1,020 
2, 344 

7,381 
4,897 




25 

250 

78 


27 
28 
29 
30 
31 


3,523 






1,104 






2,397 






1,838 




730 








Jii 














4,407 


109,390 
37,445 

124, 955 
76,068 


3,982 

1,294 

14,483 

5,624 


50 

25 

120 

371 


152, 190 
85,310 

304,195 
86,590 


865 
3,273 
4,430 
1,151 




325 




78 


435 
169 
763 
245 


9,821 

4,753 

20,375 

10,380 


221 

42 

530 

189 


33 
34 
35 


2,398 






4,420 




100 
2,200 






36 
17 


2,529 






500 








38 
39 
40 
4L 




























1,455 


39,535 
42, 015 


1.464 
25 




40, 315 
83,380 


200 
2,145 




520 




234 


170 
80 


2,354 
9,285 


61 
10 


1,454 




















138,224 


3,332,450 


194, 173 


3,833 


6, 150, 727 


88,325 




20,349 


01 


21, 746 


9,827 


296,335 


9,965 











56 



STATE OF KANSAS. 



AGRICULTURE. 



1 

3 
4 



5 



C 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

IG 

17 

le 

19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
23 
2C 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
Z4 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 



COUNTIES. 



Allen 

Audenon . . . . 

Atchison 

Ilonrbon 

Brcckinrldgo . 

Brown 

BoUor 

Cha«e 

Clay 

Coffee 

DavU 

DickioBon 

Doniphan 

Dom 

Douglas 

Franklin 

Godfrey 

Orccnwood . . 

nanter 

Jackson 

Jeflbrson 

Johnson 

LcttTonworth . 

Linn 

Lyklns 

Madison 

Marion 

Mamball 

McGhce 

Morriii 

Ncmcha 

Osage 

Otoe 

Pottawatomie 

lUley 

Shawnee 

Wabannsee... 
Washington . . 

WUion 

Woodson . ... 
Wyandott .... 



PRODUCED. 



o 



0) 

ca 

a 



15 

65 

715 

60 



120 



51 



1,220 



;5 

•s 

JO 



.a 
s 



95 
1,174 
1,635 

756 
1,395 
2,633 

178 

424 

4 

3,050 

228 



1,777 






1 ^ 

.a 



o 
■ 
a 
o 

i 

©■ 

a 



I 



•^ o 

I*" 



a 
a 

o 

0, 



a 

n 



I 



13 



100 



100 



|99 



2,690 

100 

1,450 

50 



2 
427 



35 



2,674 



178 

5,C85 

147, 992 

11,805 

35,650 

56,238 

4,525 

9,095 

1,190 

32,944 

12,095 

2,150 

83,986 



521 
215 
580 
150 
2,t50 
1,880 



900 



785 
1,205 



986 



a 
5 



a 
.o 

u 
o 



.a 
■ 
a 



92 
100 

6,C84 
99 

2, 475 

3,159 
230 

1,005 
110 
205 
900 
165 

2,833 



40 
119 
4.50 

40 
133 



3 
6 



113 



164 



a 



a. 
o 



5 

6 

53 

lOO 



10 



297 
170 



3,452 
1,582 



80 
50 



70 
242 



700 
2,097 



97, 495 
70,851 



1,605 
3,132 



3,965 
2,278 



3G8 



60 



384 



1,248 



170 
350 
900 
226 
8 



894 
2,398 
1,588 

442 
2,765 
2,119 

258 



100 



626 

150 

11,295 

125 

35 

35 



10,250 
1,300 
23,830 
51, 131 
48,860 
40,437 
68,597 
53,100 
6,930 



150 



1,211 

370 

10 

1,715 

6,000 



655 
71 

519 
3,947 
3,041 
1,878 
4.095 
3,632 

431 



16 
25 



82 



231 

470 



8 



287 
313 

4 



53 



929 
93 



90 



2,156 



16 



340 



30 
3 



957 
2,306 



6 



1,510 



5,851 
360 

9,895 
21,100 
14,555 



320 



100 
280 
310 



727 

6 

939 

1,834 

902 



14 



160 



45 



151 



9(n 

482 
4,341 
1,007 



27 



845 
225 



29 



38,960 
11,135 
59,511 
28,500 



400 

810 

1,300 

1,840 



2,364 
1,057 
3,217 
1,940 



18 



Total. 



4,716 



805 
335 

41,575 



270 



656 



583 



2,262 
500 

31,641 



13,292 
8,.%4 

1,093,497 



160 



29,045 



1,182 
75 

56,232 



G9 



103 



3,043 



15 



197 



STATE OF KANSAS. 



57 



AGRICULTURE 



'' — '^ ■ 

PRODUCED. 


9 

1 

► 



1 




HKMP. 


1 

H 

cs 


.9 

1 

1 


Silk cocoons, pounds 
of. 


Maple sugar, pounds 
of. 


o 


Maple molasses, gal- 
lons of. 


Sorghum molasses, 
gallons of. 


M 

CS 




§ 


s > 
If 




Dew rotted, tons 
ol 


1 

1 


Other prepared 
hemp. 




















143 

1.836 

5,365 

8,521 

3,618 

1,713 

160 

465 

526 

2,728 

812 


1 

17 
74 
55 






$17,338 

19,229 

46,600 

33,297 

17,3&t 

19,057 

1,610 

3.839 

459 

14,835 

4,788 

680 

46,304 

45 

41.062 

30,827 


1 


















280 

277 

1.480 


$146 

604 

1,540 

725 

300 


2 


3 












• 






3 












40 






4 










2 








5 


















55 


975 


6 












60 






7 
















40 


500 




8 






















9 




















17 


275 




10 








10 














11 
























13 


40 


















2,679 


113 


5^874 


2,136 


13 




















14 














1,774 






5,687 
4,271 


155 


125 
40 




15 


















772 


16 






















17 








200 


5 










474 
4 

590 
4,373 
2,442 

290 
9,643 
8,127 

515 








3,630 
345 

5,442 
43,554 
18,733 
36.435 
44.432 
26,048 

3,505 


18 






















19 














492 




- 








20 






'*■******"»'*"""*"*** 




•••■••«•»« 




2 


58 

7 

50 

519 


2,107 
55 

890 
2; 221 

180 


2,360 
130 
1,839 
6,145 
1,730 


21 








600 










23 


















23 












40 


1,036 






24 


1 












• 


25 






















26 


























27 




















691 
1,318 

337 
1,542 
1,011 






4,443 
403 

60 
1,335 

10 


1,663 
9,568 
3.088 
7,427 
4,152 


28 






















575 


29 






















30 




















10 


300 


31 




















32 
























33 






125 


3 

1 










3,512 
1,040 
6,788 
5,083 








11, 115 
7,053 

18,740 
8,782 


34 








340 












35 






^ 














36 




















100 




37 






















38 






















• 








39 




















1,373 


10 


540 
150 


70 


6,070 
2,0T7 


40 




















41 


























44 






1,135 


• 

11 


40 


3,742 




2 


87.656 


1,181 


16,944 


24,748 


558,174 








» 







8 



58 



STATE OF KENTUCKY. 



AGRICULTURE. 



1 

2 
3 
4 

5 

G 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 
oo 

23 
24 
1:5 
28 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
3G 
37 
38 
39 
40 
4L 
42 
43 
44 
45 
40 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
51 



55 



56 
57 
58 
59 
GO 
Gl 
GJ 



COUNTIES. 



Adair 

Allen 

Anderson 

Ballard 

Barren 

Bath 

Doone 

Bonrbon .... 

B>)yd 

Boylo 

Bracken 

Bn«athiU.... 
Brocklnridgo 

Bullitt 

Bntlor 

Cn III well .... 

Calloway 

Campbell 

Carroll 

Carter 

C.'.scy 

Chri-stian 

Clark 

Clay 

Clinton 

Crittenden . . 
Cumberland . 

Davlogfi 

Edinondson . . 

Estill 

Fayette 

Fleming 

Floyd 

Franklin .... 

Fulton 

Gallatin 

Garrard 

Grant 

Graves 

Grayson 

Green© 

Greennp 

Hancock 

Hardin 

Harlan 

Ilarri80n 

Hart 

Henderson . . . 

Henry 

Hickman 

Hopkini 

Jackson 

Jcflur^ou 

Jc8iuunino . . . 

Johnson 

Kenton 

Knox 

La Tlno 

Laurol 

Lawrence . . . 

Letcher 

Ixjwia 



ACRES OF LAND. 



a 

mm* 

o 

> 

o 

0, 

a 



58,132 
58,096 
6:j, 842 
44,922 
114,150 
125, £94 
94, 210 
170, 91 G 
Id, 200 
78, 74G 
70,5G0 
18, (."93 
75. («G 
54,0C5 
42, 210 
GG, 717 

0«Mf J. 1 A^ 

42,203 
44,032 
43,334 

50, 005 
158,092 
147, 889 

27, 590 
41,558 

51, C95 
45,G56 
93, .322 
25,31G 
40,828 

174, eoG 

107,841 
27, 9C3 
82,4G2 
26,418 
38.181 

112.812 
GG,409 
89,677 
56. 001 
65.009 
33,129 
30,032 

131,514 
£7, 12G 

159, 402 
5G,4C8 
92.8:4 

115,409 
30,583 

79, 7::o 

12, 922 
114,857 
70, 313 
21,56:J 
51,451 
48, 910 
53,263 
34,729 
38,236 
10,291 
49, 837 



> 

2 

a 



102,239 

106, 013 

41,328 

117, 550 

172, 441 

84,307 

54,G84 



91,014 

32, g:8 
57, 770 

220, 5:8 
134, 453 

74, 378 
142, 201 
107, 731 
133, 32t) 

25.285 

33, 252 
241,874 
129, 829 
215, 970 



227, 306 

60. 970 
129,736 

97.844 
140,859 

77,171 

106,808 

1,603 

67,000 
180. 5;S) 

31, 4:i9 

32, 623 
26,399 
21, C8;J 
52,765 

230,408 

138. 417 

83, 420 

89. 249 

48,50G 

184, 497 

341,051 

30,C8i 

104, 183 

154, 9.36 

56, 270 

63, .353 

199, 018 

72,723 

57, 175 

38,499 

156,287 

35,214 

169,064 

87,487 

119,011 

198,275 

150.912 

110,585 



o 
o 

s 

> 

n 



$1, C62, C83 
1,414.413 
1, 7C8, 1G2 
2. 230, 281 
2, 593, 583 
3, 094, 743 
6,.']86, 165 

13, 030, 380 
610, 225 

3, 424, 814 
2, 493, 125 

452, 020 
1,677.235 

1, 773, 744 
1, 073, 144 

1, 072, rai 

1,0:8,940 

2, 797, .%5 
2, 0C8. 835 
1,122,061 
1, 020, 700 
8, 914, 405 
6, 589, 0i:8 

501,280 

842,066 

1,5.30,405 

1,2.")3,562 

4, .598, 215 
50.'5, 803 
907, 5^19 

1.3,431,717 
3,127,018 

632, 430 
2, 574, 235 
1,323,214 
1,414,027 
3, 974, 189 
2, 121, 321 
3, 140. 260 

980,207 
1,154,008 
1, 190, 019 
1, 092, 955 
3, 450, 450 

540, 784 

5, 032, 940 

1, .372, 929 
5, 242, 955 
4, 5.30, 680 
1, 1C8, ;J23 

2, .373, 995 
255, 526 

11,140,950 

5, 297, 860 
482, 795 

2, 613, 330 
881,141 

1, 467, 474 
472. 778 
a37, 016 
281,764 

1, 428, 4<r7 



S 

" o 

c: a 

I 1 

e fc 

MX f» 

a o 

mm* 

B 
b4 



LIVE STOCK. 



$49,9C8 

57. .-Ml 

5J, 116 

65,4:« 

120,031 

75, 1,54 

114,8::8 

142. 240 

8, ."mS 

77, 529 

87, 107 

6, 627 

82, a31 

59, 843 

44, 143 

70,114 

65, 812 

61,900 

48,534 

37,898 

41,359 

246,719 

93, 217 

17,137 

31, 512 

62.205 

38,517 

122. 699 

27.409 

25. 412 

138,870 

100, 037 

9,474 

03,556 

ai, 125 

43, 302 
64, 915 
5:), 024 

141.834 
57, 054 
44,307 
34.517 

44, .'>,')2 
1.39, 3.>4 

12. 028 

130. 301 

52. 552 

153, 109 

120, 5J7 

43,580 

86,752 

3,001 

192,773 

94.98G 

8, 493 

78, 315 

22,109 

56, .'587 

22,604 

18,041 

14,444 

48, 631 






2,742 
3,389 
3,210 
1,8:)7 
6, 521 
5,549 
4,388 
7,397 

5.'56 
3,775 
3,886 

800 
3,163 
2, 442 
2,461 
2,083 
2,868 
2,305 
2,3:15 
1,780 
2,520 
4,952 
6,910 

982 
1,390 
2,617 
2,030 
4.495 
1,368 
1,911 
8,155 
5,206 
1,310 
3,736 
1,186 
1,920 
4,526 
3,358 
5. 440 
2,002 
2, 743 

1,427 
0,228 

1, 190 
7,925 

2, 7S3 
3,562 
5, 439 
1,463 
3, 913 

483 
5,915 
4,865 
1,018 
2,513 
1,737 
2,7-28 
1,165 
1,484 

710 
2,517 



1 

•3 
§ 

< 



614 

1,326 
961 
736 

1,504 

2,758 
610 

8,984 
84 

3,482 
159 
38 
530 
313 
327 

1,229 

1,022 
117 
365 
198 
532 

3,595 

4,333 
217 
368 
637 
383 

1,033 

65 

319 

4,289 

968 

52 

1,574 
689 
134 

2,875 
417 

2,200 
204 

rj8 

145 

149 

652 

86 

2,607 

464 

1,75G 

1,374 

641 

987 

30 

1,012 

1,434 

59 

238 

S40 

S46 

88 

41 

34 

176 



i 

o 
«» 



2,214 
2,171 
1,835 
2,158 
4,179 
3,400 
3,031 
4,510 

563 
2,303 
2,300 
1,465 
2,496 
2.163 
1,965 
2,302 
2,397 
2,198 
1,461 
2,052 
1,7G8 
4,436 
3,560 
1,976 
1,446 
2,215 
1,809 
3,816 
1,216 
1, 464 
4,449 
2,882 
1,8:9 
2,252 
1,257 
1,258 
2,403 
2,062 
4,716 
2,410 
2,136 
1,229 
1,424 
4,721 
2,143 
4,066 
2,359 
3,302 
3.377 
1,543 
3,226 

645 
5,492 
2,639 
1,289 
2,2!)8 
2,207 
2, 162 
1,334 
1,90G 
1, 285 
1,917 



a 

o 
M 

o 

B 

t 



683 

1,320 

564 

1,300 

2,181 

1,904 

584 

954 

602 

604 

486 

827 

1,316 

500 

1,258 

1,624 

1,337 

201 

614 

1, 3.'>5 

1,022 

1,487 

1,665 

919 

916 

1,582 

1,126 

1,879 

796 
goo 

1,068 

605 

1,076 

649 

496 

475 

965 

825 

2,615 

1,386 

1,163 

1,039 

788 

1,508 

1,034 

913 

1,194 

1,535 

C62 

798 

1,594 

337 

365 

486 

783 

265 

527 

580 

811 

1,517 

336 

743 






2,G06 
2,508 
2,225 
3,6a2 
6,224 
6,019 
5,897 

12,411 
1,66G 
4,754 
3, 615 
2,125 
3.441 
3,319 
3,275 
4,030 
«l, oot) 
1,931 
2.316 
3,497 
3,336 
6,022 

10,891 
3,038 
2,136 
3,930 
3.009 
6,570 
1,879 
2.694 

11.251 
4,716 
3,693 

3. .341 
2,115 
1,955 

4, .•>42 
4.130 
7.668 
5,199 
3,409 
2.570 
2.027 
6,275 
3,007 
6.466 
2.345 
6,150 
5.223 
2,127 
6,115 
1,069 
4,230 
4,771 
2,307 
1.731 
4,239 
2.993 
2,212 
3,263 
2.647 
2,528 



9 



9,406 
9,399 
5,064 
3,399 
18.507 I 
12.130' 
14,817 
16.639 
2,632 
8,572 
6,5S6 
4. 676 ; 
10,510 I 
7.621 I 
7,212 ; 
7,237 
9,3C7 
2,510 
4,347 
8,973 
10,811 
15,915 
14.084 
6,a)7 
5,783 
8.954 
7,706 

11, ew 

5.307 

5,870 
1.5. leo 
10.90) 

6,947 

6, 125 

3, 616 I 

3,843 

7,368 

6,645 
15,443 
12.418 

9.303 

3.4G3 

4.08I 
17, 118 

6.931 
15.506 

9,408 

7,744 
12,ffll 

3,217 
10.045 

3,463 

7.911 I 

7,838; 

5,4n : 

4,529 
9,571 
6,752 

7,i:b' 



9,416 



4,776: 

4.713 i 



STATE OF KENTUCKY 



59 



AGRICULTUllE. 



LIVE STOCK. 



e 
3 

OQ 



17, .'574 
18, 4r9 
22,553 
22.100 
32,418 
3(5. C80 
30,130 

4,158 
21,398 
19,335 
11.803 
28, 5-n 
19,088 
13,C60 
25,157 
17, 512 
11,810 

10. oca 

13,797 
24.059 
47, 202 
29,406 
11,777 
10, 7i;8 
21,121 
15, 529 
39,774 

9,:»8 
11,747 
30.257 
25, 144 
14, IMo 
19,201 
ll,C7l 
11.804 
29,071 
23, 1C3 
34,046 
22,778 
17,522 

8,946 
13,304 
54,110 
15. 520 
28,658 
20,007 
36, 142 
42,196 
14, 113 
30,146 

4.803 
35, C21 
18,119 
10.586 
15,601 
15,522 
20.853 

9,447 
17, 481 
10,237 
12,457 



9 

a 

"a 

o 






PRODUCED. 



|C80.65a 
468,434 
491.019 
418,742 
912. 534 

1, CC4. 749 
758. 0:J7 

2, 390, 873 
95. im 
924, 779 
542.271 
150.560 
500,422 
347, 055 
326,500 
502,397 
469.831 
269,974 
36:). 4!K) 
310, 317 
458. 691 

1, C38, 80:J 

1, 092. 9:J8 
211,586 
241,417 
4C8, 729 
206. 295 
777,459 
212.889 
300, ?21 

1,819,237 
765,207 
183, 526 
609,623 
227,137 
315. &I1 

1, GCO, 549 
519.633 
814, 394 
411,581 
390,029 
217,274 
258,824 
799,054 
184, 694 

1, 2C7, o::2 

4C5. 008 
739,044 
931, 147 
279,278 
599, 180 
78. eg:! 
877,085 
625, £65 
156, 519 
363, 364 
273, 618 
391,165 
165,520 
350,059 
119,006 
326.517 



it 

.a 
« 



.o 



eS 



29.513 
29,948 
55.047 
53, C48 
74, 612 
94,703 

139. 297 

293.209 
19, 457 
90,772 
96,547 
7,259 
09,212 
54,165 
22,900 
45, G)3 
27.002 
57,002 
55, 430 
23,177 
22,705 

205,443 
93,044 
13, 701 
24, 129 
38,251 
18. 133 
74, Oil 
15, 912 
17,773 

221,028 

123,630 
10, 329 
84,121 
36.033 
09, 700 
77. 900 
67.902 
89, 690 
29, 991 
31, 101 
48,637 
25,049 

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6,390 

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12,223 

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28. 971 

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10,036 

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12,632 

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2,584 

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14,621 

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2 
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10 
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14 
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STATE OF KENTUCKY. 



AGRICULTURE. 



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Hart 

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Henry 

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Jessamine . . . 

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551 
275 
342 
263 
184 

3,024 
40 
460 
524 
677 
286 
914 
203 
308 
23 

' 947 



2,844 
333 
613 
675 

2, 013 
307 



•3 

a 

§ 

p. 

a 
o 

a 



10,637 
12,606 
13,358 
10,702 
15,935 
13,183 
12,410 
24.805 

2,325 
16,263 

8,442 
31,399 

4.069 

7,569 
10, 579 

5,852 

4,013 
530 
13, 124 
10,880 
21,329 
10, 675 
26,092 
37,437 
12,709 

4, 952 
19,537 
10,906 

8,399 
22. 176 
15, 975 
15,650 
49,502 
10,770 

9,995 

6,752 
17,388 
14.983 
12,323 

8,540 

9,763 

8,044 

8,107 
10.008 
37. 3-26 
12, 370 
11,352 
15.225 
16,551 

9.653 
14, 115 

5,023 
13, 427 
10,865 
21,037 

2,133 
41,218 

5,830 
11,055 

9,371 
37,492 
17, 460 



020,721 
25,906 
15.076 
10.222 
43,455 
24, 141 
13. 447 
23.713 

3.058 
18,096 

9,415 
16.334 
16, 717 

8,717 
27,968 
15,174 
28.891 

1,280 

7,988 
34.106 
52,988 
28,994 
20,483 
11,613 
. 23,249 
13,106 
37.435 
16, 421 
15,179 
11,882 

7,007. 
23,614 
18,804 

7,437 
11,105 

6,326 
19, 602 

9,8(^7 
52,174 
26,718 
19, 270 

3,950 
10,708 
25.368 
19,027 
23,508 
19,067 

9,584 
21,602 

8, 352 
17, 938 

7,094 

6,066 

7,240 
15,528 

9,453 
40,002 
14. 148 
17, 931 
23,193 
20,015 

8,667 



I 



•a 



174,773 

83,604 

86,277 

94.924 

207,282 

118. 174 

166.423 

189.287 

20.532 

117, 160 

104.074 

40. 710 

96. 7:J7 

82,375 

73,984 

123,698 

105,042 

35,204 

59, 312 

70. 745 

104.681 

347,803 

138,816 

53.873 

46. :)44 

84,268 

76, aie 

201, 446 
43,627 
64,367 

250.660 

110.331 
48,066 

113,062 
57.282 
54.855 

119.063 
65.971 

185.009 
83,047 
85,970 
48,464 
61.547 

148, 192 
48,579 

164,560 
95. 142 

194,485 

155,323 
6J. 648 

131,932 
21, 763 

1C8,258 
39, 014 
03,342 
83, 439 
C8,5S8 
43, 980 
58,512 
31.749 
64,893 



1 
8 
3 
4 

5 

6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
£8 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
28 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
5t 



55 



56 



57 
58 
59 
63 
61 
63 



G2 



STATE OF KENTUCKY. 



AGRICULTURE. 



63 

G4 

65 

66 

67 

68 

69 

70 

71 

72 

73 

74 

75 

76 

77 

78 

79 

80 

81 

82 

83 

84 

63 

86 

87 

88 

89 

90 

91 

92 

93 

94 

93 

96 

97 

98 

99 

100 

101 

103 

103 

104 

105 

106 

107 

108 

109 



COUNTIES. 



Lincoln 

Llvin^ton . . 

Logan 

Lyon 

McCrocken . . 

McLean 

Madison 

Magoffin 

Marion 

Manball 

Mason 

Meade 

Mercer 

Metcalfe 

Monroe 

Montgomery. 

Morgan 

Muhlenburg . 

Nelson 

Nicholas 

Ohio 

Oldham 

Owen 

Owjiley 

Pendleton . . . 

Perry 

Pike 

Powell 

I*alaskl 

Rock Castle . 

Rowan 

RtiKsell 

Scott 

Shelby 

Simpson 

Spencer 

Taylor 

T©dd 

Trigg 

Trimble 

Union 

Warren 

Washington . 

Wayne 

Webuter 

Whitley 

Woodford... 



Total. 



ACRES OF LAND. 



o 

8 
p. 

e 



104,469 
34,633 

130. 144 
25,703 
29,073 
32,577 

192,210 
17,963 

103, 278 
35,439 

128,300 
65,603 

110, 957 
45, 4C6 
50,947 
96, 405 
53,246 
63,850 

118,211 

101,990 
81,900 
65,175 
98,678 
26,277 
60,045 
18,754 
22,527 
13,073 

108,828 
31,636 
17,336 
36,805 

162, 277 

198,664 
64,159 
75,339 

OO, t^OU 

91,915 

61,586 

45,624 

72,508 

134,892 

139, 574 

78,620 

42,832 

40, 495 

108,327 



7, 644, 208 



.3 

a 

MM 

> 

a 



58,612 

90,416 

156,656 

64,.'j33 

76, 619 

65,686 

95,211 

146,025 

111,681 

89,787 

26,283 

99.936 

40.536 

74, 722 

108,129 

36,718 

261,341 

180.349 

102,302 

34,116 

219, 012 

31,331 

88, 961 

231,160 

70,6^2 

301,564 

277,470 

41, 291 

195,062 

96.686 

64,S00 

80,182 

3,039 

29.074 

65.689 

42,660 

78,072 

116,330 

131, 543 

36,596 

121. 463 

160,366 

49,105 

199,621 

93,584 

260,776 

7,895 



11, 519. 053 



B 

o 


OS 



$3,993,899 
1. 283, 874 
5, 743, 925 

920,232 
1, 602, 478 
1, 172, 833 
7, 346, 990 

392,333 
3, 507, 066 

999,606 
6, 005, 997 
1, 937, 357 
4, 376, 120 

902,722 
1,082,376 
3, 915, 305 
1, 094, 821 
1, 848, 084 
5, W7, 877 
3, rr77, 294 
2, 128, 143 
2, 706, 690 
2, 284, 137 

760,213 
1, 956, 278 

419,538 

537,098 

2rj, .326 
2, 032, 640 



281. 570 

824, 714 
6, 793, 203 
9,831,836 
2, 514, 577 
2, 704, 902 

910, 917 
4, 3ie, 201 
1, 956, 460 
1, 378, 122 
4, 147, 800 
6, 268, 412 
3,718,324 
1, 929, 375 
1, 232, :i75 

338,607 
6, 642, 240 



cS 

Q 

S v; 

.^ o 

r o 

c o 

II 

E % 

— fl 

B. o 



g 

CS 



LIVE STOCK. 



$.>4,509 
50.785 

180,934 
39,544 
47,624 
47, 693 

103,074 

8,505 

79,609 

43, 788 

138,367 
69,103 

103,252 
42, 179 
43, 914 
57,693 
20,199 
69,950 

124,796 
73,909 
97,773 
81,709 
68,469 
14,649 
52,987 
11, 431 
11, 097 
8,153 
78. 551 
23,166 
7,539 
29.185 

119,886 

200,908 
77,383 
80,030 
41,001 

106, 213 
73,294 
44.261 

143, 700 

142,495 
92,484 
49, 715 
53,566 
28,724 

154,875 



291,496,955 



7, 474, 573 



o 



4,116 
1,796 
4,749 
1,339 
1.488 
1,716 
9,454 

869 
5,9C9 
1,936 
6,5C6 
2,688 
5,631 
2,607 
2,681 
4,774 
1,964 
3,160 
6,839 
5,885 
4.453 
2,5rJ 
4,904 

997 
3,530 

788 
1,201 

535 
4,069 
1,466 

642 
1,628 
6,170 
8,103 
<l. <)c4 
3,515 
2,341 
3,121 
2,635 
2,46] 
3,957 
6.403 
5.845 
2,566 
2,097 
1,748 
5,415 



355,704 





a 

9 
I 



3,780 
418 

2,732 
540 
714 
271 

5,496 
1C8 

2,027 
393 

1,846 
337 

2,284 
503 
384 

2,741 
134 
987 

1,883 

1,924 

563 

271 

547 

71 

217 

53 

31 

47 

1,021 

270 

43 

234 

3.441 

2,685 
795 
974 
339 

2,210 

1,489 
284 
822 

2,569 

1,851 

1,030 
485 
243 

2,043 



o 



2,952 
1,951 
3,979 
1,149 
1.502 
1,4S3 
4,995 
1,157 
3,021 
1,609 
3,747 
2,122 
3,131 
1,918 
l,9i)l 
2,523 
2,286 
2,7<W 
4,252 
2,779 
31540 
2,195 
5,999 
1,331 
2.489 
1,541 
2,034 

523 
4,127 
1,366 

615 
1,483 
3,843 
4,929 
1,978 
2,072 
1,956 
2,403 
2,055 
1,633 
3,408 
4,280 
3,217 
2,072 
1,836 
2,510 
2,695 



117,634 



269,215 



a 

M 

O 

5 



1,277 

1.246 

814 

811 

661 

703 

2,312 

516 

1,326 

1,143 

587 

1,119 

659 

911 

1,077 

1,311 

1,390 

1,301 

667 

666 

2,275 

262 

1, 4158 

728 

667 

678 

1,090 

265 

2,330 

665 

373 

1,039 

1,257 

rJB 

571 

207 

592 

560 

1,212 

299 

1,507 

2,020 

1,057 

1,450 

1,125 

1,374 

663 



.a 



7,915 
2.438 
4,519 
2.2C9 
2,560 
2,144 

10,659 
2,236 
5,726 
2,168 
0,372 
3,331 
4,396 
2,518 
3,264 
7.196 
3,576 
5,179 
8,046 
5,691 
8.124 
3,592 
5,097 
2,218 
4,493 
3,187 
3,792 
842 
5,585 
2,330 
1,004 
2, 1U6 
6.633 

10.239 
3,047 
3,8C8 
3,206 
3.639 
3,465 
2,450 
7,483 
7,5G9 
5,118 
5,165 
2,912 
4,000 
5,552 



o. 

« 

o 

JQ 
00 



12.714 
5.331 

16,120 
3,326 
3.002 
4.149 

14,G8C 
3.543 

13.244 
4,&10 

10,501 
6*688 

10,5p8 
7,7S8, 

10, 144 I 
9,673 

10, 391 I 



13, 171 I 
8,S37 ! 

14,247 
9.094, 

13,438 
5,770 
7,7C3 
6,015 
7,KK 
1,7jI 

22,007 
6,531 
2.87i; 

5,S50: 

12,529 i 

21,2C2 

7,913 

5,821 

9.X» 

9,097 

6,814 

4.00) 

10, 116 

19,575 

11,40S 

10; 231 

5,SM 

8.3M 

11,815 



108,999 



457. 845 



938^990 



STATE OF KENTUCKY. 



63 



AGRICULTUEE. 



LIVi: STOCK. 



i 

CO 



S0,4G3 
15,n5G 
40, ft?G 
11, 1£8 
11,8C9 
15,567 
44, 6.^ 

7,565 
27,5HO 
13,280 
33,050 
24,5G8 
31, 501 
11, 374 
14,375 
19,556 
10,233 
20,573 
40,GG4 
26,914 
30,2GS 
14,224 
33,627 
10,442 
24,0C9 
13,302 
14,344 

3,279 
23,524 
10, 500 

4,279 
13,071 
25, C75 
53,551 
21, 577 
2G,5C5 
15,799 
27,870 
21.273 
12,949 
3D,8C5 
40,253 
32,2G6 
11,767 
ie,549 
16,045 
^991 



2,330,595 



o 

M 
o 



^,076,753 
321, 474 

1,003,228 
era, 527 
£62, 970 
264,479 

1,938.858 
126, 212 
780, r^ 
274, 660 

1,048,656 
404.333 
946, 957 
366,025 
352, C70 
928.266 
288, 782 
520,641 

1,006,418 
942,938 
649,846 
4«J5,C00 
724,509 
146, 712 
484, SC5 
148,622 
206,781 
99,181 
675,750 
233,053^ 
128,286 
252,644 

1, 339, 454 

1, 405, 012 
4C8,CS2 
547, 291 
340, 27G 
593,882 
514, 242 
345,355 
802,680 

1, 087, 202 

1, 009, 356 
460, 443 
3.9,029 
257,375 

1,058,522 



PRODUCED. 



61,868,237 



.a 

o 

.a 



c: 



,'>5,840 
41,969 

113, «» 
15,854 
3:1, %51 
22,946 
93,644 
7,857 
75,581 
27,929 

287,495 
96.:i4J 

115,fllJ 
24, 4J4 
26,467 
56,418 
23,582 
29,441 

144, 176 

la^ 35-1 
43,694 

103,755 

121,698 

12,683 

85, 5r^ 

6,407 

16,792 

4,650 

82,640 

16, 954 

5,220 

20,785 

160, 165 

254,189 
51,972 

113, 240 
25,672 

137*588 
31,911 
03,556 

109, 218 

115, 619 
78.663 
48,3i?2 
19, 618 
18,244 

162,951 \ 



o 



•s 

p 
.0 



7,394,809 



33,538 

443 

5,400 

631 

1,847 

416 

63, 445 

570 

23,056 

790 

22,657 

5,501 

32,165 

624 

1,523 

25,341 

3,065 

1,186 

23,562 

£2,066 

1,223 

5,090 

13, a'tt 

2,079 

20, r^ 

187 

£08 

4rJ 

4,.')G4 

1,078 

629 

751 

13,992 

62,989 

945 

26,568 

1.285 

1, 341 

819 

5,781 

860 

5,820 

45, 142 

5,989 

260 

3,338 

15, 441 



o o 






710, 845 
415,293 

1, 114, C65 
2eP,755 
302,915 
319, 105 

1, 354, 705 
165,3^5 
952, 763 
304,335 

1, 076. 096 
523,940 
839,750 
305,645 
344, 451 
735, 9:16 
390,968 
512, 685 
932, 717 
839,100 
748,296 
433, 135 
833,049 
289,398 
654,315 
164, 592 
286, 611 
136,985 
693, 418 
265,605 
124, 3C6 
313, 195 

1, 100, 195 

1, 622, 710 
594. 9.K> 
6:8,730 
405, 117 
735,632 
555,055 
304,040 

1,132,900 

1,176,471 
907,311 
495.960 
432. 446 
330, 6TJ 
758,065 



1.055,260 



64,043,633 



M 

-s 



O 



63,970 

2,224 

84,0a3 

1,851 

3,200 

8,450 

156, 545 

10, 815 

70,904 

1,727 

40, 024 

71, 216 

74,392 

32,024 

21, 575 

80,324 

28,187 

13, 209 

80,261 

103, 771 

28,966 

44, 345 

34,927 

8,854 

40,06J 

2,715 

12,218 

4,079 

74,863 

16,797 

9,073 

6,874 

191, 821 

145,785 

51,188 

49, 916 

25,012 

35,424 

13,660 

20, 913 

14,120 

83,329 

66,453 

37,385 

9,022 

10,255 

114,970 



4, 617 029 



a 
o 



•3 

a 
o 

a 

o' 

8 

(9 
O 

H 



30 

8.» ROO 

3,926,818 

1, 156. 326 

1, 137, 228 

1,623,428 

65,935 

5,183 

138,060 

1, 042, 270 

1, 738, 658 

497, 442 

9, 618 

772, 910 

607,362 

4,ia5 

20,614 

1, 597. 356 

1,390 

396,468 

2, 927, 084 

202, 770 

2, 153, 307 

9,971 

413, 070 

6,962 

1:3, 518 

10,860 

39,305 

11,263 

10,346 

236,102 



249, 100 

1,641,025 

400 

1,388,161 

4, 964, 796 

3, 77B, 688 

697,043 

2,051,000 

2, 753, 473 

19.260 

24.271 

2, 455, 245 

17, 812 

200 



108,126,840 



1 J 



8 



a o 



a 
o 



1 



.0 



2?, 816 

8,979 

36.802 

5,130 

4,964 

8,908 

54.225 

6,709 

27,611 

10,eiK5 

a% 424 

17,819 

35,318 

13,778 

. 16, 343 

28.247 

21,827 

15,965 

32,965 

25,767 

26,747 

27,1.16 

32, 617 

8,455 

16,946 

11, 395 

14, 498 

4,288 

33,879 

9,453 

6,273 

1,896 

55.701 

69,008 

14,991 

15, 457 

15.741 

21,954 

1,537 

13, 218 

22,025 

38,451 

£8, 4-23 

21,758 

10,806 

20,538 

48, 014 



2,329,105 



.s 



8^ 

§ 

S 



2,107 
837 

2,611 
095 
554 
610 

8,915 

1,357 

5,233 
071 

1,749 
945 

2,557 



1,976 

3,389 

2,829 

1,917 

2,361 

2,902 

1,121 

368 

1,348 

6,508 

292 

37,851 

6,106 

910 

806 

3,703 

2,052 

1,598 

1,812 

2,871 

2,071 

809 

737 

1.958 

1,503 

3,890 

4.C85 

1,860 

2,052 

770 

601 

4,008 

4,072 



288,346 




.0 



p. 






10, 670 
16,219 
15, 240 

6,683 
14,120 

5,001 
25.362 

7. 815 
17,425 

7, 672 
23,302 
21,072 
13,987 

5,524 

9.537 
14,000 
15.i)29 

9,506 
20,166 
13, 814 
16.189 

9,53(i 
20,176 
11, 100 
23,802 
10.426 
14,189 

3,105 
24,647 

7, 405 

5.289 

9,156 
22. 470 

9.680 

8,573 

7,936 

12,221 

9,291 

11,061 

21,089 

19, 246 

1.3, 196 

11,866 

5,147 

16,881 

26,396 



i 






5,868 
9,116 

26,GB0 
6, 675 
8,735 
.5, 744 

12,362 
3,143 

12, 113 

13,258 
5,141 
4,839 
8,()C8 
9, 6'. 5 

14,525 
3,835 
5,727 

14,336 
8, <J12 
1,254 

10, 343 
4, 115 
3,809 
5,209 
2,407 
3,396 

15,909 
723 

30,103 
3,989 
2,599 
7, 898 
2,722 
8,183 

21,360 
2,516 

lacso 

20,461 
15,840 

4,473 
13,897 
30,880 

6.828 
16,536 

7,175 
15, 210 

4,094 



63 

64 
65 
66 
67 
08 
69 
70 
71 
72 
73 
74 
75 
76 
77 
78 
79 
80 
81 

fitO 

83 
84 

65 

86 

87 

88 

89 

90 

91 

92 

93 

94 

95 

96 

97 

98 

99 

lOO 

101 

102 

103 

104 

105 

106 

107 

1C8 

109 



1, 756, 531 



1, 057, 557 



64 



STATE OF KENTUCKY. 



AGRICULTURE. 



63 
64 
65 
G6 
67 
68 
& 
70 
71 
72 
73 
74 
7."i 
76 
77 
78 

rj 

80 

81 

8^ 

83 

84 

85 

86 

87 

88 

&> 

90 

91 

93 

93 

!M 

95 

96 

9: 

98 

99 

100 

101 

108 

103 

1(H 

105 

106 

107 

106 

109 



COUNTIES. 



Lincoln 

Livingston . . 

Logan 

Lyoa 

McCracken . . 

McLean 

Madison 

Magoffin 

Marion 

Marshall 

Mutton 

Meade 

Mercxjr 

Metcalfe 

Monroe 

Montgomery. 

Morgan 

Mnhlcnburg . 

Nelson 

Nicholas 

Ohio 

Oldham 

Owen 

Owiiley 

Pendleton . . . 

l*erry 

Pike 

Powell 

Pulaoki 

Rock C;uitlo . 

Uuwun 

RusHcll 

Bcott 

Shelby 

Simpson 

S;>«ncer 

Taylor 

Todd , 

Trigg 

Trimble 

Union 

Warren 

Washington . 

Wayne 

Webster 

Wh.tloy.... 
Woodford . . 



o 
"3 

•s 

9 



131 



23 
3 



30 

40 

7 



75,001 

10 

11.044 



1,071 

12Q 

8 

140 

25 

15 

3,800 



5 



13 



Total. 



3 

2,250 

6,045 

197 

2,107 



723 

630 

50 

864 



56,680 



270,685 



PRODUCED. 



•s 

.0 



to 



106 

235 

18 

10 



24 

22 

19 

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51 
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266 

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222 

142 

294 

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110 
109 
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2,147 

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3,345 

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16,128 

1,039 

3,173 

4,721 

10,635 

11,418 

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1,871 

10, C59 

5,094 

3,242 

13,391 

8.820 

2,359 

12, 910 

3,125 

1,431 

3,922 

1,062 

3,342 

1,497 

4.615 

2,315 

2,087 

4,930 

3,676 

12,733 

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6,445 

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5,518 

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2,429 

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20 

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7,105 

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140 

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6,826 



604,849 



179, 948 



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1,512 



17,103 
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1,200 

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15 



15 

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5,205 

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1,446 

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246, ;;75 

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74,408 

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115, 732 

112, 015 

92,062 

175,939 

139,295 

123.139 

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128,509 

56,125 

171,250 

46,137 

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65,936 

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101,022 

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102,223 

88,968 

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180,640 

174,007 

144,253 

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126,086 

176,640 



11, 716, 609 









6,795 



360 



266 

12,730 

25 

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4,080 

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395 

613 

151 

429 

5,572 

3,600 

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200 
40 



2,032 
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80 
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190,400 



o 

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1.042 

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3,695 

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2,433 

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325 

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1,610 

3,762 

1,402 

2,426 

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2,084 

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1,535 

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180 

128 

1,091 

367 

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56 

1,715 

3.040 

723 

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5^899 



STATE OF KENTUCKY. 



65 



AGRICULTURE. 



PUODUCED. 



HEMP. 



a 

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201 



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10,810 

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2,075 
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4,256 

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4,374 
5,575 

19,905 

11,979 
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3.350 

10,381 
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25,393 

2,635 

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6,350 

940 

18,665 

13. 406 

1.637 

109,552 

10.730 

1,475 

8,554 

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4,580 

10,850 
2,130 
9,291 



793 



2,026 



4,344 



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114 
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104 
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650 
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3,885 


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15,753 


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3,599 
4,782 
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5,557 
10,477 
3,821 
2,202 
3,446 
3,846 

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7.413 
2,438 
6, 141 
4.927 
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18,606 
6,032 
1,107 
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1.770 

400 
2,905 
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3,401 

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27,107 

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6,177 

4,096 

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6,138 
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63 

64 

65 

6C* 

67 

68 

69 

70 

71 

72 

73 

74 

75 

76 

77 

78 

79 

80 

81 

82 

83 

84 

85 

86 

87 

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89 

90 

91 

92 

93 

94 

95 

9C 

97 

98 

99 

100 

101 

102 

103 

104 

105 

106 

107 

106 

100 



140, 076 



356, 705 ' 68, 339 



1,768,692 



2,095,578 



11.640,TJ8 



66 



STATE OF LOUISIANA. 



AGRICULTURE. 



1 

2 
3 
4 

5 

G 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

IG 

17 

18 

19 

JX) 

21 

22 

23 

24 






2G 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

32 

33 

34 

35 

3G 

37 

38 

3J 

40 

41 

42 

43 

44 

45 

4(1 

47 

48 



PARISHES. 



AHccnsion 

AsMumption 

Avoyelles 

Baton RongG, Eoiit. 
Baton IlouffO, West 

Bienville * 

Bomder 

Caddo 

Calcoaien , 

Caldwell 

Carroll 

Catahoula , 

Claiborno , 

Concordia 

Do Soto , 

Feliciana, EoBt 

Feliciana, West 

Franklin 

Ibcrvillo 

Jackson 

Jcffcrsou 

Lafayette 

Lafuurclie 

Livingston 

Madison 

Morehouse 

Natchitoches 

Orleans 

Ouichlta 

Plaquemines 

Point Coupee 

Uapidcs 

Sabino 

St. Bernard* 

St Charles 

St. Helena 

St. James 

St. John Baptist .. . 

St. Landry 

St. Martin's 

St. Mary's 

St. Tammany 

Tousas 

Terro Bonne 

Union 

Vermillion 

Washington 

Winn 



ACRES OF LAND. 



•c 

> 

o 
u 

B 



42,G66 
57,886 
58,078 
55,220 
32,044 



> 
o 

u 

9 



109, 213 

93,520 

243, C64 

127, 401 

52,833 



o 



«3 

a 

a '5 

s ^ 

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fC, 253, 790 
7, 013, 350 
5, 175, 358 
2,588,300 
3, G50, 210 



$887,090 

700, 319 

238,787 

592, 848 

1, 106, 250 



LIVE STOCK- 






a 






1,234 
1,699 
3,032 
2,030 
847 



2,450 
2,577 
1,754 
1,941 
1,650 





a 


is 

o 


M 

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u 


a 


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^ 


u 


u 




o 


1 


b 



1,372 
1,748 
5,089 
4,280 
985 



735 

887 

1,377 

1,277 

482 






2,9S2 
2,847 
9,123 
10, 407 
1,GG9 






3,134 
2,341 

7.302 
5,2^6 

1,491 i 



91,583 

98,928 

8,621 

21,468 

118, 116 
54,413 

114, 699 
87,406 
96,591 
96,728 
71,539 
34,138 
62,523 
70,873 
24, 148 

111,375 
40,555 
10,537 

104,383 
52,988 
80, 616 
5,749 
25, 881 
28, 975 
82,932 
105, 839 
26,350 



Totid. 



29,969 
37,458 
45, 166 
32,481 
93,292 
42,870 
78,389 
6,126 
117,355 
38,816 
82, 791 
85, 75:J 
22.177 
20,017 



220, 772 

208,472 

28,781 

86,872 

175,994 

188, 546 

389,738 

158,523 

282,354 

124, 316 

105,801 

127,655 

131, 688 

215,002 

50,269 

52, 432 

89,542 

95,683 

172, 642 

150,032 

276,626 

19, 715 

96,447 

61, 469 

169,025 

331, 117 

86,171 



5-1, 594 
202,576 

63,885 

40, 505 
221,340 
170, Oil 
210, 481 

59,532 
236,675 
158,806 
210, 684 
5,601 
148, 845 

85, 618 



2, 707, 108 



6, 591, 468 



4, 657, 057 
3, 843, 015 

236,920 

1, 701, 075 

15, 068, 712 

5, 693, 255 
2, 775, 080 

12, 335, 720 
2, 546, 987 
2, 218, 878 
2, 244, 516 
1, 674, 572 

12,661,190 
1, 343, 760 
2, 682, 080 
1,224,630 
4, 104, 100 
317,038 

11, 640, 660 
5,505,285 
5, 059, 293 
1, 301, 000 
2,323,033 
2, 791, 700 
8, 815, 520 
9,340,611 
414, 746 



3, 261, 900 

1, 460, 107 

3, 557, 050 

2, 592, 800 

5, 026, 118 

4, 850, 021 

9, 737, 100 

168,261 

15, 452, 763 

7,166,390 

1, 166, 836 

412,365 

247, 720 

488, 190 



228,991 

110, 476 

41,675 

87,266 

506,883 

149, 160 

215, 303 

837, 310 

78,357 

213, 965 

345,725 

69,682 

886,719 

90,799 

55,060 

124,035 

568,292 

28,250 

364,920 

143, 472 

99,815 

77,050 

97, 489 

161,000 

2, 113, 835 

1, 092, 340 

43,327 



1,107 
1,430 
2,180 



2,501 

2,249 

112 



4,629 
3,749 
3,042 



1, 493 
1,145 
1,016 



204, 799, 602 



579, 795 

80,657 

1, 361, 200 

408,250 

314, 110 

256,027 

1, 206, 695 

4,323 

728, 074 

94G, 733 

115, 370 

55,025 

37,602 

46,674 



18,648,225 



2,035 

2,339 

1,941 

1,500 

1,596 

1,630 

1,273 

1,355 

1,532 

1,325 

388 

6,087 

962 

844 

1,346 

1,307 

2,837 

402 

678 

594 

2,757 

3,934 

1,269 



348 
1,354 

717 

948 
3,738 
3,122 
2,857 

448 
1,847 
1,035 
1,680 
4,804 
1,434 

601 



78,703 



4,908 
1,830 
2,347 
3,783 
2,021 
1,850 
2,519 

990 
3,412 
1,324 
1,372 
1,290 
2,030 
91 
4,168 
1,742 
2,789 

304 

840 
1,634 
3,792 
4,610 

427 



1,417 

373 

2,702 

1,700 

2,442 

2,438 

6,464 

99 

4,644 

2,354 

1, 240 

64 

127 

391 



91,762 



2,972 
4,228 
4,274 
2,290 
3,645 
3,069 
2,167 
2,574 
1,906 
3,140 

616 
4,020 
1,288 
2,464 
2,712 
3,571 
5,226 

468 
1,711 

936 
4,442 



1,881 
2,115 
1,582 
1,976 
1,710 
1,852 
1.G44 
1,242 
1,057 
1,393 

311 
2,304 

542 

514 
2,067 
1,424 
2,594 

135 



7,52 
2,935 



505 
2,943 
838 
942 
6,504 
4,482 
2,250 
1,638 
3,512 
1,678 
3,018 
4,438 
2,064 
1,G8G 



129,662 



866 
1,429 
3,456 
1,236 



776 

1,149 

695 

737 

3,107 

3,123 

1,150 

664 

2,477 

673 

1,203 

738 

851 

720 



60,358 



7,5G3 
12,111 



12,184 

11,565 

11,948 

6,412 

9,381 

7,858 

5,559 

5,G35 

5,595 

' 6,098 

1,203 

12, 604 

1,571 

5,026 

8,7C2 

8,849 

ll.Cio 

348 

4,307 

1,933 

8,891 

22,251 

7,593 



791 

6,166 

1,476 

1,765 

15,882 

11,707 

16.382 

4,528 

8,68o 

2,366 

7,731 

17,136 

5,662 

3,210 



4,129 
3,713 



3,2S> 

10. 176 
3,33) 
4,890 
6,234 

4,«S 
2,M5 
4,060 
4.140 
815 

944 

1,515 
3,4£5 
2,754 

7,743 
8D4 
1.926 
1,203 
6,325 
II, 9« 

i.ee 



1,239 

3,375 

1,640 

1.279 

14,437 

7.203 

9,751 

2,247 

5,717 

1,C82 

5,6g8 

1» 

3.302 

833 



326,787 



181,253 



* No return. 



STATE OF LOUISIANA. 



67 



AGRICULTURE. 



LIVE STOCK. 


PRODUCED. 


• 


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o 

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$533, 868 
618, 210 
656,505 
470, 525 
385,125 






481,452 
439,220 
661, 595 
395,350 
204, 870 


1,000 






684 

619 

20,068 

11,621 

1,405 


5,380 
1,200 
18, 493 
8, 627 
1,600 


7,338 
7,062 
1,396 
5,601 
4,173 


7,599 
8,691 
4,306 
6,277 
3,685 


20,356 
52,091 
48,043 
53,635 
6,585 


1 


7,073 






50, SCO 
739 




8 


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100 


135 


3 




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4 


1,003 








6 














a 


23,971 
20,507 


655,008 
435, 401 
197,055 
231, 497 

1, 127, 725 
588,305 
618, 121 
920,58^ 
.638,568 
592, 073 
534, 841 
305,856 

1,111,205 
448,232 
211,275 
350,835 
422,822 
172, 210 
756,953 
470,232 
616, 845 
125,965 
229,958 
572, 640 
920,730 

1, 405, 040 
248, 295 


1,955 
1,040 


1,179 
1,107 


552,824 
464,205 

91,295 
145, 561 
556,081 
344,890 
528,380 
502,340 
423,278 
358,769 
274, 910 
184,907 
572,023 
303,608 

98,600 
511, 951 
277,173 

09,795 
899,050 
378, 453 
459, 978 

38,250 
158, 280 
057,850 
507,510 
820, 378 
174, 755 


10,303 
7,822 


3,306 


50 


40,0C8 

9,385 

640 

7,296 

84, 165 

23,56-1 

18,983 

63,971 

16,554 

23,332 

21,331 

9,307 

179 

10,687 


8,300 
3,571 
9,540 

584 
8,663 
3,946 
21,151 
9,5:14 
7,242 

790 

9,080 

4,127 

• 2,779 

8,327 


65,475 

38.365 

4,252 

358 

5,237 

6,272 

11, 013 

• 75,735 

5,586 

7,904 

12, 566 
2,527 
5,312 

29,508 


10, 760 

40, 410 
9,820 
5,165 

16, 217 
7,796 
4,949 

11,430 
5,035 
640 
4,174 
3,924 
4,937 
4,276 

20,815 
1,392 

13, 015 

1,091 

■ 7,669 

8,342 

1,504 

10,700 
1,714 


93,451 

179, 445 

33,121 

5,506 

66,806 

36,675 

127, 849 

53,685 

106,454 

97,810 

50,547 

29,388 

15,827 

57,679 

6,981 

54,232 

41,800 

27,698 

51,298 

64,142 

13,140 

5,760 

20,888 


7 
8 




39, 360 


1,149 


9 










10 


22,721 
37,910 


155 


CO 


3,838 


200 


2,420 
140 


11 

12 


41,259 


11, 712 


2,024 


6,716 

1,050 

23,910 

1,460 




13 


14, 216 






14 


27,092 


2,180 


680 




150 


15 


14,507 


17 


16 


7,950 








17 


15,438 






600 


• 




18 


• 7,383 










19 


24, 713 
275 


2,459 


2,817 


16,025 


382 


1,282 


20 

21 


11,389 


200 




..f. ........ 


680 

381,550 

1,060 


1,694 


11,530 

476 

1,563 

44,870 

20,982 

36, 887 

400 

8,639 


12, 769 
946 
2,779 
9,386 
5,236 
7,867 
3,960 
3,210 


1,514 
844 

1,431 
27,568 

3,236 
735 

3, 010 

6,235 


23 


3, 719 






'£i 


9,522 










24 


14,362 






3,090 

2,450 

149 


200 
. 100 


25 


20,710 


55 
8,399 


110 
24,930 




26 


15, 959 




27 


479 






28 


12, 142 




8 








29 


1,708 






4, 635, 500 

3,000 

45 

1,620 




30 


11,189 








330 


28,947 

49,168 

5,052 


6,498 

21, 344 

1,826 


5,913 
12,825 
11, 814 


11, 815 
8,162 


28,875 
98,880 
38,442 


31 


44, 745 




126 
69 


1,011 
1,080 


32 


17,047 


130 


4,000 


33 






34 


705 


332,019 
306, 528 
459, 793 
■ 309,660 
814, 278 
537,210 
1,322,850 
108,755 
913, aT5 
587,124 
458, 307 
519, 700 
217, 897 
186, 483 






175, 047 
109,993 
388, 715 
200,700 
516,922 
569,283 
556,403 
41, 390 
579, 650 
404,853 
340, C87 
117,827 
125, 670 
129. 428 




821,305 
11,772 






190 
6,102 

953 

1,908 

27, 775 

2,857 


2,338 
4,398 


4,490 
4,733 

427 

12, 570 

4,304 

701 


6,141 
43,071 

6,107 
18, 615 
68,244 
26,374 


35 


14,482 










6,484 


36 


1,395 








22,000 

760 

5,115 


37 


2,312 








134, 600 

59, 640 

4,080 




2,977 
5,464 
3,417 


38 


25,263 








21, 198 

4,717 

142 

200 

141, 493 

195 

10,843 

14, 405 

2,735 

2, 093 


39 


9,770 


180 






40 


12,517 








41 


6,793 




W 
100 


200 

750 

120 

6,7C6 


22,049 




2,496 

21,491 

3,225 

7,213 


3,410 

16, 972 

600 

14,239 


447 

13, 290 

3,760 

510 


31,633 

125,735 

48,800 

48,707 


43 


14,184 






43 


4,947 




131,016 
1,000 




44 


22,294 


2,704 


2,218 




45 


95 




46 


14,654 




10 
551 




27,340 
50 




5,592 
2,224 


3,464 
3,464 


2,124 
990 


30,719 
20,686 


47 


11, 522 


433 


847 


415 


48 


6^4,525 


24,546,940 


32,208 


36, 065 


10, 853, 745 


89,377 


6, 331, 257 


39,940 


777,738 


290,847 


431, 148 


294,655 


2,060,981 





C8 



STATE OF LOUISIANA. 



AGRICULTURE. 





COUNTIES. 


PnODUCED. 

•- 




o 
.3 

•s 

a 

*> 

1 


Buckwheat, bushels 
of. 


Orchard products, 
value of. 


t 

i 


^rarkct-gTirden prod- 
ucts, value of. 


1 

s 

a 

n 


%i 

o 

1 

o 
1 


1 

1 


A 

u 

t 

o 




o 

1 




O 

Si 


1 


Aficenfiion ----- ........ 




60 


$150 






1,055 

2,115 

2,250 

22,000 

250 




840 

3,877 

92 

237 
2,066 








Q 


Afirainntion 
















3 


Avov#!ncH - .... - 










$150 

900 

1,950 


50 








4 


Baton Roucfe East 
















5 


Saton I^oniTG Wi^st - 






150 












Ct 


Bien villo 
















7 


BoBMler 












103,022 

90,539 

2,945 

2,295 

127,417 
46.725 

150,505 
62,952 
67,915 
65,325 
54,176 
25,782 
17, 874 
87,328 












8 


Caddo 






29,975 

75 

300 

24, 220 




15, 1.14 












g 


Calcasieu 






2 


550 


28 






1 


10 


Caldwell 






25 

1,967 




1 

93 


11 


Carroll 


25 




20 


50 


2,487 


1 


£6 


\9 


CAtahonla ,,,.,-. r . - » , 




13 


ClaiborDe ........ 






1,075 
300 


250 














14 


Concordia 






1,000 




1,716 


. a . . a . « ^^h • 


150 




15 


Do Soto 


50 




30 


210 




16 


Feliciana. East 








475 








17 


Feliciana. West 










3,815 

• 








18 


Franklin 




• 






^ 










19 


Ibervlllo. .............. 




« 






1,150 




6.689 






< 


20 


JackMon . . ...... 


















21 


Jefferson .... 










140,600 
950 


. ••■- ..••«..... 










22 


Lafa vette .............. 


• 




120 




6,799 
3,460 
9,670 
56,504 
82,981 
6,645 


920 


3,555 

3,077 

86 

120 








23 


Liafourche ............. 














24 


Li viniFston 




















25 


Miulifinn 












120 




130 




26 


Mort' house .. . .... 
















97 


Natchitoches 








500 














S8 


Orleans ... .......... 






5,650 

1,075 

33,055 

3.556 


205,900 












29 


Ouichita 


66 


100 




13,865 












:)o 


PliiOtipminefl . ........ 
















31 


Point Connce ..... 








8,300 
7,830 


4.450 

45, COS 

7,030 




3,568 
2,816 








32 


Tlji.nif1«>fl 








2,540 
102 




326 




a3 


Sftbino . ...... 


80 












34 


SL Bernard . 


















35 


St. Charles 






5.770 
1,308 




4,975 
G85 


1,390 
36, 989 
16, 310 

1,000 

22,486 

48 




4,816 

233 

3,570 

1.497 

2,447 

93 

5,932 

258 








36 


St. Uolena 
















37 


St. James 
















38 


St. John Baptist 










12,000 










39 


8t. I^HnrlrV - , , r T . r , - r r r 






■ 




1,551 
00 








40 


St Martin's 






:jo 


2,100 


S80 








41 


St. Mary's 












42 


St. Tnuimanv . ... 










3,158 

300 

1,800 


8,166 
87,250 

4.047 
62,309 


-•«..>..•> .9. 








43 


Tensus 






7,530 




« • • 


« 






44 


Torre Bonne 










1,991 








45 


Union 


3 
















46 


Vermillion 














■ ■...••««• 






47 


Wnshington 








10 




16. 396 
19, 340 




146 








48 


Winn 




















Total 
























224 


160 


114,339 


2,912 


413, 169 


1, 444, 742 


6,153 


52,721 


1 


TOO 


27 







J 



STATE OF LOUISIANA. 



69 



AGRICULTURE. 















PRODUCED. 












o 

• 
a 

•3 

•a 

t 
o 

•a 

a 
es 
'S 

m 

•3 

i 

< 




HEMP. 


•5" 

1 


o 
« 

■2 

9 

H 

a 


eg 

a 
§ "=^ 

M 


•a 

e 

1 

s 

1 


o 

A a 
. s 

1. o 

s § 


• 

•a 

a 2. 

a 


h 

a 
to 


o 

a 

a 

a 

s 
1 


o 

a 

a 
o 

o 


• 
e 

B ^ 

-1 

«■ a 
t -3 

a > 

Mi 

§ 9 




• 

Dew rotted, tons 
of. 


a 
o 

i 

u 

1 


■a 

p. a 

r 

o 


















16.087 

17,707 

4,445 

5,477 

10, 176 


881,297 
1, 2:)0, 584 
284, 424 
412,680 
724, 570 








$52, 073 
34, 203 
42, 486 


$720 

48. 301 

75. ::85 

47, 382 

9,250 


1 
















1 


305 
1,682 


3,494 
14, 152 


2 


















3 


















4 
























5 
























6 




















2,013 


18,823 

100 

446 

526 

16, 015 

5, 370 

47. 944 

16,595 

10, 878 




129. it:8 
27, 445 
50,568 
9,702 
06, 155 
45.784 

198, 504 
45,273 

113,8C8 
50.410 
»4,884 
30, 013 
48, 315 

107,080 


7 






















2,840 

16.285 

190 

16, 464 


8 


••••■•"••• 














34 


2,810 




115 

47 

3,081 

2,340 

1,561 

348 

829 

40 


9 


















10 
















91 


49 




U 


















12 






















9,202 

600 

3,190 


13 






















14 






















15 
















1,013 
5,705 


61, 800 
393,748 




16 






















17 
























18 
















10,828 


214, 982 




10 
1,919 


260 
33,323 


200 
19,158 


19 


















20 
















9,467 

1,003 

14,736 

3 


702, 300 

58,470 

1, 001, 210 

300 




21 


















189 
10 


1,207 
180 
160 


20,667 
20 


81,599 
13, 553 
32, 145 
62,204 
70. 752 
19,675 
2,800 
16, 891 


22 


















23 








• 










24 














. 








25 






















119 
12 

500 
50 


2,385 

45 

400 

COO 


12 


26 






















27 
















2,050 


134, 000 




500 


28 


















29 
















12,607 
12,187 
12,087 


819,600 

1, 342. 195 

854,585 






30 


















' 120 
749 


275 
3,307 
2,170 




30, 051 

110,785 

48,025 


31 


















3. 336 
3,354 


32 


















33 
























34 












. ..^ ..... • 




7,067 


543,500 




5 

156 


5 

2,632 

35,000 

1,250 

8,715 


225.600 
2,941 


9, 157 
45, 072 


35 


















36 














13, 736 
4,981 
3,437 
7,499 

30, 731 


1, 193, 160 

462, 250 

339.610 

524,329 

43, 3C6 




37 
















80 
810 


1 


38 
















17, 916 
10 




109.055 
44. 955 


39 


















40 




......... 


















41 


















160 
200 


500 

225 

40 

12,720 

6, 805 

6. 924 

3, 639 


15,321 
61, 191 
11.622 
49, 747 
20,000 
40,307 
31,126 


42 


• 


















50 


43 














17,022 


1, 210, 603 




44 


















10, 149 


45 














1,550 


3, 100 
280 






46 


1 
















5,159 
668 


6.345 
6,350 


17 




















48 
























1 














221,726 


13.439,772 




20,970 


255, 481 


502, 100 


2, C95, 330 























70 



STATE OF MAINE. 



AGRICULTURE. 



COUNTIES. 



] 
2 
3 
4 



5 



6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

la 

14 
15 
16 



ACRES OF LAND. 



Androscoggin 
Aroostook . . . 
Cumberland . 

Franklin 

Hancock 

Keunt'bec . . - 

Knox 

Lincoln 

Oxford 

PenobHcot — 
Piftcntnqnid . . 
Sagadahoc . . 

Someriict 

Wnldo 

Washington . 
York 

Total . . . 



B 
5 



o 

> 
o 

G, 

a 



115, 186 
124, 117 
200, 555 
191,762 
102, 724 
285,393 
74,537 
119,034 
259,640 



•3 

> 

o 

a 

e 
*s 

5J 



89,055 
326, 699 
168, 144 
174, 529 
214, 736 
164,960 

08,364 
102, 538 
314,216 



243, 386 


363,839 


97, 674 


138,047 


70,838 


45, 728 


261, 245 


271,093 


192,237 


160,860 


83.728 


219, 393 


243, 077 


201,337 



2, 704, 133 



3,023,538 



E 

.5 



o 

► 

.a 



e-l, 990, 907 
2, 217, 136 
9, 470, 563 
3, 643, 748 

3, 022, 796 
c, c»>8, ooo 
2, 707, 250 
3, 960, 878 
5, 615, 754 
6,711,673 
1,764,327 
2, 487, 209 
5, 729, 553 

4, 516, 496 
2, 234, 257 

10, 757, 623 



es 

6 

•a 

«^ 

g =* 

I ^ 

"E >* 

— a 
fcc3 
£ o 

S 

u 



LIVE STOCK. 



$180,428 
178, 182 
280, 129 
172, 525 

r8,oio 

375, 864 
133, 122 
138,030 
273,548 
371,888 
100, 896 

75,134 
323, 945 
£40, 002 

94, 590 
262,034 



u 
o 



3,129 
3,654 
4,768 
3,686 
1, 819 
6,817 
1,531 
2,135 
6,068 
6,846 
2,436 
1,288 
5,025 
4, O'Jl 
1,786 
4,958 



s 



tB 



1 

8 
55 
6 
C 
8 
1 
1 
4 
4 
3 
1 
2 
1 
3 



o 

V 

u 



8,1C5 
6,541 

13, 137 
7,315 
7,445 

14, 664 
4,806 
7,117 

13,521 

14,034 
4,811 
3,719 

11,252 
9,444 
G, 306 

15,087 



a 
o 
H 

o 
tc 
.S 

M 

u 
O 



4,410 
2,490 
6,568 
5,070 
3,769 
7,854 
2,168 
4,058 
8, 241 
6,913 
2,488 
1,95S 
7,449 
5,084 
2,377 
8, 892 , 



if 



7,721 
7,150 
8,785 

10,529 
5.943 

13, 197 
4,157 
6,509 

18, 715 

14.080 
6,030 
3,728 

14, Oil 
9,902 
5,674 

13,030 



78,688,525 



3,298,327 



60,637 



104 



147, 314 



79, 792 



149, 827 



Cm 



15,155 
18.043 
16,377 
46.462 
26,167 
43,532 
12,651 
15,501 
42,006 
40, 617 
18.634 
8,777 
76,001 
34,873 
13,561 
22,075 



452, 472 : 



AGRICULTURE. 



1 

2 
3 
4 



5 



6 

7 

8 



10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 



COUNTIES. 



Androscoggin. 

Aroostook 

Cumberland .. 

Pronklln 

Hancock 

Kennebec 

Knox 

Llucoln 

Oxford 

Penobscot 

PiBcataqnis... 
Sagnduboc . . . 

Somerset 

Wuldr) 

Washington . , 
York 



PRODUCED. 



c 

.a 

at 


pa 



19, 861 
16,471 
36, 574 
30, 844 
32,136 

151, 540 
23, 436 
47, 343 
13,338 

113,0-19 
60, 601 
IB, 15G 

132,916 
51,226 
16, 889 
31,668 



3 



is 

a 



1,699 

2:i0, 442 

1,091 

4,848 

1,340 

4,099 

949 

789 

20,135 

35, 933 

7, 580 

32 

13,001 

7.837 

9,019 

720 



w 


•3 

O 



$30,444 

1,084 
33,574 
46,683 

7,045 
77,054 
13,288 
15, 7J5 
8-1, 405 
33,007 
10, 735 

7, 070 
42, 880 
40,350 

2,676 ; 
54, 957 



■B 

o 



23 
o 

258 
96 
79 

562 
63 

010 

*• AfW 

426 
785 



o 

a". 

X - 

I 



15,703 
830 
36,600 
3,023 
25, 193 
17, 201 
12. 128 
14, 313 
19,530 
10,688 



47 


6,516 


84 


2,780 


22 


15,110 


119 


7.634 


386 

1 


16, 7.">7 



o 

BB 

o 

Si 

a 



590,522 
467, 301 

1,062,512 
549,278 
615, 090 

1, 228, 721 
491, 174 
599, 380 
892, 441 

1, 231, 660 
381, 798 
2(-8, 361 
832, 246 
807,355 
562, 756 

1, 106, 68<) 



•a 

a 
a 
o 
Ck 

S 

o 



250,102 
22,216 

169.046 

130, 213 
28,438 

223, 055 
61, 451 
12,408 

294, .328 

133, 477 

71,240 

6,031 

214, 438 

54, 693 

3,25t> 

124, 870 



Total 



802,108 



239, .51 9 



501,767 



3,164 



194. 01',6 



11,687,781 



1,799 8({2 



a 
o 






50,428 

39,267 
86,473 
66,763 
37,189 
107,511 
28,711 
46,719 
85, 844 
94, 824 
32,725 I 
28,446 I 
88, 744 
65, 307 
3:J,261 
83, 591 



ir75, 803 



.a 






u 

> 

o 



O 



1,199 

957 

11 

9,284 
256 
329 



2 

7,671 

336 

26, 872 

5 

1,069 

853 

1 

4 



it 

aa 

9 



en 



10 

559 

83 

2,802 

74 

125 
o 

AT 

34 

1,767 

276 

79 

7 

304 

143 

18 

23 



o 
a 

9 

o 



o 



1.000 

38 

210 

11,633 

252 

2,362 

I 
33 i 

85,226 ] 

715 i 

500 ! 

60 

68 

634 

39 

115 



48, 849 



6, 306 



102,987 



STATE OF MAINE. 



71 



AGRICULTURE. 



LIVE STOCK. 

• 












PRODUCED. 








- 




* 

a 

OQ 


o 

i 

> 

M 
o 

o 

> 


9 
.a 

(9 

.a 


o 

1 

Xi 




o 
o 

•s 

.a 

3 

C3 

c 


c 

en 
•O 

a 

a 
o 

P. • 

§ 


O 
en 

a 

9 

C 
Xi 
o 

H 


S 

■O O 
B O 

6 


o 

w 

I 

o 


• 

-s 

a 
c; 


• 

•s 

a 

Xi 
c 

1 


• 

s. 


r - 


3,148 


$822,209 
765,138 

1, 176, 445 
977, 136 
644, 310 

1, 6:r7, 826 
440, 117 
603,855 

1, 458, 172 

1,*505,051 
580,041 
328,162 

1, 524. 684 
973, 517 
520,558 

1, 380. 312 


9,066 

24,763 

18,884 

23,644 

7,030 

8,821 

3.540 

1,362 

37,344 

25,089 

5,046 

2,047 

12,863 

22,671 

15,200 

16,500 


9,754 

26,714 

8,841 

4,543 

758 

6,726 

6,293 

3,776 

30, 571 

5,646 

766 

1,728 

7,719 

3,228 

• 776 

5,448 


121, 049 
3,265 

165,875 
77,000 
17,453 

229, 460 
35,402 
50,855 

187, 714 

121,392 
45, 443 
27,033 

100, 455 

94, 781 

1,648 

' -207,246 


141,326 

419, 783 

101, 925 

217, 468 

53, 043 

240, 077 

29,705 

41,602 

251, 453 

403,080 

200.835 

23,541 

404,231 

282,630 

40, 876 

77,304 








52, 402 

61,312 

55,289 

165,950 

81, 597 

140, 602 

44, 622 

48,050 

142, 770 

136,454 

61, 577 

- 27,009 

256,436 

119,321 

37, 95^ 

63,452 


11,594 
18, 71:9 
16, 511 
12,376 

9,254 
22,481 

6,477 

7,896 
18,107 
^2, 630 
13,802 

5,000 
29,063 
19, 312 

4,810 
18,093 


391,321 
411,630 
433,655 
306,251 
169, 101 
565,304 
142,806 
199,068 
701,022 
845, 625 
334,009 
108,507 
637, 276 
469,612 
201,589 
437,641 


4 


1 


4,521 




80 

57 




2 


5,037 






134 


3 


2,275 






4 


2,254 








64 


5 


5,700 








fi 


1,010 










7 


2,344 




50 
58 

1 




9 


R 


4,837 






9 


4,676 






62 


10 


1,835 






11 


1,134 








1,098 


12 


3,684 




38 




13 


3,390 






30 
20 

14 


14 


2,146 




1,284 
15 




15 


6.102 


....I....... 




16 








54,783 


15,437,533 


233, 876 


123.287 


1, 546, 071 


2, 9^, 939 




1,583 




1,495,060 


246, 915 


6, 374, 617 


1,435 















AGRICULTURE. 



PRODUCED. 



9 



"3 

1 

•a 



•1 

•a 
< 




HEMP. 


a 
d 

0. 

i 


.a 

tB 


•9 

a 


p. 

g » 

u 
g 

CO 


•a 

a 

§ 

p. 

« 
& 

Cl 

1^ 


b 

p s 

^ 



1 

•3 

» 
I'M* 

1 s 



1 


of 

a 


It 




(B 

ca 

g 

n 




a 



g. 

>t 

& 




W 






m 

1 


no 

a 


•0 



•0 










45 
795 

21 
241 


13 
49 




2,331 

129, 875 

5,393 

7,695 

735 

3,344 

659 

1,W4 

81,923 

8,015 

5,604 

251 

31,053 

11, 314 

2,657 

13,389 




611 

606 

636 

13,827 

77 

2,445 

30 




232 

32 

443 

1,003 
559 
728 
107 
135 
939 

1,499 

420 

42 

1,741 
405 
266 
158 


8,275 

3, 219 

12, 941 

18,282 

16, 986 

25,036 

2,479 

4,275 

25,846 

84,849 

20,123 

1,151 

47, 751 

28,791 

8,421 

5, 660 


$12, 084 
45, 879 
26,926 
26,639 
64,346 
26,491 
29, 916 
22, 796 
44,907 
44,607 
16,037 
12, 694 
33, 346 
26,909 
31,327 
25,162 


$168, 532 
171, 176 
215,007 
1231801 
120,3i-8 
286,111 
102,592 
114,154 
218, 71-8 
361 840 


1 














2 








46 
20 






3 








5 






4 












5 








165 










6 
















7 








278 
245 
194 


01 

7 

154 

2 


3 






R 










3,947 
1,002 
1,083 




9 








2 






10 






50 






F8, 312 11 
58 274 ' 12 




















613 

50 


127 


2 




6,492 

1,081 

81 

761 




204,561 
169,532 
107,888 
269,204 


13 












14 


















15 








45 


1 








16 




















1 

50 


2,997 


419 


73 


306,742 




32,679 




8,769 314,685 


490,786 


2,780,179 




i 









72 



STATE OF MARYLAND. 



AGRICULTURE. 



1 

o 

3 
4 



5 



C 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 

i:) 

14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 



COUNTIES. 



Allrgliany 

Anno Anindel . 

Uiiltimoro 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charlcf 

DorchcKtcr 

Frederick 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery . . . 
IMnce George's 
Queen Anne . . . 
Saint Mary's... 

Someruet 

Talbot 

Washington . . . 
■Worcester 

Total 



ACRES OF LAND. 






O 
> 

z 

B 



108, .'^£8 
114,211 
206.536 
81,301 
61, 101 
170,353 
141,776 
106, 308 
119,443 
271,958 
139, 051 
110, 657 
132,814 
176, 70O 
182, 4C8 
153, 113 
114,459 
118,873 
110,483 
196, 503 
155,609 



I 

a 

9 

t" 

O 
h 

a 

*3 



180,817 

100, P50 

113.021 

55,130 

31,006 

67,145 

65,420 

76,641 

V'\ 482 

67,345 

80.860 

54,332 

36,614 

114.814 

99,235 

62.718 

103, 062 

150,322 

55,674 

43,637 

160, 479 



3,002,267 



1, 833, 304 



s 
•3 

.a 
3 



$3, 15.'3, 563 
7, 512, 331 

22,491,197 
3, 407, 902 
1, 222, 085 
7, 567, 038 
8.168.950 
3, 236, 015 

3, 669, 040 
14.127,925 

7, 433, 740 
4, 514, &18 
6, 877. 390 
5, 920. 318 
10. 421, 1C8 
5, 236, C80 

4, :i95, 135 
4, 626, 241 
5, 774. 848 

11, 954. 803 
4, 260, 120 



145, 973, 077 



a 



a o 

s > 

^ - 

-- a 

a 



LIVE STOCK. 



$100, 395 

189,834 

455, 857 

64.354 

30, 315 

271, 805 

287,988 

89,009 

92,423 

441, 814 

268,546 

139, 148 

132,055 

314,708 

211,971 

146. 075 

109,908 

91, 795 

126,950 

354.938 

90,041 



4,010,529 



e 

» 



3,690 
4,066 
7,940 
2,321 
1,133 
6,124 
4,776 
2,448 
2,841 
11,287 
4,954 
2,962 
4.248 
5,587 
4,701 
4.079 
3,452 
2,185 
3,618 
8,027 
2,967 



93,406 






•o 


^ 


c 


o 


CS 


«J 






•< 


S 



16 
659 
950 
277 
164 
257 
338 
950 
147 
209 
357 
209 
434 
232 
1,364 
880 
349 
484 
624 
132 
797 



5.828 

3,641 

9,853 

1,818 

1,229 

7,659 

5.968 
o 400 

3,283 
11,180 
6,167 
3,100 
3,604 
5,202 
3.8cJ7 
3,830 
3,447 
3,008 
3,563 
6,841 
3,873 



a 
«> 

M 

O 

JS 

ji 



243 
2,668 

765 
2,176 



109 
1,862 
2, 712 
2,870 

135 
1,797 

650 
1,092 

900 
3,441 
1.807 
3,025 
2,734 
1,455 
6 
3,519 



9,829 



99,463 



34, 524 



3 

u 
o 

JQ 

o 



7,062 
3.545 
G.018 
2,424 
1,577 
4.962 
7,669 

4. 495 
6,671 

10,237 
7,347 
2,273 

5, 132 
5,701 
4,855 
5,031 
4,6T3 
5.896 
4,254 

11.424 
7,948 



t 



15, 471" 
7,2C7 
6,193 
4.111 
1, 218 
5,068 
6,493 : 
5,740, 
6.540 I 

10.389 I 
6.305 
4.223 
7, ."563 

10,487 
8. 828 
7,618 
5.668 
7,220 
7,207 

10.460 

11.6C8 



119,254 



155,765 



AGRICULTURE. 



1 
2 
3 
4 



5 



6 

7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 



COUNTIES. 



Alleghany 

Aone Arundel . 

Baltiraoro 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll , 

Cecil" 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Harford , 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery 

Prince George'* - 

Queen Anno 

Saint Mary's 

Somerset 

Tulbot 

Wajihington 

Worcester 



Total. 



c 

-s 

US 
OS 

n 



2,609 



2,451 



05 
1,307 



68 

6.346 

460 

60 

122 

125 

10 

80 

45 

50 

3,352 



17,350 



.a 

OB 

a 



Si, 

o 



77,350 



23,492 

15 

8 

17. 303 

36,049 

122 

65 

2,809 

30,547 

4.441 

912 

6,e(W 

43 

200 

27 

327 

3r.i 

2,256 
41 



212,338 



o 

9 
OS 



$14, 455 
14,135 
25,279 

177 
1,418 



26,405 
3,045 
4,872 

11,064 
8,201 

5, 507 
&'),227 

3.227 
5,370 
1,867 
8,306 

6, 424 
6,199 

20,656 
362 



252, 196 



PRODUCED. 



a 
o 

=a 
«r 

d 



10 



567 



81 



94 
S3 
315 
128 
263 
500 



190 



111 
935 



«5| *m«mM 



o 
u 

Pi *4 

O 

e 2 

■SI 



& 



M a 
5 "= 



$6,245 
218, 680 
236,365 



115 



1,130 

1,300 

24 

585 

1,333 

5, 693 

120 

13, 655 

30,483 

1,680 



75 



6,416 

3, 755 

2, 507 

60 



530,221 



a 

o 
p. 



a 

n 



358, 572 

79, .504 

489, 817 

54, 321 

46, .'>66 

503,059 

409, 788 

48,006 

106,024 

969.797 

364.811 

167, 124 

182, 410 

278, 141 

78,629 

146. 605 

90, 782 

104,729 

120.202 

550. 898 

115,510 



5, 265, 295 









3,432 



250 



8 
2,920 



30 

330 

200 

1,0)0 

70 






8,342 



a 
o 






12,058 

1,743 

30,164 

740 

113 

22,988 

18,003 

459 

234 

32,078 

19,284 

6,801 

3,311 

13,167 

6,328 

1,152 

923 

40 

794 

21, 352 

12 



191, 744 






So 



> 

o 



87 

66 

852 
o. 



7, .348 

5,604 

11 



9,631 

4.650 

1,341 

33 

3,735 

58 

25 



60 
6,306 



39,811 









3 



72 



586 
20 



396 
256 



476 
563 
119 
57 
175 



53 
422 



3.195 



c 
o 



c 



264 



92 
198 



2 

134 

10 



138 



197 

56 

650 

8 

1.1 
211 

59 
151 



•« 



2.943 I 



STATE OF MARYLAND 



73 



AGRICULTURE. 



LIVE STOCK. 


PBODUCED. 


• 


1- 
• 1 


o 

1 

1 


o 

•3 

•s 

I 


1 

1 

a 


■3 

•s 

i 

o 


o 

•a 

1 

© 


1 
1 


o 

o 


! 

1 


• 

1 

■r 

^% 

§ 

a 

P4 


• 

1 
Is 

•s 


• 

•s 

p 

h 

** 

I 

OD 




9,975 
16 402 


$513,281 
6] 6. 267 

1, 303, 873 
380,338 
155, 113 
784,340 
877,563 
439,283 
458,091 

1, 534, 048 
878, rJ6 
455,964 
6H9,502 
852,767 
875, 317 
e-27,447 
546,046 
466,892 
601,661 

1,056,125 
544,993 


87,715 
221,389 
286,351 
117, 119 

57.344 
32:i,996 
326,607 
151,532 
218,422 
976, 143 
224,808 
151,956 
312, 101 
341,087 
312,796 
291,656 
296,703 
138,404 
343, 514 
882,814 

40,963 


73,224 

8,150 

59,831 

1,420 

11,276 

63,629 

4,304 

2,127 

3,106 

94,251- 

13, 183 

21,573 

1,236 

27,036 

24,234 

29,941 

165 

220 

1,708 

77,993 

294 


161,075 
630,243 

1, 028, 143 
272,084 
247, 455 
588, 7-35 
788,044 
319,272 
687,324 

1, 082, 903 
735, 5TJ 
425,727 
888,900 
686,843 
699,144 
876,405 
437,366 
606,733 
679, 571 
669,322 
934,070 


136,638 

64,612 

372.268 

38,732 

36,227 

346,901 

504,058 

53,171 

43,002 

272,082 

330,355 

164,193 

503,330 

222,674 

98,073 

167,155 

79,202 

134,274 

47, 418 

175, 445 

169,488 




2,000 
6,039,910 

8,545 
6,204,524 




35,315 
25,431 
11,028 
14,357 
3,465 
13,295 
24,460 
14,843 
16,842 
31,650 
18,509 
15,377 
28,080 
38,674 
27.008 
31.091 
18,232 
19, 191 
33,803 
47,133 
23.727 


246 

14, 178 

3,352 

787 

108 

771 

321 

6.55 

1,118 

326 

1,524 

659 

1,953 

1,019 

1,507 

635 

1,141 

2,422 

114 

47 

1.464 


107, 148 
3:i,689 

132,355 

9,531 

19,320 

71,925 

107,650 
11,768 
41,4.')8 
94,043 

105,750 
59, 440 
52,741 

109, 745 
29, 974 
44,046 
26,178 
31,637 
55,730 
65, 816 
54,476 


25 

668 

2,329 

4,892 

15,343 

2,708 

3,092 

35,282 

1,339 

1,286 

94 

3,824 

360 

962 

12,292 

8.906 

76,430 

20,940 

550 

44,286 


1 






9 


25,280 
10 479 






3 






4 


4,951 






5 


2}. 740 




608.424 




6 


10,968 






> 


12,828 




4,693,961 




8 


18. 749 






9 


40 548 




387,100 




10 


16,725 






11 


15.626 




400,266 




12 


11,346 






13 


22.823 




843.300 
13, 446, 550 




14 


25,927 






15 


14,848 






16 


21,728 




5,774,975 

260 

1,100 

50 




17 


39,236 
15 091 






1R 






19 


29, 425 
20,401 






90 






21 












387,756 


14, 667, 853 


6, 103, 480 


518, 901 


13, 444, 922 


3,959,298 




38,410.965 




491, 511 


34,407 


1,264,429 


236, 740 













AGRICULTURE. 



PRODUCED. 


o 
« 

1 

> 

1 

OB 

-3 
J 

5 




HEMP. 


si 

o 

1 

P. 

i 

U4 


Flaxseed, bushels of. 


Silk Qoeoons, pounds 
of. 


Maple sugar, pounds 
of. 


g 5 


OB 

h. 

a 
o 

00 


Maple molasses, gal- 
lons at. 


o 


o 
» 

a 

§ 
P. 

>^ 

o 

p 
o 

B 


« p 

If 

V 




Dew rotted, tons 
of. 


Water rotted, tons 
of. 


Other prepared 
hemp. 










1,814 


772 




63,281 






2,273 


736 


23,159 
1,400 
3,1.!>8 
5,897 
1,485 
4,603 
1,728 
3,634 

14,922 
4,568 
8, 518 
3,024 
4,990 

53,003 
1,440 
1,440 
4,605 

10,307 
7,483 

11, 510 

16,480 


$9,178 


$88,903 
108,863 
179,136 

62,216 

36,206 
178,897 
142,497 

84,938 
118,361 
281,467 
169,133 

91,205 
107,557 
194,186 

90.603 
130, 775 
133, 846 
154, 082 
122, 946 
207,034 
138,654 


1 














2 


^ 




70 


107 


3 








45 




16 
259 

55 
476 

94 
271 
573 
209 
360 
133 
417 
568 

25 

14 
395 
988 
290 
700 
381 


190 

1,717 

10 

1,066 

258 

10,108 

1,846 

1,478 

1,174 

707 

112 

12,455 


3 


4 












4 






















5 






79 


969 


196 












6 












662 




7 




















8 








14 

369 

8 














9 






5 


21 
21 












10 


10 




1 








41 
40 


n 














12 








80 
1,450 












13 








69 












14 


















15 








40 

100 

1,845 

500 


4 

1 

152 














16 


















5,989 

7,084 

153 

140 

13,338 


17 








2 










18 


1 














19 


3 
















50 


20 






100 


7,245 


331 










21 


















18 




2M 


14,481 


1,570 


3 


63.281 




907 


2,404 


6,960 


193,354 


67,003 


2,821,510 

1 




( 






_^^ 



10 



74 



STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS. 



AGRICULTURE. 



r 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 



COUNTIES. 



Bamstoble 
Berkshire 
Bristol . . . 

Dnkes 

Euex 

Franklin . . 
Hampden . 
Hampshire 
Middlesex 
Nantucket. 
Norfolk ... 
Plymouth . 
Suffolk.... 
Worcester. 

Total. 



ACRES OF LAND. 



a 
•o" 

o 

2 
B 



34,330 

300,459 

85,804 

22,033 

141, 4G5 

234,723 

190,706 

222,448 

248, 727 

G,736 

82,054 

95,6C9 

3,279 

487, OTJ 



2, 155, 512 






> 

o 
hi t 

6 



d 



■9 



•a 

> 

3 



45,736 

140, 18G 

107,237 

9,430 

40,104 

114,862 

94,539 

6(5, 659 

135,042 

6,382 

77, 045 

114, 650 

237 

223,083 



1, 183, 212 



$2, 129, 156 

9, 913, 857 

6, 883, 141 

609,790 

10, 330, 505 

7. 569, 223 

7. 402, 883 

7, 730, 161 

24, 396, 129 

166,548 

15, 539, 042 

7, 620, 646 

754,600 

22,210,267 



123. 255, 948 



a 
§ -^ 

o 

-I 

r- « « 

E t 



i 



LIVE STOCK. 



$85,095 
330,891 
222, 884 

15, 118 
341,384 
234,427 
266. 101 
290,214 
895, 059 

12, 015 
276,108 
185,078 

16, 710 
717, 914 



3, 894, 998 






O 



1,063 
5,154 
2,635 

274 
3,270 
3,984 
3.563 
4.065 
7,566 

178 
3,579 
3,015 

135 
9,305 



n 

"3 
6 

•a 



OB 
4> 



5 

61 
o 



11 



9 
3 



12 



47.786 



108 






2,101 I 

17,978 ' 

6,771 

648 

10, 485 

9,349 

10,000 

9,558 

30,119 

531 

7,912 

6,405 

274 

32,361 



144, 492 



d 

M 

O 

a 

2 

u 
O 



537 
3,241 
2,317 

264 
3,586 
4.000 
3,610 
2,918 
4,032 
36 
1,529 
2,169 
64 
9,918 



38,221 







o 




^3 




^^ 




a 




u 




hi ' 


o. 


a; 


t 


■*^ 


JS 


o 


tc 


1,928 


1,460 


13,518 


41,316 



3,433 

810 

4,314 

12,898 

9,059 

11,110 

9,609 

258 

2,384 

3,544 

124 

24, 212 



97,201 



3.132 
6.944 I 
1,603 i 

24,030 
8,461 

15,541 
1,067 
1,077 
31? 
2,947 
7 
^724 



114,829 



AGRICULTURE 



1 

o 

AT 

3 
4 

5 
6 

7 
8 
9 

10 
11 



13 
14 



COUNTIES. 



Barnstable 
Berkshire . 
Bristol .... 

Dukes 

Essex 

Franklin . . 
Hampden . 
Hampshire 
Middlesex . 
Nantucket. 
Norfolk ... 



12 Plymouth 



t 



Suffolk.... 
Worcester . 

Total. 



o 

•3 

1 



3,784 

9,074 

7,548 

83 

29,760 

3,246 

1,578 

1,858 

17,992 

810 

12,062 

5,461 

854 

40, 781 



134,891 



o 

OB 
P 



§<=> 



M 





195 

42,073 

244 

10 

258 

5,337 

31,271 

10,656 

3,767 



319 
110 



28,962 



123,202 



o 

.a 
O 



$2,697 

27,174 

17, 812 

359 

121,980 
47,056 
32,520 
44, 159 

333,055 

30 

83,335 

13,965 

10,925 

190, 452 



925,519 



PRODUCED. 



§ 
fao 



279 
662 
465 



1,690 
721 

1,566 
390 

3,459 



1,083 

12 

124 

10,464 



20,915 



i 



a 2 

4) 



s, 






111, 851 

10,567 

39,145 

15 

173,648 

1,177 

31,252 

4,125 

798, 261 

5,283 

216, 501 

33,944 

27,935 

43, 919 



1, 397, 623 



a 
p 
o 



u 
a 



99,923 

1, 301, 706 

233,207 

23,776 

440, 336 

931,539 

789, 803 

1, 164, 760 

812,737 

23,767 

295,027 

348,802 

2,181 

1, 770, 372 



I 



8, 297, 936 



OB 

a 



o 



.a 



5,027 

2, 167, 812 

44,371 

1,910 

56,632 

236,654 

421, 992 

318, 113 

49, 424 



20,619 
68,969 



1, 902, 547 



5,294,090 



OP 

a 
o 






11,521 
83,875 
28,897 

2,520 
56,363 
58,965 
47,846 
54,752 
97,359 

2,440 
38,430 
31, 140 

2, K19 
148, 384 



665,331 



<u 

-s 

a 

.o 



a 

> 
o 



163 
191 

88 

318 

8 

109 

107 

40 



268 



1,295 



.a 






cS 



20 
185 
410 



3(17 



26 
45 



1,088 



o 

-3 



o 
c 



o 



25,645 




1,855 I 38,396 

I 



3 
38 

68 

t 
27, 317 , 



4,852 111.301 



STATE OF MASSACHUSETTS. 



75 



AGRICULTURE. 



LIVE STOCK. 



o 

a 



1,430 

7,554 
5.529 

375 
5,787 
5,667 
4,219 
5,453 
11,801 

292 
6,713 
4,344 

266 
14, 518 



73, 948 



o 

a 
> 

o 

O 



> 



.1219,777 

1, 631, 885 

617,927 

74, 143 

856, 145 

1, 173, 401 

995,160 

1, C86, 172 

1, 834. 446 

43,358 

784, 767 

632,816 

31, 125 

2, 756, 622 



12, 737, 744 



o 



3 

■♦J 
Q 

5? 



1,544 

12,372 

889 

25 

2,011 

25,084 

6,181 

12,390 

9,813 

149 

1,338 

1,267 

4 

46, 716 



119, 783 



PRODUCED. 



0/ 

3 
Xi 



10, 174 
59,858 

14, 850 ; 

I 
1, 149 I 

13, 199 i 

I 

43,743 I 

73, 405 j 

58,740 , 

42,966 ' 

182 
i 
15,320 

13,753 

I 

2,923 
37,823 



388,085 



4) 

.a 

3 
.a 






a 



51, 531 
176,292 
121,898 

10,824 
153,168 
217, 071 
175, 317 
301,286 
329,790 
8,709 

87.436 

95,520 

3,295 

424,927 



2, 157, 063 



w 

3 
Xi 



O 



8,907 

359,475 

54,533 

3,981 

39,709 

104,026 

102,779 

73,371 

107, 442 

1,005 

18, 948 

24, 957 

155 

280,787 



1, 180, 075 



•a 
a 

o 
o 

c7 



o 

■J> 

a 
3 
o 
P. 

o 

i 

Xi 

o 



3,625 



1,625 
880,561 
1,180,253 
1,164,944 ; 

10 I 



80 



2,100 



3,233,198 



a o 
I ^ 

a o 



3 
3 
O 
P. 



o 

o 



2,988 
147, 490 
7,307 
19, 285 
4,100 
73,275 
23,786 
OC, DOU 
3,314 
2,957 
762 
10,032 I 
35 ! 
23.436 ! 



xi 

00 

3 

3 ^ 

5 O 

.O OB 

r 



1,702 I 

i 

3,322 I 
1,256 I 

20 ' 

I 

5,525 i 

i 

1,962 ! 
2,143 i 
2,496 ; 
10,953 I 
129 : 
4,617 
1,063 I 

596 1 

I 
9,456 I 



3 
Xi 



9i 

p. 



33, 195 

I 
366,600 

167, 079 

12,420 

246, 789 ! 

219,793 ! 

271,050 t 

j 

259,270 j 
554,856 I 

5,079 
164,726 1 
142,809 

7,655 
750, 580 



377,267 



45,246 t 3,201,901 



•s 

3 

af 
«> 



l^ 






10 



25 



Q 



12 
100 

50 

177 

50 

190 



616 



1 
2 
3 
4 

5 
6 

7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13* 
14 



AGRICULTURE. 















PRODUCED. 












<^ 

o 
o 

3 

•a 

u 
o 

•a 

4 

en 

.9 

3 
< 






HKMP. 




Flax, pounds of. 


Flaxseed, bushels of. 


Silk cocoons, pounds . 
of. 


Maple sugar, pounds 
of. 


tM 

o 

■ 

oe 
•C TO 

•5 -5 

Xi a 

3 

3 S 
* o 


Maple nu>las»eg, gal- 
lons of. 


Cano molasses, gal- 
lons of. 


Beeswax, pounds of. 


Honey, pounds of. 


Manufactures, honie- 
mude, value of. 




OB 

2 

§ --• 
c o 

u 


Water rotted, tons 
of. 


Other prepared 
herap. 


1 


. 








1 

1 


120 

17, 140 

2,206 




$.'>7, 740 


1 









15 


2 






329, 377 


•"•••*•••■ 


5,203 


v.. 


1,254 
100 


$11,094 

35, 065 

1, 445 

65 

13, 713 

3,326 

32,514 

40,200 


30^1. 582 2 













210,718 3 


, 


1 


i 


1 




17, 100 1 4 






1 






20 

5,671 

1,302 

1,575 

160 


1 


192 
570 
305 
142 
157 


2,134 
5,316 
8,585 

V 

2,319 
4.647 


218, 504 


5 








80 
70 


2 
3 






385,339 

92,253 

197, 550 




1 
221.f'56 1 6 













1 


197,747 j 7 




! 









1 

167. 469 8 




1 

1 




1 

1 

1 

i 


1 
416,308 : 9 






i • 




5, 674 10 








1 

1 






! 


53 
73 

38 
345 ' 


2,088 

1,403 

323 

12, 784 


33,165 
4,988 


169,221 ( 11 




] 







i 


............{ 


1 
26-2,645 ; 12 




I 








1 • 1 
1 


j 
6, 118 i 13 




1 






1,559 




1,316 


1 

1 


70,311 


' j 
65i),.163 i 14 




1 


i 






i 




I 




1 


165 


7 


1 
1 


1, 006, 078 




15,307 ' 

1 




3,289 

1 


59,125 

1 


245, 886 


I 

2, 915, 045 




i 
1 


1 


1 

1 






--■••••••---1 


_^ 



STATE OF MICHIGAN. 



AGEICULTUttE. 





CO.™ 


ACKEBOFLAKI, 


.1 

■3 

1 


a 

ii 
f" 


UVE STOCK. 




1 

{ 


1 


J 


1 
1 
J 


1 


1 


4 

~s 

1 


1 






























esiuv 


111,700 


•3, 990,360 


IH3.070 


1,919 


■' 


1.220 


3,310 


1,798 


9,830 


































3,567 

lusisii 

1,179 

60,548 

iSt 

re, aw 
Gce 

B4,451 


5,t*) 
102,543 
103, «8J 
144,302 
106,629 

3,360 

6,300 
133,779 

1.7SB 

ffiion 


S,R!5,935 

4,73o!s78 

5,118,105 

7,529,957 

5,351,411 

12,787 

70,530 

3,580,040 

12. 17n 

3,385,669 

4, 5©! 410 


113,868 
8,110 

1H3^ 
334! 178 
154.049 

lSs!553 
135,301 
170,751 


3,171 

4,649 
35 

3,041 

3,03.1 

4,329 





3,523 
1.347 
8,365 

no 

2,871 
41 

4.824 
33 

5,389 


3,320 
1.604 
3! 041 

46 

S,S70 
00 

1,836 
13 

1,350 


5,199 

5,756 

10! 397 
^684 

C7 

''» 
7,836 

7,9ei 


33,365 

8,736 
37,0t9 
96, W7 
32,100 

18. in 

11 

3^966 
48,857 










■: 










10 
13 












s 




15 

n 
le 

BO 

» 












i* 




Or™dTr.«r« 


2,113 

163, e7i! 

1,551 
7fi,796 


7.eo9 

143,' 655 

16,281 
16,707 
90,000 
105, 4!» 


3241237 

7.282,173 

106,040 

124, aoo 

3,506,344 
3,891,900 


3.260 

2^170 

117,707 
163,595 


175 
0,347 

TO 
2,035 
3,078 


9 


941 

1,W» 
5,021 


- 171 

3,770 
31 
284 

3i3S9 


135 

' 76 

6,939 

6,487 


31 

em 

67.643 




3 






2 


33.357 
21.686 










a, 069 

216,311 

w!«.-7 

J3l!o73 
130, *73 
130,006 

aao 


159, IM 
130,600 
153,338 

147, BC5 

!BU,6«0 

104,615 

350 


98,100 
8,492,459 

3,2861909 

65,011 

9,3.->0,796 

o! 30;! 373 
6,0W) 


5,726 
351,938 
265,160 
300,544 
168,800 

3,205 
320.394 

'396; .W4 
1,!80 


16 
6,519 

5,4'a 

3.888 
3,343 

9,543 

4,189 

6.883 

13 




(is31 
6,913 
1,211 
53 
11,335 
5,920 
7,461 


3,383 
1,566 

1.637 

at 


9,879 
7,892 

a! 303 

17,995 


75 
107,336 
56,UJ8 
3^786 


W 




IB 




30 








Ltniiwn 


. . . H 
20 






3,371 
1,319 


8!286 
35 


56,390 
49,315 


3S 














160 

i.toe 
93.t.n 

6,333 
30J,5U9 

37,5?* 


3,915 
Si323 

B,a.5 

107,050 
30,159 
19,«I3 

35,»>f 
a0.45J 

66,296 


£9,400 

16,350 

95,700 

. 4.0311,965 

SJo!380 

13, 024] 758 

237,770 

163,950 

5,100 


li835 

3,569 
158,638 
33,053 
7,806 
6,393 
473,464 
3,003 
7,530 


30 

33 
33 
16 

6,111 

13,638 




13 

6,^9 
080 
344 

66 
3.914 


39 
10 
136 

.3,136 


23 

IB 

9,484 

346 

^ ■ 'l68 

3,961 




39 












13 




HkhlMa«kln« 






i 


26.921 
3.433 

'-J1 

1 
























,: 










• 










S7,992 


' 


3,333 










at 157 
16,005 
70 
«,37C 
156,170 

G6,6U0 

IS1>,J% 


43,ai« 

48,7f5 
30,139 

69,472 

100,21)3 
76,370 

113,094 


666,827 
1.659,143 
<33,790 

s,oe.i!4(» 
lioisisio 

12, 334] 670 
9.344,897 


62,510 

88,193 

19! 881 

44o!ot 
318,009 


l,eS3 


; 


a 117 

3,111 

6,0™ 

1,3*6 
11.815 


509 

1,141 

1,358 
l,tt>3 
1,614 

1.180 


S.61J 

l!l32 

7 

7!!K8 
15.683 


1,601 
7.662 




















1,870 
5,332 

3,138 

8,135 


S4 


M.WO 

171 !5B 
33,713- 


M 


Bt. JiwepU'i 






; 


fil 


"■«-"■*■»"• 








3,«fi,2f)<i 


3.5H,5,-W 


100, 836, «5 


5,819,832 


130,917 


» 


179,543 


61,680 


^6.5 


1,271,743 





STATE OF MICHIGAN. 



77 



AGRICULTURE. 



LIVK STOCK- 


PRODUCED. 


■ 

s 
1 


o 

1 

1 

> 




o 

1 

•• 


■ 1 

OB 

s, 

1 


«4 

o 
« 



i 

o 


«4 



1 

i 



1 

g 


IB 

2 rf 

£ 

a ^^ 






eo 

•e 
a 


P. 




• 

en 

» 

§ 

s 

£ 


• 

•s 

.0 

6 
« .2 

I' 

.d 


• 

1 

S 

a* 
1 

CO 






























1 


10,202 


$497,967 


149, 518 


13.051 


264,991 


44,198 




655 




26 055 


1,513 


107,939 




2 


































4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 


8,672 
207 
14,864 
20,249 
18,206 
19,095 
104 


461,854 
21,993 
566,099 
797,086 
1,232,006 
665, 143 

5,106 

9,294 
505,657 

5,300 
547,088 

6,491 
686,872 


229, 159 

4,690 

281,739 

292,767 

698,456 

422, 481 

113 

50 

152,696 

65 

81,508 

100 

156,063 


9,908 

1,670 

1,716 

10.222 

12,782 

3,276 

64 

240 

5.750 


235,305 
4,705 
456, 521 
546.467 
616,252 
685,842 
319 


64,812 
3,995 

81,503 

77,642 

186. 496 

124, 871 

1,792 

4,285 

88,827 

2,370 

76, 751 

1,792 

156,165 




- 




61.283 


1,799 

47 

058 

2.243 

3,728 

1,108 

315 

650 

2,300 

43 

2,830 

46 

9,841 


86.807 

6,674 

117.549 

212. 001 

214, 835 

132.865 

4,597 

9,760 

59,662 

5,680 

65,052 

7,090 

99,553 


12 
150 
891 










115 
5,825 




26. 749 
100. 397 
299 061 

68,922 










1 
2,841 


430 


*Laff> 








4'5 












9,535 
145 


160, 449 

220 

167,021 

1,996 

233,938 




8 
........ ,^t . 




49, 817 










9,584 
276 


7,232 

15 

11,833 


42 


2,510 




91,082 








9,638 




114 




" 138. 685 


212 






276 


22.107 

50,299 

1, 162. 582 

9,990 

27,916 

521, :m2 

600, 419 


5.531 

14,354 

371,358 

100 

6,243 

159,060 

238,480 


436 

806 

23,509 

20 

957 

7,433 

13,537 


3,490 

17,937 

809.408 


4,270 

9, 179 

116,007 

4,030 

5,504 

101,233 

100,487 










95 

5 

5,443 


6,915 

8,065 

269,322 

6,830 

13,590 

82, 121 

09,637 




19 

20 

21 
00 


1 258 








1.706 
215,371 




16,030 
13 


120 


11,700 




65 




153 


2,926 
229,354 

155, 171 










90 
3.459 
2,495 


40 

30,781 

31 


23 


6, 973 

7,561 




150 




86. 525 
66, 410 


24 






25 






■ ..... ^ 


26 




• ... 

11, 451 

1, 277, 645 

996.858 

755, 719 

56:}, 103 

7,140 

1, 517, 422 

775,233 

906,351 

2,411 


2,155 

062,404 

594,507 

292,594 

160, 624 

1,237 

423.843 

277, 147 ■ 

74,826 

200 


685 

19,565 

4,198 

35,591 

18,506 

618 

22,892 

-^0,TB2^ 

24,953 


1,777 
612, 499 
585,195 
2:», 715 
178, 712 

5,417 

1, 213, 311 

2(^.136* 

327,007 

200 


975 
150,368 
151, 317 
136,322 
115,382 

1,780 
198, 901 
109,087 
320,386 

1,030 




162 
600 

7,074 
100 

1,444 




143 

350, 999 

188,890 

70,070 

87, 212 

30 

280.047 

"17C,0C7^ 

177,944 

50 


63 

2,712 

1.138 

1,703 

13,409 

55 

X.Q53 

4,311 

17, 515 


2,078 

215,646 

138, 785 

130, 674 

109,380 

10, 748 

_ 295, 823 

161,538 

267,880 

930 




27 


12, 951 
14 692 






251 
66 
33 


28 


20 




29 


12 877 




30 








31 


205 








32 


24 702 




25,602 
l,f50 
5,982 




850 


33 




1 






8 910 


Iff" 
525 


34 


9,976 






35 


20 






36 
















37 


6 


5,951 

1,300 

5,252 

3,170 

6,005 

722,867 

72,770 

29,551 

19,103 

^^^_2jra6,309 

" ^, 810" 

19, 971 

1,370 

241,337 




30 

27 

406 


16 

1,500 

867 

10 

4,485 

499.034 

20,327 

7,044 

7,106 

874, 701 

16,258 


2,997 

30 

2,055 

600 

625 

110,909 

16, 419 

2,494 

2,281 

.470,715 

1.077 

1,990 

500 

47,476 










27 
11 


10,292 

870 

1,983 

1,582 

4,734 

233,524 

12,473 

5,555 

5,832 

515,249 




38 


55 


235 

1,332 

2 

1,247 

152. 481 

35,869 

5,253 

6,966 

544, 628 

1,983" 

20 

155 

61,583 




• 








39 


91 








35 




40 


60 








75 




41 


302 


787 
9,298 
2.360 
1,399 
8,196 
90,816 

514 












42 


12,234 


154 


2,095 




07,267 

5,875 

433 

347 

423^258. 


5,319 
194 
160 


188 


43 


1,186 




44 


779 




125 






45 


562 








46 


26,389' 




27,822 




355 
4 


133 


41 






— — — - . — - 


i5:9"78 

18,930 

225 

50,628 




48 


14U 




10 








49 


27 














50 


6,389 


15,264 


93,303 




70 




8,302 


769 




51 










59 


2,667 


124, 572 

213,841 

54,365 

4(X) 

364, 839 

902,544 

132, 341 

391, 85(; 

2, 017, 346 

1, 107,-937 


32,599 
31.104 
24, 448 


13,246 

13, 456 

310 


56,312 

81, 475 

9,197 

2 

99,057 
913,311 

39,502 
338, 118 
819, 335 
51!>,435 


42, 131 

81,714 

45,559 

95 

46. 617 

•69,307 

21,681 

55, 184 

313. 232 

■ 258, 935 








3,660 

22,618 

4,T7G 


775 

15,130 

8,179 

4 

1,894 

962 

1, 521 

947 

10, 019 

15, 125 


42,126 
105,263 

29,757 
320 

55,034 
273, 074 

29,195 

95,272 
326,354 
506, 9C9 




53 


2,387 










54 


1,217 










55 












56 


5,645 


105,601 
599,725 
26,883 
18iL442 
68<r803 

"'70, (^;>^ 


5,752 

8,129 

3,533 

3,179 

22,194 

23, om 








50,504 

98, 472 

1,956 

21, 8-2i> 

Sai, 7i.M 

104,257 


4 

432 


57 


21, 615 




2, 892 

100 

50 

20, 040 

2, 042 




58 


2,449 






59 


C, G75 






231 

578 
167 


60 


20,640 
17,007 


• «A.«jlua. «.«.•.* ' • 


...... ^ «^-. . • 


61 
62 










372,386 


23, 714, 771 


8,336,368 


514, 129 


12, 444, 676 


4,030,980 


710 


121,099 




3,960,888 


165,128 


5,261,245 


38, 492 











8 



STATE OF MICHIGAN 



AGRICULTURE. 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

]0 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

13 

VJ 

20 

21 
«v» 

23 
24 

25 

2(: 

27 

an 

29 

30 

31 

:fi 

33 

34 

35 

36 

37 

38 

39 

40 

41^ 

42* 

43 

44 

45 

46 

47 

48 

4'J 

50 

51 

52 

53 

5-1 

5.1 

50 

57 

5$ 

50 

60 

61 

62 



COUNTIES. 



Alcona 

Alh^l^an 

Alpcua 

Antrim 

Barry 

Bay 

B<Tricn 

Branch 

Calhoun 

Caas 

Cheboygan 

Chippewa 

Clinton 

Delta 

Eaton 

Emmet 

Genesee 

Gladwin 

Grand Travcrgo . 

Gratiot 

Ilill8dulc 

Houghton 

Huron 

Ingham 

Ionia 

l08C0 

Isabella 

Jncktfou 

Kalamazoo 

Kent 

Lapeer 

Lcelenaa 

Lenawee 

Livingston 

Mticoinb 

Manitou 

Manistee 

Marquette 

Ma»on 

Mecotjta 

Michilimackinac . 

Midland 

ilonroe 

Montcalm 

Musikegon 

Newaygo 

Oakland 

Occuua 

Ontonagon 

Osceola 

Ottawa 

I*rerque Isle 

Suginaw 

.Saj::t Clair 

.Sanilac 

.Schoolcraft 

ShiawaiPe 

fit. Joscpb"a 

Tukjcola 

Van Biiren 

Washtenaw 

Wayne 



PRODUCED. 



a 
•cs 



S 









•a 
J: o 



u 

o 



o 



p 



o 

u 

o 

C o 

u «* 

ci > 

to - 

*- ■*- 



s 
o 

u 
c 



P 



O 



o 

S 
o 



if 

.c 

■A 

.a 

(A 









s 

o 



B 

o 
a. 



o 



2,656 



9,704 



$•2. 288 



$4, 844 



328,882 



31, 172 



16, 244 



65 



159 



14 



3,581 
25 

1,680 

5,306 
20,287 

4,108 
150 
200 

4,901 
155 

8,788 



7, 625 
834 
3, 7:33 
17, 410 
8.041 
0,042 



10, 488 



864 



6,140 



25,341 



7,345 

30 

9,070 



75, 737 
33, 491 
61, 376 
67,214 



1, 2:JC 
195 

1, 195 
201 



5. 530 

20(J 

4,615 

950 

18, 495 

537 



7,042 



100 
7 



829 



14,583 

125 

13, 257 



105 
130 



327 

150 

11,040 



322,114 

9,615 

324, 100 

389,511 

801, 255 

325, 480 

1, 950 

3, 110 

413, 854 

640 

439, 045 

187 

408, 218 



24,000 
1, 640 
30,587 
50, 141 
67, 249 
24,623 



I 



78,301 



73,514 



53,356 



17, 734 

2,357 

13,000 

22,359 

42, 833 

15,.668 

113 

670 

19, 315 

293 

17,214 

48 

20, 782 



290 



263 



952 
2,031 
6,133 
1,671 



136 
152 
265 
212 
2 



3,101 



285 



217 

6 

179 



625 



-. t 



238 



233 



9S 

12 

471 

5.224 



45 



264 



49 



28 

391 

6.477 



109 

913 

40, 789 



03,523 



855 



40 
831 



9,29(J 

53,4(55 

891,322 



1, 495 
109,641 



•07 
4,350 
4,800 



9,410 
6, 483 



18,820 
12, 010 



29 
19 



100 

5, 395 

200 



1.550 
394. 991 
447, 359 



33,950 
49, 821 



69 

1,310 

32, 051 

625 

850 

18,640 

18,539 



2,365 



3 
34 

150 



415 ' 
948 



300 



833 



i.ew 

9 



28 

17, 15J 

10,304 

3,031 

10, 520 

3 

18. 323 

9, 809 

12, 249 



139 

30, 195 

3, 772 

7, 333 

212 
46,783 
17, 001 
30, 750 



85,274 

47, 381 
24, 250 
10, 502 



400 
001 
345 
18-1 



1, 3:9 

1,251 

7, 320 

14, 105 

249 



81, 881 
19, C72 
25, 721 



927 

58 

250 



4,283 

520 

8,910 



2, (M3 
056, 720 
583,119 
040, 003 
438, 314 

2, 405 

973, 588 

432, 190 

049, 884 

750 



200 

50,521 ' 

07. 328 

Si, 984 

42, 630 



118, 590 
30, 143 
02, 529 



184 
51, 015 
27,110 
32,809 
14, 987 

155 

47, 396 

31,139 

18,716 

28 



1 

3, 280 

2,820 

212 

655 



2,600 
3,566 ■ 
413 i 



17 
185 
290 
297 
185 
3 
440 
231 
305 



68 
6.58.^ I 
8, 59i» j 

80 

14. 85? ! 
3,900 
6,329 



Total. 



47 

60 

621 

22,531 

213 

75 

18 

48, 05(3 

27 



81 

44 

o 

359 
37, 5:34 
7S7 
250 
108 
67', 430 
495 



1,0<;9 



125 



30 



34, 134 

878 
10 



091 

11 

3 



2, :ij0 

1,417 

4 

32 



97, 500 
1,717 



3,302 



3,02:1 

25 

^0 



616 

805 

3,050 

650 

8,830 

514, 127 

55, 315 

28,095 

13. 5:35 

1, 300, 200 

11, 451 

900 



74, 69<j 
4,917 
1,735 



141, 505 
300 



2, 993 



7,117 



4.707 



67 



12,350 



227,183 



11, 778 



351 

10 

165 

206 

292 

32,190 

1, 9:32 

984 

503 

58, 855 

189 

1,070 

36 

10, 197 



1,020 



27 



1 
3 



302 
36 
27 



5.228 



1,637 
11 



95 



1, m.\ 

1, 25:.' 
50 



4, :~ij 

4,40() 
467 

1.501 
20, 188 
12, 245 



144 ; 

14, C90 I 

1,093 ' 



3. 280 
9, eb9 
1. 0.>3 
5, GOO 

40. -irs 

43, 935 



1, 325 
35 



9,607 

36, 251 



24.201 

1:39, 480 

87, 901 



50 
427 



1,000 

290 

435 

40 

1, 'ttZ^ 
915 



138 

1, 070 

837 



10, 105 

0, 751 

18, 174 



114,605 
150. 039 
19, 090 
150 
201, 537 
520. m^) 
1(.1>. 75^1 
21M). COO 
185, 194 
743. 750 



1,900 

17, 115 

4:J0 



20, 370 

33, 358 

4. 000 

23,304 

119.441 

131,015 



6,290 
10,206 

1,904 

28 

13, 409 

23. 555 

2. (>50 
11. (gl 
69, *8 
37.720 



131 



51 



95 

3,740 

5 

560 

9, 975 

1.226 



307, 863 



629,910 : 1,122,074 



14,427 



145, 883 



15, 503, 462 



1,641,897 



768, 250 



54,408 



113 
148 
107 
1C7 
474 
442 



8.045 



37 
66 



43 



44 



52 
344 

O 

am 

7.562 

2.500 

430 



6Q.6l[K2 



STATE OF MICHIGAN. 



70 



AGRICULTURE 



PRODUCED. 

: _ 1 


r- « 

> 
•a 

•a 

s 

oa 

< 




HEMP. 


s 


o 

aa 

^-. 

•? 

S 

-2 

CI 
at 

y. 


a 

u 

a 

o o 
o 

o 
u 

GQ 


•9 

g 
3 

c 

s ^• 

tf, o 



w 

o 

1 


O 
P O 

o i-T 


h 

a 

u 

o 


I 

•a 

fco 

S 1 

.s 

cS 


o 

at 

1 

s 


o 

SB 

a 

I 

a 

o 


« 




Dew rotted, tons 
of 


s 

2 


1 

c< a 

Q 










• 






















■^ 














231, 241 




93 


5,259 


1,053 


20,938 


$3,3« 


189, 925 


1 
3 
3 
4 

5 

6 
7 

8 

9 

in 
















































1 


11 




223,013 

895 

56, 663 

108. 764 

4, 900 

67, 959 

9,208 

3,450 

445, 401 

2,250 

439,005 

52,588 

174, 206 




308 


2,635 


1, 242 
10 
2,478 
2,788 
1,332 
1,337 


21,838 
320 
36, 861 
28,855 
25, 199 
22. 266 


2,568 


86,:J54 
11, 294 
122, 859 
109,404 
195, 079 
179, 340 


















20 
100 


< 

34 






3,511 

5,463 

92 

8, 796 


4,550 
2,515 

210 
2,184 

144 


3,845 
1,025 
6, 738 
2,425 










m 


















100 


1 
















1, 104 -11 


























12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 








70 








75 


5,954 

90 

6,799 

504 

2,680 


1,509 


35,646 


1,982 


97,254 
1,325 

73,641 

1,640 

117, 584 


















50 


258 


9 








2,410 


51, 728 


9,388 

50 

2,227 












» 






20 


52 








866 


25,799 


























16, 440 

92, 285 

123, 184 

300 






517 
1.318 
4,777 








4,890 

6,1:62 

190, 543 








30 
421 










5 

2,699 


628 
38, 463 










40 






4,261 


9.246 




































1,905 
83, 105 
81,861 








202 
59 


11 
42 


• 


190, 590 
323, 056 




8 


3,2:K) 
3,290 


1,438 
906 


24, 330 
23,437 


15,603 
6,590 






























50 






23,773 

400 

75,083 

304, 555 

161, 875 

21,978 

40,331 

14, 615 

51, 433 

500 






1,135 
6 

1,037 

3, <J89 

3, b09 

763 

529 

140 

1,488 

6 


1 
1, 737 
1, 192 
1,101 

889 


70 
32,004 
16, 849 
24, 02:3 
14,784 




2,389 
163, 523 
146, 019 
122, a55 
103, 029 

2,168 

305, 576 

111,065 

159, 021 

180 












3,845 

1, 274 

5 

54 


0,551 

3,253 

13,507 

6,915 


28 
29 








50 


2 
















700 






250 


5 






11 












't2 
















19, 151 
969 
275 


1,684 

958 

1,915 


32, 164 
19,819 
28, 308 


2. 330 
3,845 
6,769 


•n 
















34 


2 






262 


32 






35 












36 
















1 




17 














1,608 

1,724 
12,060 

1,600 
10,650 
14, 383 
51, 026 
47,758 
18,110 
31,079 
18, 911 
200 

1,500 
186, 841 


1 


218 
163 








1. 194 


•>ia 
























410 -V) 




















• 




272 

286 

2, 3a'J 

125, 049 

11,907 

7, 362 

3,290 

342,608 

6,213 

17, 710 

225 

53,001 


40 


















26 

1,579 

11 

1, 379 

1,016 

15 

947 

670 








41 
























42 








25 

7 


- 1 






4,359 


1. 526 
69 
51 


25, 569 
2, 585 
2,880 


1,887 

836 

80 


43 


24 










44 
















43 


















46 








125 


17 






2,249 


2,040 
22 


44, 313 
210 


7,359 


47 












48 




















49 


























50 


















4,727 


399 


10,676 


2,147 


51 


















52 














8.890 

19, 818 

4,393 








231 
100 


1,389 
9,085 


400 
1, 248 


26,055 
44,007 
11, 795 
30 
49, 449 
155, 8a3 


53 


















246 
10 


54 


















55 
























56 














105, 640 
7, 895 
78, 736 
86,754 
14, 017 
18,282 






2,585 
68 
2,713 
1,*077 
1, 482 
488 


575 
1,231 
60 
1,159 
2,350 
2,129 


13, 762 
18, 151 
1, 525 
29, 106 
49, 972 
35, 730 


3, 043 
6,273 
300 
980 
5,316 
4,138 


57 
















24, 961 


5B 
















18. 504 59 
















1, 569 
3,633 
2,002 


84, 009 
351, 677 
208,908 


t)0 








2,068 
10 


37 

40 






61 








12 




62 












726 




50 


4,128 


341 


12 


4.051 822 ' - 


86,953 


78, 998 


41,632 


709, 282 


142, 756 


4, 093, 362 












__ 



80 



STATE OF MINNESOTA. 



AGRICULTURE. 



CfyVSTlEH, 



1 Altk.ii* 



ACRES OF LAND. 



1 

> 

2 

a 



g 

S 



I 

o 
e 
9 

•2 
3 



S 

* o 

5 8 

s > 

8 t 



U4 



LIVE STOCK. 



I 

c 



a 

•53 

§ 



O 

o 



M 

c 
o 



U3 



X 



«» 



Anoka 

:i I IVr<kcr* 

IVmtfiD 

nin<.- Earth... 
BrKckiorUIgtj • 

Br^/wn 

Buchanan* ... 

Carltoo 

Carrnr 

COM* 

Chitugo 

Cotton wwmI .. 
CrowWiuff*.. 

Dakota 

D<>t\gfi 

l>ongIuii 

Faribttolt 

Fillrooro 

KrwlKjrn 

O^KKlhue 

Hennepin .... 

Ilontton 

Iitanto 

ItaHca* 

JttckMOU 

Kandiyohi . . . . 

Kcnneb«c 

LokH* 

Jjti 8uoor 

Manomla 

Murtln 

Mcf^^od 

M<'*}kt:T 

3IIIIeLac 

Monongiiliu. .. 

Morrmou 

Mow««r 

Murray 

Nicollist 

Noblo* 

OlmHtond 

Otter Tttll . . - . 
Poinbina* .... 

Picrco* 

l»lno 

PIlHJHtOnO*.... 

Polk 

UamHcy 

Rcuvlllo 

Ulco 

St. Ix>ttls 

Scott 

Sliorbarno — 

SIbloy 

Stoam« 

StoWo 

To<lcl 

Tuorobs* 

WiibitHhaw . . . 

WiUM'ca 

Wii0hinf?ton . . 

Wlnonu 

WriKht 



4.3&i 



23,94G 



$lt«, «J5 



$9,336 



191 



AGB 



'204 



636 



50 



5 

7 

9 
10 
11 

'a 

13 
14 
15 

Hi 

17 
IH 
19 
30 
21 
22 
i» 
24 
25 
Uti 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
Xi 

:m 

3(i 

:r/ 
:w 
:i9 

40 
41 

4:i 

44 
45 
40 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
54i 
57 
58 
59 

m 

(il 

(hi 
(it 



2,975 
12,274 



4,912 



71 
13, 119 



7,134 

5e.5Cl 



35,002 



SG9 
95,884 



C8.850 
309,271 



213,210 



3,800 
454,310 



2.158 
28,Cfrl 



42 
347 



16,197 



133 



255 



24,554 



2 
147 



6 
38 



105 
1,0G3 



77 
956 



577 



596 



2 
6 



5 

1,506 



8 
1,203 



155 
1,361 



1,005 



6 
2,383 



15 

no 



61 



120 



* • • V ■ 



3,648 
GO 



18,484 
260 



124, 019 
2,600 



8,445 
150 



96 
1 



341 
5 



281 
4 



15, :ki5 

577 

4, ]5(J 

75, 5-12 

7. 953 

27.317 

a), 365 

20, 126 

559 



104, 303 

63, 377 

3,027 

11,699 

216, 454 
52, 9(J8 

101. (yjr, 

130, 3:y; 

72, 146 
3,730 



1,228,387 

441, OW 

13,0(X) 

112,4(JO 

1, 844. 797 
293, 64d 
7tl5, 8:17 

1, 367. 8r/2 

990. 5b8 

23, 430 



68,412 

32.402 

2, 115 

9. IH 

50, 431 

17,399 

5,j. 722 

90. 599 

37, 3.>8 

1,377 



1, 162 

592 

8 

1.59 

2,449 
250 
802 

i,2:j() 

503 
12 



35 
11 



3 
9 



8 
47 

1 



2,199 
1,008 

36 
287 
4,950 
1,012 
1,851 
2,775 
1,522 

60 



1,237 

603 

00 

200 

3,246 

784 

1,216 

1,356 

1,118 

45 



627 

7 



3,061 
1,187 
52 
327 
6,264 
1,121 

i,9oe 

3,9:u 

1,48(J 

81 



244 



&-i0 
320 

10 
45 

i,a*e 

211 

t.7e» 

2o:> 

7-20 



130 
109 
145 



670 
793 
870 



2,350 
4,400 
4,500 



170 
332 
340 



3 
2 
9 



2 

16 



14 
16 
20 



9 
16 
17 



6 
14 
43 



14,271 

867 

201 

3, :»85 

2,:i77 

b<5 

497 

2.051 

7, 96 1 

40 

9,753 



112, 857 
1,255 
1,065 

21,849 

17, «i8 
1, 217 
1,858 
6, ()ri4 

28,387 
440 

55,8j^G 



575. -6:) 

62. 060 

5,800 

99, 815 

75, 710 

4, 090 

7, 5fKJ 

Wi, ho;) 

234, 03O 

1,500 

502, 885 



30,927 

1,735 

467 

4,127 

5,047 

290 

6(>0 

3. a55 

13, I>27 

2(K) 

30,719 



351 

33 

4 

67 

101 

3 

10 

79 

323 



384 



2 

2 

13 



1,535 

38 

21 

266 

244 

9 

35 

109 

631 

5 

1,058 



1,343 

2 

6 

254 

2a) 

10 

34 

64 

389 

7 

709 



2,343 

53 

23 

300 

277 

21 

46 

181 

785 

9 

i.:i9i 



16] 



38 



176 



391 
3,34^ 



51,138 
306 



131,348 

2,118 



1, 45.3, 090 
17,550 



45, 551 
1,575 



1,711 
9 



23 



2,996 
24 



2,0ia 
40 



3.445 
15 



110 



887 



4,500 



675 



11 



440 

5,219 

555 

48, 810 

335 

14, 5:]5 

7,823 

7,7rr7 

17,580 

9,509 

777 



1,700 
12, 621 

7,173 
87,534 

2,170 
66,091 
15,104 
78, 245 
98, 328 
48.402 
12,635 



16,000 
509,710 

24, 660 
985,953 

21,100 
694, 2:J0 
126,631 
284,700 
627,000 
332, 150 

55,200 



2,423 
21, 879 

2,962 
59, 971 

1,270 
37,044 

8,860 
20,508 
29,900 
19, 595 

3, 495 



25 
304 

36 
989 
3 
339 
148 
180 
419 
379 

44 



7 
15 
13 
1 
9 
7 
7 
9 
4 
6 



15 

450 

74 

1,911 

13 

1,489 

300 

1,110 

1,102 

899 

66 



63 

167 

124 

1,174 

16 
956 
161 
845 
1,213 
584 

50 



36 

344 

74 

3,249 

18 
1,670 

272 
1.315 
1,609 
1,017 

111 



4 

5 
1,078 



118 
115 
195 

zn 

4^1 



Total. 



24, 055 

5. 525 
18.611 
28, 7;w 
10, (te^7 



105, 779 
a;. 149 
40,611 
84.618 

84,901 



1, 144, 595 
160, 180 
702,615 

9,8:.'0, 1S7 
4J.J, 11^-4 



90,093 
11,452 
39,112 
53, 744 
20, 451 



811 
217 
711 
917 
264 



2 

49 

6 

12 



1,705 
545 
1,223 
1,651 
1,006 



1,252 
343 
547 

1,065 
679 



556,250 



2,155,718 



27, 505, 022 



1,018,183 



17, 0G5 



377 



40,344 



27,568 



1. 995 


66 


723 


197 


1, 248 


557 


1.714 


555 


1,600 


140 



51,345 



13,044 



• No retumo. 



STATE OF MINNESOTA. 



81 



AGRICULTURE. 



LIVE STOCK. 


1 i^_J : - ■— -- - - - . . 

PRODUCED. 


a 

CO 


v.* 

O 
o 

8 

1 

> 


o 

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1 

a 


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8 


3 

1 



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I 


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i 

o 


a 

I 

8 

5 


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S 

8 O 

O 


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O 

•3 

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i 
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h 

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s 


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? 

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5. « 

■•* 

S5 
CO 
































741 


$44,062 


8,762 


315 


40,411 


9,917 




20 




136 


752 


34,734 




1 
2 

0% 










199 


9,295 
65,316 


2,502 
21,513 


187 
2,635 


6,005 
72,070 


5,700 
22,838 




• • • • • •« • ■ • . . 






168 
269 


6,835 
543,223 




3 
4 


2.289 










47 












5 


1.232 


40,522 


6,230 


1,097 


29,3J2 


9,071 


1,855 


1,091 




55 


588 


25, 614 




6 

7 








10 


800 
110,912 


142 
28,137 


38 
9,463 




268 
16,669 




• • ■ • • • 






11 

9ai 


630 
97,211 






9 

10 


5,376 


78,072 




7,392 




211 












1,251 


27,153 
340 


5,787 


5,260 

.......... 


20,697 
70 


13, 115 




266 




647 


509 
3 


28,005 
140 




11 

12 

1 *% 


4 








• ••••■ «»•*•> 










• 








13 


5,149 


202,177 

101, 452 

5,000 

29,164 
429,091 

60 607 

172, 918 

235.715 

141,801 

5,460 


173.652 

74, 757 

150 

5,285 

391.350 

le.'OOl 

152, 348 

135, 715 

108, 518 

407 


5,348 

496 

25 


143, 842 

66,678 

1,065 

18. 425 

433,895 

61, 965- 

124. 6SG 

222,084 

143, 825 

3,460 


270, 211 

51, 311 

1,220 

6.804 

295,000 

7,123 

104,509 

136, 696 

63,553 

749 




20 




1,302 


1,000 
553 
74 
232 
919 
456 
228 

1,765 

381 

87 


138, 436 

36,373 

3,100 

20.529 

113,560 
43,788 
65,973 

179.539 

48, 917 

4,295 


48 


14 
15 
10 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 


2,676 






59 












569 




245 
20 
............ 




• 

7 
4,414 

590 

831 

596 

2,549 




9,605 


3,014 

1,308 

3,215 

18, 214 

528 






17 


970 






3.872 










7,929 




3,990 
2,876 




9 
130 


4,050 






158 


















17 


725 
1,179 
2,550 


57 

154 

4 




465 

1,490 

800 




1 








555 
1,135 
1,520 










! 






24 

20 




11 




750 


"•"■ 












! 








10.164 


130, 712 

5,210 

1,410 

25,217 

22,664 

1,380 

3,500 

12,080 

50 505 

325 

96,433 


34,701 

250 

245 

6,500 

8,324 

84 

1,250 

3,014 

31,476 


7,118 

65 

30 

290 

1,081 
10 


162, 511 

6,715 

1,775 

13,550 

11,723 

655 

1,655 

1,345 

47, 182 

110 

53,197 


51,096 

8,175 

50 

4,804 

6,739 

104 

720 

13,008 

21,792 






1,616 




731 


163 

11 

6 

437 

25.3 
12 
93 
73 

107 
12 

853 


124. 198 

7.065 

1,130 

15, 6rj 

15, 218 

730 

2,176 

5.464 

2,176 

285 

65,580 














31 


32 


1 ^■"" i 






32 


486 


■ 






33 
34 


515 




164 








24 






... 






35 


98 




; 






Ifl 




5 
193 


1 -.--.---- ..«.••..... 
,. ...1 ............ 


6 




37 


849 


'' I 




'W 


8 


1 






39 
40 


1,468 


22,434 


1,692 


49,726 


100 ' 3,962 




279 


139' 






41 
42 


6,123 


257,306 
3,630 


232,469 

700 


4(374 
240 


206.991 
3,320 


22>,393 
1,630 




1.139 




1.484 


1,305 
160 


98,661 
2,450 


28 


20 






43 






i ' ' 






44 

45 




























25 


1,155 


143 


75 


650 


370 










43 


4.150 




46 












47 
4ft 




5,450 
61,915 
10, 098 

179, 817 
2,56) 

124. 232 
26,913 
82,501 

118,243 
73, 511 
10,920 


950 
12,266 

200 
130, 433 

253 
48. 797 
9,640 
15, 014 
55,801 
28.131 

585 


200 

1,020 

240 

4,348 

42 

6,432 

934 

4,287 

12,859 

886 

20 


2,350 

29,271 

1,320 

168,092 

10 

88,789 

18,199 

49,180 

41,880 

54,043 

1,385 


1,400 

43, OM 

600 

125.5-15 

343 

57.352 

12, 957 

1(5, 660 

49, 360 

30,084 

1,260 




200 
100 






34 

129 


1,550 
53,188 

2,856 
86.224 

2.517 
78,360 
14. 2J)0 
81. 450 
65. 030 
34. 405 

2.670 




1,331 








93 


49 


113 









50 


5,232 


1,331 


4,50C 




620 


386 
114 

70 
329 
200 
549 
4-2-t 

93 




51 


3 






53 


4,060 




1,000 

5 

1,153 




199 
227 
335 


15 


53 


220 






54 


3.082 








55 


3.266 






200 


56 


744 




30 




1,233 


57 


119 






58 














59 
60 


3,336 


221, a-iO 

40,548 

122,388 

156,902 

90,967 


114,227 
16,648 
76,264 

166,950 
37,663 


2, 591 

196 

14,096 

2,716 

4,228 


144, 5-23 
42,579 
99,334 

161,115 
58,546 


110,550 

10,932 

143, 466 

145, 8:K) 

30,339 




895 
670 






1,288 
456 

1,160 
256 

1,025 


85,051 
55,841 
88, 513 
86,328 
77.051 




1,167 






297 
1,381 
1,897 

361 




61 


3,492 






60 
6 


6? 


4,375 




4,000 
2, 972 




63 


3.932 






64 










101, 371 3, 642, 841 


2,186,993 


121,^11 


2,941.952 


2, 176, 002 


3,286 


38.938 




20.388 


18,968 


2. 505, 485 


792 




r 


1 






***•• 







11 



82 



STATE OF MINNESOTA 



AGRICULTURE. 





COUXTIES. 


•— — ^—- •- * 

PRODUCED. 




o 

u 

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IB 

S ® 

s 


w 
O 


at 

a 
1 

a 


1 

2 

o 

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a 

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1 


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w 
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aa 

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1 » 
1 

C 


a 
a 

to 

m 


1 


Aitlcpn 
























o 


Anoka . ......... 


223 


1,363 






$266 


33,610 


5,220 


3,255 




58 




3 


lloplipr 










i 


Benton 

Clue Earth 

CroclLiiiridm . . 


476 


83 
G 


$:oo 


• « • m^ « • « a • 


18 
4,250 


6, 079 
82, ;JC7 


530 
3,9-20 


906 
8,636 








5 




6 




n 










7 


KrGwn 


c-:3 


146 


30 


291 


3,862 


62,505 


5, 950 






1 


8 


8 


Guchniian 






9 


fj^irlfon - - - - 


l?-8 
5.317 










100 
91, 410 




17 
9,155 








10 


C irvcr 


1,2C2 








4,429 




13 




11 


C'M* 












10 


Chi«ag3 

Cottonwood 


C3G 


1,333 

70 








15, 891 
500 


1,336 
50 


2,272 
40 




3 




13 












14 


Crow Wliiff . 




.............. 












15 


Dukotu 


5, 248 

7,749 

45 

12 

IC, 10-1 

381 

7,1G5 

1.729 

3,351 

20 


1,890 

400 

50 

51 

3,5G9 
40G 

1,342 

2,0(>1 
517 
201 




18 


3,197 


148, 777 

72, 755 

2,700 

34,735 

387,853 

78, 055 

159, 25C 

204,580 

137,046 

4,600 


12, 105 
11,392 


13, 242 

7,854 

450 

3,a37 

28,684 

9,403 

13, on 

15,811 

9,692 

596 


8 


37 
647 


26 


in 


Dodge 




17 


Douclas 










18 


Fsuribault 






195 


2,850 
18.848 

6,418 

4,041 
11,315 

5, 292 
490 




43 
759 

46 

33 
111 

72 
4 




19 


Fillmore •- 






142 


26 


?>0 


FrcL'bom 




• 




91 


Goodbuo 






3,500 

33,070 

800 

21C 






20 


lIonuuDin 


250 




6 
3 


24 


93 


IIoUtltOD 




?4 


Isanto 

Itohca 






?r> 








Cfi 


Jacksoii 

Kundiyohi 












715 
1,100 
1,050 




39 
125 
110 








9? 




95 
















efi 


Kennebec 






• 


100 










20 


I^ko 
















30 


Lo Sueur 


1,043 


179 
100 








96, 773 

1,810 
1, 425 

22,290 

14. 780 

620 

2,115 

5.Gi)7 

47, 440 
1.080 

96, G53 


3,190 
524 


10,068 

650 

170 

2,698 

2,063 

62 

345 

729 

4,611 

94 

9,656 




67 


..... . . .' 


31 


I^Ianoraiu 










1 


32 


Martin 
















STi 


3icLcod 

Mi'ckcr. .. ..; 

Millo Lac 


423 
250 


107 
125 
45 
32 
223 
107 








1,520 
261 






6 


34 






140 
50 




56 


3.') 










3G 


Monongalia 
















37 


Morrison 








120 


150 

6, 6.16 

50 

4,574 








38 


Mower 


837 








39 

• 




39 


Murrny 












40 


Nicollet 


3,507 


555 






9,175 




11 




4J 


Noble 








42 


Olumtead 


0,932 


757 
125 






50 


148, 4G8 
2,150 


23,629 


• 21, 461 
556 


n 


239 


....... .f 


43 


Otter Tail 






44 


Pembina 

Pierce 












.•«••.«•-. 






43 






.............. 


















45 


Pino 












190 




110 








47 


PipcBtono 




















48 


Polk 


200 
1,472 










1,450 

17,G23 

400 

148, 09G 

715 

124, 622 

16, 145 

74, 150 

87, 5G5 

65,075 

6,100 


400 
2,000 


325 
2,996 

670 
16, 462 

140 
7.8^1 
1,873 

cm 

12.224 

6,940 

625 








40 


nauisey 

UcuviUe 


944 




60 


23,425 








50 










51 


riice 

St. Louii 

Scott 


12,908 

137 

2, 54 1 • 

57(5 

801 

1,(550 

1,0-11 


1,720 
30 
513 
285 
285 
87G 
861 


18-' 


10 


100 


20,110 

200 

4,500 

2,210 

1,000 




319 


3 


52 




:<i 






258 








bi 


Shcrbumo 












55 


Sibley 






20 


4 


20 

100 

59 


i 


50 


Stcarna 






i 


57 


Steele 

Todd 








8,206 






58 


CO 




50 






59 


Toombs 
















GO 


Wabubhaw 


4,183 

13G 

10, GIG 

I), IJ^O 

3GI 


'^4!) ' 




305 
150 
335 


ia5, 245 
41,325 

77,817 


5.6 
8.345 
2.830 
9, 32G 
4, 951 


13,550 
3,836 
4,451 

10, 443 
5, 626 


6 


32 

64 

47 

3:J5 
vy t 




Gl 


Wjiseca 


354 

1,303 

945 

443 




15 

30i 

1 


C2 


Washiugtou 






10 

169 

1 


63 


Winona 


4 

20 




01 


Wricbt 


33 


10, 762 71, 285 


o 




Total 


Jii * 




109, CG8 


28,052 


649 


412 




199, 314 


179, 482 


432 


3,182 


132 






174,70-J ~ "'" 


•J, yoY,o<j 



STATE OF MINNESOTA. 



83 



AGRICULTURE. 











* 




PRODUCED. 












Animnls slaughtered, valnc of. 


a , 




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p 




M 

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1 

2 
3 
4 
5 

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7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 

00 






• 




1 




645 




101 


453 


5 


100 




$6,262 























1 


2 


607 
3,565 




175 
128 






5G 
4C0 




2,544 
13,8C9 










10 






























93 


4 




1,2C6 




257 


104 






$235 


7, 047 


























150 
29,629 






3,076 










330 
29, 122 






90 


112 


5 






246 


105 


3, 154 






















C, 4 19 




768 




50 


450 


75 


7,903 
56 




























. 
























3 
C 








285 

242 

140 

52 

99 






75 

1,630 


60 
C7 


38. n'J5 

17, 2C6 

630 

8. 282 

56, G49 

8, r.82 

25. 310 

153. 620 

34,305 

556 




4 


126 




3, 527 
950 
191 

3,855 
585 




(i2 

£0 

415 

1,395 

1, 853 

231 

46 

335 

7 


23 




























125 
25 






400 
•30 


6 
2 






5C6 


3,505 

325 

750 

4,7G0 

2,470 






........ 












1,585 

120,324 

426 

210 




32 

5,377 

54 

23 




3,670 

15 

1,566 












50 


80 
82 








52 


4 




23 
24 
25 
26 


























" 
































16 
73 

550 




















60 
































28 
29 
30 
31 

n2 

34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
30 
40 
41 
42 
41 






































51,337 




4,451 


30 


38 


teo 


ICO 


42, 4<.y 
1,250 

2'J(; 
3, 3T2 
2, 805 

130 

3C5 
2, 194 
7, 522 

113 
11, 146 




• .•••••.. 










































2 

39 






1,445 
1,050 
5,210 




140 
177 


70 
237 


22 


7;J0 










3 










•--•••••. 












1 














167 














3 




\,00J 
950 
























21 


1^8 




200 


106 






















15 


£53 


29 




2,173 




202 


865 


76 


2,205 


107 
















313 


7 




1, 520 
700 








202 


1,310 




36, C03 












118 
















. 














44 
45 
46 










































440 




30 










122 
























47 

48 
49 
50 
51 
52 














175 
2,550 














700 
8,342 

CO 

35,C66 

425 

25, 857 

4. c:g 

15, CGO 
19, 282 
10, 457 












4W 












250 






























242 


15 




64, 575 

1,150 

13,256 

560 

4, 010 

275 

3, 5 J5 

1,100 




1,7CG 

70 

921 


549 


30 


1,378 














• 








2 










55 


2,250 




53 














170 
2C8 




54 
55 








............ 








233 


75 


1,180 


10 
















5G 








4 


21 








1, 450 






51 


57 






• 






50 






58 
























r;9 














GO 

6. 47;) 

1, 555 

522 

£7, G27 






423 
841 

ej 

1. <>7:3 

2, 5;;8 




07 

GJ 
2, 440 

2, \':^ 


1,C«U 

3:;5 
1:2 


25. r(:G 

8. 51 5 

2.\ 4L0 


«»() 






30.) 
10 

4 
1 


4 
1 






2r4 

65 



2, 8CG 


r,i 














G2 












20 

p* - 
to 


30. '\\)\ ; 03 




1 


1 






5ii5 


■ 81 


21,:::.8 (i4 




• 














1C9 


1,083 


113 


52 


370. fiG9 




23, 0C8 


14, 178 


1,514 


34, 285 


7.r8i 


751,544 










«MM» 



84 



STATE OF MISSISSIPPI. 



AGRICULTURE. 



1 

2 
3 
4 

5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
LO 
11 
L2 
L3 
14 
L5 
16 
17 
18 
19 
SO 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
53 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
50 
60 



COUNTIES. 



Adami 

Amite 

Attala 

Bolivar 

Calhoun 

Corroll 

Chickasaw . . 

Choctaw 

Claiborne . . . 

Clark 

Coahoma 

Copiah 

Covington . . . 

De Soto 

Franklin 

Oreen 

Hancock* . . . 

Harrison 

Hindi 

Holmci 

Issaquena . . . 
Itawamba . . . 

Jackson 

Jasper 

Jefferson . . . . 

Jones 

Kemper 

Lafayette ... 
Lauderdale.. 
Lawrenca - . . 

Leake 

Lowndes . . . . 

Madison 

Marlon 

Marshall.... 

Monroe 

Neshoba 

Newton 

Noxubee 

OkUbbeha... 

Panola 

Perry 

Pike 

Pontotoc 

Rankin 

Scott 

Simpson 

Smith 

Sunflower* . . 
Tallahatchie. 

Tippah 

Tishomingo. . 

Tunica 

Warren 

Washington* 

Wayne 

Wilkinson... 

WinBton 

Yalabusha . . 



Yazoo . 



ACRES OF LANP. 



9 

2 

B 



103,394 
99,004 
91,513 
85, 188 
56,295 

164,239 

102, 417 
90.204 

127,260 
47, 018 
39,139 

106,203 
25,340 

174, 952 

64.384 

6,671 



8,674 

190. 599 

136,992 

56,596 

95,866 

2,605 

67,708 

123,368 

14,533 

88,897 

101, 469 

81, 570 

53,352 

56,289 

167,373 

239.788 

24, 210 

214, 939 

153, 699 

45, 787 

48.805 

102, 835 

90,959 

102, 986 

9,629 

58,292 

145, 546 

90,066 

38,463 

38,741 

37,283 



B 

> 
o 
u 
Q. 

a 

•mm 

e 



125. 619 
277,389 
2-29, 711 
216,504 
155, 571 
408, 210 
192,764 
257, 055 
153,265 
110,323 
121. 670 
307,809 
101,973 
243, 979 
204,604 
71,399 



54,907 
141,981 
106,824 

20,341 

110. 480 



18.799 
112, C93 

CO, g:;o 

113,046 
179, iW8 



96,839 
210. 342 
208,384 
108. 472 
309, 673 

51, 403 
184, 375 
159,159 

92,768 
174, 168 
271,977 
128, 872 
205,428 
123,293 
154, 190 
187, 496 
lO;', 681 
2451, y39 
261,717 
147, TrO 
143. oIKT 
178,7:0 
139, 321 
216. 625 

92,602 
240, 610 
321, 967 
278,738 
157, 043 
114, 316 
118, 947 



166,025 
334,734 

324,680 

91,085 

186, 089 



o 
o 

-a 

> 

a 



$3,000,800 
2, 169, 575 
2. 435, 0;J3 
8, 750, 270 
1,260,177 
8, 276. 506 
4.509.034 
2, 432, 510 
4, 778. 610 
2, 293. 619 
5, 100, 595 
1, 550, 039 

428, 195 
0, 578, 547 
1, 341, 737 

879, 110 



eg 

a 

o 



g 
B 



p. >% 

^ a 



683,900 
6.240,445 
6, 074. 192 
6, 576, 505 
2,021,943 
38,006 
2, 157, 167 
3, 232, 595 

351, 438 
2, 533, 819 
3, 180, 690 
2, 032, 489 
1, 286, 135 
1,413,378 
7, 726, 605 
8, 181, 595 

386, C83 
7, 076, 960 
6, 446. 406 

960.192 
1,179,733 
8, 353, 247 
3, 352, 455 
3, C82, 361 

209, 598 
1, 544, 998 
4,264,377 
3, 346, 169 
1. 528, 199 

879,970 
1, 101, 771 



$81,595 
137, 685 

98,871 
284,036 
113, 891 
355, 714 
150,674 
137. 805 
194. 750 

75.625 
129,750 
155. 470 

59, 113 
282,518 
150,129 

11,728 



Total. 



5,065,755 



40. 420 
170. 822 
203, 488 
235, 683 
411,121 



10,773,929 



3,337,592 
3,349.432 
2,110,703 
4, 217, 575 
5, 141, 820 



347. 840 

3, 380. 407 

1. 5a'>, 740 

3. 235, 001 

10, 287, 227 



25,900 

311, 161 

267.102 

2TJ,620 

142. 158 

5,347 

88,824 

220,056 

18, 893 

108,841 

156. 510 

139, 059 

80, 761 

72,342 

188, 010 

434,675 

27,807 

415, 410 

179. 597. 

09,104 

64,273 

244, 804 

137, 152 

198, 410 

11,955 

127,010 

233,148 

144,230 

68.134 

50.288 

76,638 



158,926 
228,606 
179.777 
106. 793 
96, 217 



190, 760, 367 



32. 301 
254. 113 
114, 925 
131,408 
522, 151 



8, 826, 512 



UVE STOCK. 



I 

u 
O 

n 



2,201 
2,251 
2,331 

764 
2,001 
3,078 
2,739 
3,099 
2,558 
1.194 

714 
3,128 
1,030 
3.327 
1,806 

455 



217 
3,080 
1,889 

554 
4,006 

224 
1,991 
2,407 

861 
2,294 
2,496 
2,078 
2,374 
1,476 
2.047' 
2,789 

945 
3,455 
3,046 
1, 025 
1,731 
2,469 
1,735 
2,151 

646 
2.818 
4,905 
2.528 
1,446 
1,481 
1,486 



1,043 

4, 270 

4,456 

386 

2,089 



444 

2,315 
1, 554 
2, :i59 
2,729 



317,571 



i 
a 

3 



2,916 
1,361 
1,882 
3,180 

666 
4,079 
2,812 
1,616 
3,349 
1,031 
1.385 
2,052 

237 
4,135 

918 
90 



279 
4.608 
3.721 
2,082 
1,484 
20 
1,206 
3,765 
70 
1,502 
2,210 
1,265 

546 

840 
3,942 
5,236 

166 
4,604 
3,976 



994 

2,372 

2,178 

2,304 

105 

403 

2,765 

1,597 

802 

483 

540 



1.553 
2,524 
1,513 
1.106 
3,394 



403 
3,131 
1,148 
2.313 
5,319 



I 

•8 



3,063 
4,012 
4.412 
2.777 
3,221 
6,095 
4,111 
5,369 
4,191 
2,610 
1,999 
4.686 
2,188 
6,575 
2.972 
2.183 



901 
5.484 
4,101 
1,516 
5.684 
1, 159 
3,316 
4,095 
1,708 
3,842 
4.598 
3, 965 
3,308 
2,564 
3,866 
4,887 



5,718 
4.716 
2,922 
2,678 
4,1£8 
3, 182 
4. C51 
2, 490 
3.660 
7.446 
4,383 
2.636 
9,183 
2.631 



2,677 
6.624 
5.553 
1,632 
4,154 



110,723 



1,085 
3. 996 
3.057 
4,455 
6,131 



207,646 



S 

M 

O 

M 

a 

a 

u 
O 



2,438 
2,325 
2,029 
1.601 
1,569 
3,590 
2.147 
2,540 
2,836 
996 
889 
2.572 
1,015 
2.348 
2,027 
419 



319 
»,644 
2.054 
1.229 
2,765 

250 
1,581 
3.109 

614 
1,547 
2,029 
1,789 
1,899 
1.436 
1.416 
2.686 

894 
2,427 
1,839 
1,376 
1,335 
1.562 
1.414 
1,734 

672 
1,818 
3,260 
2.252 
1,138 
1.334 
1.244 



1,252 
3,077 
3,292 

588 
3,330 



500 
2,684 
1.393 
2,426 
3.654 



105,603 



cS 

I 

O 



6,888 
8.169 
8,549 
7.181 
5.794 

12,158 
7,751 
7,414 

10,678 
4.371 
5,284 
9,275 
S.983 

12.339 
5, 245 
5.513 



3.412 
11.253 
9.290 
3,604 
9. 582 
3.755 
6.191 
8.693 
3, 1C8 
6.826 
9.278 
7,866 
7,232 
5,621 
6,231 
10,134 



11.334 
8.945 
5.021 
6. 562 
7.893 
6,461 
9. 605 
5.759 
7.659 
12.077 
11,002 
5,977 
3.190 
4.214 



6,221 
8.832 

10.380 
4.560 

12, 185 



2,673 
9. Cl;7 
5, 4C6 
7, 480 
9,606 



416,660 



CO 



9.320 
7.635 
7,26G 
1.C87 
4. f 47 
7,2&7 
6,799 
11,536 
9,613 
3.044 
471 

8. .-as 

4,5fS 
8.679 
2,643 
3.223 



4,559 

11.9CJ 

4.293 

1.436 

12, ir..". 

4. 049 
6,821 
7.844 
3,141 
4.911 
e.t95 
5.447 
7.527 
3.959 
4.8*K) 
11.917 



10,183 
9.356 
4,27-^ 
5.767 
4.299 
5.025 
6.621 
3.783 
7.218 

13.366 
5,502 
3,616 
4.517 
3.882 



1.610 

12,634 

13.499 

222 

9.599 



3 8 
6, H.'i 



5 i 7J 



6.111 
7.846 



352.632 



• V 



Ko returns 



STATE OF MISSISSIPPI 



85 



AGRICULTURE. 



LIVE STOCK. 



e 

a 

09 



37,269 
3,252 
21, 241 
20,312 
13,361 
27,262 
36, or-7 
26,520 
23,862 
18,632 
44, 144 
47, 215 



53,127 
46,183 
16,486 
19,179 
50,932 
31,585 
29,C06 
10, 424 
24,972 
56, 845 
29,094 
17,1© 
14,780 
15,093 



o 
o 

> 
o 
> 



PRODUCED. 



13.2CC 


$787,100 


£8,553 


045,834 


33,546 


791, 421 


16, 679 


75:3, 247 


26,056 


426, 258 


5R, 412 


1, 493, 654 


42, CIO 


99?. 901 


41.277 


908, 527 


23.086 


996, 975 


17,065 


433,603 


12,538 


42G, 656 


30,740 


804,540 


11, 314 


282,841 


45, 946 


1, 365, 928 


19,779 


449, 449 


9,304 


154, 140 


4,836 


130, 401 


46. 210 


1, 432, 495 


39,020 


1, 141, 658 


6,615 


438,408 



860. 1G4 

78,547 

010. 147 

944. 251 

190.303 

065,306 

768,630 

057,607 

478, 497 

440,035 

1, 102, 729 

1, 3rj, 590 



1, 508. 821 

1, 255, 633 
485,021 
438, 160 

1, 480, 4G2 
820,555 
689.004 
199, 732 
019, 270 

1, 360 -06 
861,250 
362,799 
409,467 
351, 943 






21, 949 



3,C87 

10, 422 

25, 734 

30,CG3 

300 

3,121 

1,025 



700 
39,973 



470 
1,077 



29,481 



1,411 

90 

20 

4,902 

35,049 

3,252 

511 

8,644 

24, 816 

3,810 



58,409 

29,782 

15, 918 

1,332 

8,210 

23,350 

459 

990 

44,573 

1,028 

3,120 

916 

1,503 



M 



4/ 

.CS 
at 

US 

E'S* 

c ^ 

S 



173 

1,230 

585 



101 

1,472 

6C8 

09 



144 

00 

50 

98 

3,825 



75 
525 

240 



1,597 



355 

220 

85 

348 

4,202 

449 

158 

485 

1,080 

3,830 



4,4-23 

1,220 

501 

563 

558 

55-1 

2, 052 

3T 

543 

1,420 

39 

100 

14 

405 



402, 510 
410,299 
567,150 
401,960 
337,714 
1, 140, 174 
602, 250 
599, 995 
5 22, 935 
297,800 
235, 380 
5G3,880 
155,420 
834,105 
307, 711 
48,048 



.a 

S 

.a 

i 

o 



1,435 



2,012 
300 
3,754 
5,950 
4,&^10 
2,003 



48,274 

1, 028. 343 

645, 724 

398,500 

027. 059 

14,715 

390,360 

525,375 

81,545 

497. 349 

044,089 

478, 271 

281, 213 

309,194 

1,157,271 

1, 194, 540 

122,230 

1, 0C8, 350 

1, 145, 499 

209, 085 

340, 460 

1, 2^0, C85 

004,595 

5:J3, 340 

73,920 

314, 135 

1, 012, 328 

497, 975 

290,085 

201,639 

243, 143 



2,410 
100 
1,050 
1, 369 
2,959 



000 

6,508 

621 

1,420 

4,910 



1,445 

100 

253 

2,925 

975 

2,001 

290 

3,870 

2,008 

5, 424 



a 
o 



93, 990 
102 



97 
439 



20 

30 

13, 821 



1, 470 

30,205 

7 

1,002 
53,085 



128, 480 

2,920 

5 

20 

1,938 

10, 500 

39,229 



5,404 

7,871 

1,084 

3,433 

7,062 

1,727 

2,797 

1,178 

0,097 

3,154 

720 

1,088 

100 

240 



20,053 

4,350 

70 

30,015 

200 

7,520 



2,480 
3,150 

900 
1,200 
3,710 

602 



1,925 

220 

100,350 

57, 407 

1,290 

43, 210 

1,596 

5,108 

31,011 



a 
o 



430 



2,498 
85 



30,000 
80,050 



080 
455 



25 



3,000 

100 

3,568 



380 
300 
137 
570 



170 



990 

225 

1,305 



965 
3,053 
1,371 



900 
900 
655 
667 
119 
2.439 
40 
375 



550 



o 



29 
17 
14 
33, 

B 

42, 
26, 

13 
33, 

9 
13 
22 

3 

40, 

13 



4 
54 

41 
41 
12, 

10, 
30, 

15, 
19 
1% 

6, 
10, 
51 
51, 

2, 
49 
46, 

5, 

8, 
50, 
19, 
24 

8 
24 
18 
7 
4 
5, 



768 
456 
567 
452 
160 
680 
494 
558 
178 
190 
325 
401 
002 
113 
500 
146 



670 
665 
840 
170 
276 
4 
132 
913 
633 
404 
282 
700 
893 
251 
234 
327 
379 
348 
385 
092 
205 
COG 
959 
311 
300 
588 
258 
150 
152 
070 
509 



I 

0. 



s 



15,123 
15,220 
11,232 



9,325 
12,414 
11, 527 
18,427 
24, 210 

3, 689 
42 

6,307 
12, 010 
16,351 

5,472 

B.505 



11,251 

36, 870 

5,308 

3, 826 

22,024 

10,100 

11,739 

23,002 

7,017 

8,053 

11.200 

11,290 

11,585 

9,080 

8,027 

29,718 

6,952 

18,820 

14,600 

10, 110 

2,810 

9,877 

9,490 

14, 038 

8,489 

15, 590 

22.950 

9,890 

6,937 

8,770 

8,957 





JO 

i 






3 

&4 



48,680 

79,815 

39,843 

50 

3, 472 

158,282 

18, 803 

9,220 
97,095 
17,504 
600 
31, 170 
28,026 
67,492 
10, 747 

2,042 



1,846 

105, 629 

» 12, 119 

1,800 
47, 618 

1,079 
19,337 
91.660 

8,510 
20,206 
67,008 
58,109 

7,238 
2:J,530 
55,318 
18,279 
19.168 
148,355 
50,745 

4,743 
18, 997 
27, 702 
28,503 
53,810 

6,517 
65,595 
12,820 
25.465 
24,837 
21, 169 
22,575 



•S 


.0 

it 

z « 



18,750 

10,186 
4,218 
3, 925 
1,846 

11.660 
7.737 
1,707 
9,427 
3,700 
6,783 
1,569 
2,380 

22.508 

3,874 

387 



391 

10, 328 

11,125 

1,980 

6,594 

313 

4,505 

10,190 
1,109 
8,620 

12, 518 
8,816 
1,670 
4,980 
6,896 

14.905 
975 

28,439 
6,169 
3.338 
1,982 
9,776 
7,607 

12,654 
1,005 
5,599 

13,553 
9,062 
4,917 
2,944 
3,212 





2 o 

$ Ji 

o e 



79,450 
157, 839 
64,035 
17,768 
55,965 
150.158 
95,319 
110,365 
82,aJ5 
78,094 
11,430 
99,337 
51.907 
89,620 
61,016 
25,443 



18, 3«>5 

17^, 387 

104, 217 

6.500 

100,955 

9,670 

93.890 

85,675 

31,739 

111, 795 

74,084 

125. 214 

52,272 

57.525 

117, 491 

215, 070 

34,995 

118, 359 

196,542 

62,350 

55,028 

147, 414 

84,643 

57, 520 

39,853 

66,241 

117, 422 

101, 42> 

64,878 

37,147 

56.816 



I 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
9 
9 
10 
11 
13 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
23 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
33 
33 
34 
35 
3G 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
43 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
53 
53 
54 



55 



56 
57 
56 
59 
60 



17,039 
43,485 

42.621 
10,324 
3'1,005 



546, 938 

1, 212, 610 

1,017,938 

308, 025 

794, 768 



2,746 
58,049 
38,684 



575 



100 



100 
2,094 

1,708 
120 



373,150 
814, 625 
683,081 
180.055 
57,605 



1,262 

2, 4.'>3 

3,205 

675 

200 



1 

7,588 

531 

500 



2,350 

2,643 

15,045 

200 



15 
20 
11 
13, 
36, 



804 
327 
479 
025 
338 



3,568 
24, 362 

22,768 

525 

29, 760 



27,646 

48,380 

35.523 

3,363 

30,587 



9,864 
14, 315 
12,926 

3,727 
21,213 



49, 434 

81,500 

82,708 

9,613 

53,544 



0,476 
20,714 
2J, 470 
31, 4VA 
39,7J3 



104, 404 
6{?8, 7i)3 
40.), 1:90 
8-J 1,319 
1, 520, 200 



320 



10,068 

7, 072 

130 



243 

150 

53 



95,545 

494,117 
301, 005 
55^1, 050 
0:jG, 220 



40 

5,712 

405 

1,227 



810 
3,165 



l,<a2,708 



41.891,692 



587,925 



39,474 29,057,682 



221,235 



809,082 



1,035 



2 
39 

9 
24 
04 



742 
367 
090 
7r.0 
075 



3(J0 

9,321 

10, 247 

1,740 

3,286 



3,800 
38,410 

5, 210 
57, 264 
20. 251 



557 
5.448 
2.000 
1,(MU 
9,415 



159, 141 



1,202,507 



005,959 



1,954,066 



414,320 



25,3«» 

94,206 

66,100 

76,530 

159, 50() 



4,563,873 



86 



STATE OF MISSISSIPPI. 



AGRICULTURE. 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
G 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
IG 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
2G 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
3G 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
4G 
47 
48 
49 
53 
51 
52 
53 



53 



5'j 



57 

53 
5J 



COUNTIES. 



Adanu 

Amite 

Attala 

DuHvor 

Ualhonn 

CarroU 

Chickasaw .. 

Choctaw 

Ciaibomo ... 

Clark 

Coahoma .... 

Copiah 

CoviDffton . . . 

Do Soto 

Franklin 

Green 

Hancock .... 

Harrison 

Hindi 

Holmes 

Issaquena ■ . . 
Itawamba . . . 

Jackson 

Jasper 

Jefferson .... 

Jones 

Kemper 

Lafajretto . . . 
Lauderdale . . 
Lawrence . . . 

Loako 

Lowndes 

Madison 

Marion 

Marshall 

Monroe 

Noiihoba 

Newton 

Noxubee 

Oktibbeha... 

Panola 

Perry 

Pike 

Pontotoc 

Raakiu 

Scott 

Simpson 

Smith , . 

Sunflower . . . 
Tallahatchie. 

Tippah 

Tishomingo . 

Tucica 

Warren 

Washiagton . 

Wayao 

Wilkinson... 

Wisrton 

Valjbnsha. . . 
Yazoo 



PRODUCED. 



o 

•a 

o 



.2 

go 

.a 



9 

•a 
c 



o 

■9 

a 
o 

"3 

* 

a 



$22, 210 

13,400 

103 



121 



o 



^ a 



a 

a 
o 

c 

9 



$49, 211 
350 
100 



C4,705 
70,674 
98,590 



o 



9 

9 
o 






9 
O 






o 

43 

BO 

9 



t « 



u 
o 



Z o 



■a 



ICO 



1,238 

2G5 

2,107 



as 



O 



O 



8 



50 



100 
20 



53 



717 

2,5:-. 

4,349 

G22 

23,250 

1,000 

l.COO 

150 

2, 80 1 

13,049 



1,C<J3 
5G 



4 

8 
75 

238 



8I; 



2, 752 
SCO 

18, 015 



50 
323 



67, 715 

IGO, CCS 

152. 370 

143, 1G4 

84, 450 

48,535 

815 

38,CG0 

24,397 

22c, 7G4 

2 J, CG7 

4.2G5 



05 
100 



4 

2,783 

12 



10 



2,0G7 



10 



30 
200 



5 



367 
3,349 



20 



139 



5 



Total. 



1G8 



50 

20 

8 

1 



20 
89 
30 



55 



139 
91 



155 

7 

10 



289 



98 



5 

115 

273 

10 

ICO 



C9 



1,875 



10 



4,800 

5,459 

205 



13 
352 

80 



8G5 

4,157 

5 



103 



2,150 
8,389 

133 
7,280 
2,127 
1,310 

300 
11, 257 



75 



1,938 



45 

23 



12,345 



1C9 

303 

1,077 



400 

9T^ 



4,590 



10 



2,295 

131, 077 

107, 5C4 

2, COO 

154,635 

740 

57,328 

91,C84 

11,853 

115, 310 

102, 595 

72, 972 

2G,G27 

70,872 



25 



1,575 
2,350 



520 



5 



21 



97 



1,G41 
2,3CC 



2,029 



15 

710 
5 



9,095 

2,404 

151 



320 



88 



C3 



175 



90 

18, 875 

5,G30 

4,903 

10,230 

6,392 

10, 140 

121 



4G 
G,41G 
3, 3G3 



31,CGG 



425 



3,123 



304 

391 

52 



2,515 
3,211 



581 
53 
71 



2G5 

80 

5,774 



8 
235 



5,576 
271 



5 



1,065 



2C8 
239 



553 



3,C7G 
C14 
C53 



2, e:;3 



43 
15 



CI 

282 
1,253 



8,095 



3,123 



1C8, C48 

IC, 410 

£44, 801 

107, 511 

70,727 

38, 490 

104, C7G 

129,435 

132, 4G5 

13.830 

78,835 

279.077 



04, 419 
21, 837 
31, 248 



15 



17 
57 



220 
103 



91 



180 

i,o::o 



2,595 
81 



30 

37 

175 

115 



103 



36 
2 

33 

1 

843 

9 



100 

50 

307 



70, 502 
287,215 
276, 093 

45, 440 
111, 525 



O.Pil 

95, C.75 

71, 423 

135, C47 



1,009 



254,718 



7,262 



124,281 



5, CCO, 610 



220 
448 
213 



G 

4,305 
104 



723 ! 
CDO 



2,821 I 



4,427 



32,901 



5 



CO 



52 



124 
4C 



50 
77 



8 



10 
112 
258 

15 



8 



53 



GO 



1,084 



15 j 



26 



14 



35 
C 



C 
o 



10 
47 



37 

37 



S48| 



STATE OF MISSISSIPPI 



87 



AGRICULTURE. 



• 

PRODUCED. 


o 
o 

•a 
t 

•a 
§ 

« 

a 

"3 

-< 




HEMP. 


m 

a 
m" 

ei 

•-^ 


o 

1 

o 

oe 
H 

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m 

a 

9 

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8 

CO 


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a 

s 

& 


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sg. 

p 8 


i 

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CO 


a 

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9 


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1 

a 
o 


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e 

11 
If 




Dow rotted, tons 
of. 


a 
o 

ro 

E o 

u 
d 


•3 

2 

a 

5 




• 




















188 
1,292 
1,272 


160 
20,938 
25,006 


16,980 

9,586 

18, 405 


r74, 180 

104, 859 

170,819 

35,836 

125,209 

f89,2I8 

277,844 

192,526 

110, 385 

74, 318 

17,648 

136. 304 

86, 975 

250,507 

58,477 

24, 905 


1 






















2 






















3 




















4 




















281 


41C 
358 

1.130 
380 

1,074 
10 
130 
284 
578 
887 
840 
TJG 

• 


19,554 

17, 579 

16, 439 

.22,323 

2, 445 

300 

850 

8,934 

8,900 

25,318 

8,551 

10,260 


23,046 

3,949 

45,956 

136, 848 

128, 245 

2,393 


5 




















A 






















7 






















fi 













































10 












. 






30 




IJ 


















1.CC8 
75, 1'JO 
7,S2l 
2,358 
4, 351 


19 






















l.T 










4 












14 






















13 


















130 




16 




















17 






















245 

1,528 
44G 


2.42C 
19,385 
12,099 


1,694 
1,016 
9,477 


11, 183 

226,842 

205, 809 

600 

197, 263 

10,146 
129. 214 
149, 704 

34.837 
146,413 
229.461 
134,880 

94, 616 
104, 103 
275, 1«J8 
232.335 

44, 970 
350, 295 
284,321 

80,224 

74,196 
327,037 
181,220 
186, 991 

36,299 
116. 462 
277,800 
130, 426 

83,472 

75, 470 

71,383 


18 


















320 
80 




19 




















20 




















21 














39 




403 


1,115 


1,628 

652 
2,017 

583 

844 
2, 940 

150 
1, 813 

150 
1,218 

348 
1,511 

475 
1, 162 
1,038 

743 


28,458 

8,305 
23,171 

3.750 
12,162 
24,6:)0 
12, 557 
17,772 

3,506 
23,182 
10,425 
19,857 

7,195 
17,398 
14,805 
13,550 
390 
25,560 
13,845 
15, 432 
1(», 124 

8,r^ 

29,408 
15,427 
11,040 
2,950 
10,820 


86, 6;;9 
6,355 
20.820 
40,782 
19,782 
17,684 
27,490 
19,063 
10,367 
14,278 
9,596 
18,C28 
10,7TJ 
49,656 
22,944 
19, 985 
11,299 
9.513 
28,896 
6,813 
7,186 
17,644 
57,320 
11, 457 
14,733 
13, 275 
31,203 


22 






....••.•.. 










23 




















24 




-•«•••• 
















■***'*''"** 


25 






















20 
















200 


40 
15 


............ 


27 




1 










28 




















*<9 




















30 
















260 


313 

120 

1,230 

1,400 

340 


31 


31 
















33 




















33 


















............ 


34 




















33 












10 








36 














2 


121 




37 


















38 


















350 




1,240 
571 
075 

1,553 
650 

1,276 
858 
833 


39 




















40 






• • • 
















41 














00 




33 




43 


















43 


















1,602 




44 


















43 






















46 






















47 


......•••• 




















1,051 


48 






















49 






• 










44 


15 

805 
2,GG5 




522 
1,184 
932 
473 
250 


10, 246 

30,503 

23,021 

3,366 

275 


2,3C8 

144, 269 

83, 990 


99,379 
259,561 
230,527 

45.098 
114, 155 


50 




. 














51 








50 


3 










53 
















53 






















51, 798 


54 






















55 


























1, 285 

428 

14,820 

220 


25, 431 

75,928 

119,105 

141,075 

165, 512 


56 






















802 
655 


5,725 
16, 464 


57 






















5B 






















59 


























60 




































• 

50 


3 


10 


! 
90 ' .WA 


i 
10,016 1 1.427 


42,603 


70?, 237 


1, 382, 144 


Ml 








" • • 






i 


1 









88 



STATE OF MISSOURI. 



AGRICULTURE. 



COUNTIES. 



ACRES OF LAND. 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
S3 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
M 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 
60 
61 
62 



Adair 

Androw 

Atchison 

Andrain , 

Barry 

Bartoft 

Bates 

Benton 

Bollinger 

Boono 

Buchanan 

Bntler 

CaldweU 

Callaway 

Camden 

Capo Girardean. 

Carroll 

Carter 

Casi 

Cedar 

Chariton 

Christian 

Clark 

Clay 

Clinton 

Cole 

Cooper 

Crawford , 

Dade 

Dallas 

Daylets , 

DeKalb 

Dent 

Douglas 

Dunklin , 

Franklin 

Gasconade 

Gentry 

Greene 

Grundy 

Harrison 

Henry 

Hickory 

Holt 

Howard 

Howell 

Iron 

Jackson 

Jasper 

JeflTcrnon 

Johuiion 

Knox 

Laclede 

Laftiy(*tte 

Ltiwrenco 

Lewis 

Lincoln 

Linn 

Livingf^ton 

Macon 

MadiKon 

Maries 



13 

S 



45,373 
72,026 



30, 
84 
27 
6 
33 
51 
34 

202 

113, 

8, 

39 

154 
17 
78 
51 
4 
76, 
37 
81 
23 
73 

127 
71 
39 

116 
25 
41 
40, 
72, 
33 
21 
7 
15, 
76 
35, 
65 
78 
48 
57, 
72, 
25, 
26, 

143 

7, 

16 

127 
41 
46 

loe 

69 
18 

350, 
42 
94 

120, 
53 
41 
85, 

19 
25, 



964 
531 
243 
552 

781 
371 
620 
487 
399 
979 
420 
578 
267 
816 
788 
603 
898 
656 
171 
789 
195 
314 
616 
899 
197 
845 
830 
923 
038 
589 
271 
458 



559 
704 
737 
913 
750 
699 
977 
632 
058 
204 
824 
087 
662 
537 
653 
889 
451 
390 
OIW 
768 
954 
473 
809 
682 
157 
555 
894 



> 
o 

0. 

B 

•a 



125, 


090 


108. 


528 


75, 


774 


160, 


905 


60, 


887 


96, 


223 


114. 


385 


179, 


486 


155, 


875 


166. 


821 


135, 


721 


59, 


628 


106, 


097 


295, 


918 


46, 


283 


187, 


205 


140. 


528 


24, 


517 


163, 


248 


16-2, 


082 


213, 


737 


66, 


029 


112, 


939 


124, 


3:« 


98, 


785 


123, 


783 


177, 


053 


114, 


453 


151. 


850 


120. 


950 


189, 


636 


72. 


908 


165. 


843 


14, 


274 


63, 


159 


207, 


135 


156, 


492 


225, 


480 


177, 


135 


136, 


325 


132, 


1.Y> 


185, 


309 


96. 


492 


66, 


418 


123, 


7.')6 


31, 


012 


55, 


406 


140, 


104 


118, 


215 


193. 


019 


273. 


356 


129. 


5-;>8 


52, 


174 


180. 


062 


83, 


731 


98. 


091 


220. 


647 


145, 


814 


100, 


909 


185, 


746 


62, 


363 

1 


117. 


024 ; 



•755, 


715 


3.000, 


467 


1,318. 


545 


3,557, 


273 


624, 


994 


398, 


895 


1, 074, 


464 


1, 342, 


291 


694 


655 


4.634 


820 


6,523 


511 


189 


001 


1,282 


636 


4,818 


339 


390 


845 


2,709 


272 


2,407 


993 


105 


245 


2,090 


460 


1,370 


.566 


2,680 


,166 


783 


,906 


3,046 


,500 


5,309 


271 


2,834 


,145 


1,247 


,878 


5,186 


619 


697 


264 


1,414 


927 


497 


821 


2,526 


192 


1,495 


,356 


450 


,605 


115 


,015 


614 


,457 


3,216 


300 


1,326 


,430 


2,688 


986 


3,163 


870 


1,770 


195 


1,514 


849 


2.704 


097 


825 


491 


1,314 


800 


4,157 


312 


204 


475 


620 


510 


5,621 


815 


1,231 


883 


2,410 


300 


4, 2:«, 


771 


1,195 


880 


553, 


361 


7,782 


352 


1.298, 


875 


3,287 


203 


4,240 


348 


2,003 


723 


1.475 


3*57 


2,661 


038 


384 


725 


686 


907 



a 

= 1 

o. >* 

B V 

— q 

B 



LIVE STOCK. 



#62.139 
105,047 
58,678 
96,021 
54,177 
12, 915 
49,537 
89, 035 
50,504 

180. 240 
135, 519 

15,554 
66,008 

170. 814 
23.090 

140.033 

111,961 
7,008 

115, 028 
65.448 

111, 170 
51,492 

101. 607 

128, 720 
79, 451 
48,943 

167,030 
45.187 
53,123 
14,807 
92,680 
44.864 
30,684 
11,046 
28,255 

146, 640 
78,106 

130,125 

130,036 
76,373 
74,135 

106,341 
40.081 
51,733 

196,805 
21,588 
25, 191 

137.058 
68, 916 
74,999 

179, 614 
66,944 
12,696 

209.513 
65.193 

104. 241 
153.070 

78. 930 
62,306 
116. 496 
35,206 
46,539 



i 

u 

O 

m 



2,138 

4,558 
1,868 
4,254 
2.544 

528 
2,127 
4.258 



641 

OQO 

966 
798 
454 
6-27 
652 
687 
052 
407 
304 
797 
962 
347 
158 
870 
314 
948 
415 
457 
333 
762 
269 
100 
501 
749 
302 
628 
846 
845 
,469 
715 
859 
514 
295 
446 
226 
607 
975 
6,502 
2.904 
3,342 
6,081 
2,748 
1,610 
6,346 
3,180 
4,903 
6,946 
2,920 
3,048 
5,035 
1,212 
S.494 



d 

a 
S 

«D 
i 



139 
746 
276 

1,486 
411 
41 
429 
535 
226 

4.621 

1,225 
102 
435 

2J21 

265 

705 

563 

27 

1,091 
608 
977 
508 
316 

1,496 
645 
452 

2,788 
337 
739 
484 
444 
253 
182 
38 
160 
519 
173 
324 

2,032 
383 
113 

1,472 
402 
262 

2,942 
135 
163 

2,424 
880 
382 

2.058 
174 
374 

2,825 

1,024 
938 

1,196 
564 
670 
631 
199 
319 



o 
%> 

•s 



2.319 
4,016 
2.481 
2,873 
2,216 

473 
1,963 
3,978 
2,350 
6,911 
5,394 
1,254 
2.251 
6,460 
1,461 
4,131 
2,964 

450 
4,006 
2.966 
4,815 
2,044 
3,876 
4.697 
2,910 
2,714 
5,508 
2,478 
2,963 
2,482 
4,085 
2,015 
1,946 

917 
1,954 
5,977 
3,290 
.3,831 
4,405 
9,674 
2,827 
4,098 
2,402 
1,744 
5,617 

817 
1,294 
5.363 
2.380 
4,174 
5, .525 
3,098 
1,309 
6,362 
2,343 
3,914 
5,639 
3.013 
2,591 
4,473 
1.187 
2.154 



i 

M 

O 

M 

a 

o 



1,215 
1,427 
1,120 
1,482 
1.761 

375 

999 
2,310 
1,125 
2,515 
1,212 

682 
1,071 
2,231 

999 
1.522 
1.674 

267 
2.159 
1,728 
2.657 
1,731 
1.187 
2.454 
1,425 

839 

2,111 
1.342 
1,882 
2,840 

1,111 
917 
1,423 
981 
1,054 
9,469 
2,089 
2.190 
3,136 
1.171 
1,420 
2,340 
1,436 
834 
2,324 
839 
657 
2,937 
1,342 
2,661 
3,067 
1,341 
1.063 
3,395 
1,55^ 
1,263 
2,150 
1,516 
1,495 
2,505 
805 
1,416 



o 

o 



4,332 

6,619 
4,748 
6,800 
4,244 
979 
4.011 
6,344 
3,711 

14,805 
7,876 
2.569 
3,214 

14,095 
2,766 
5,634 
6,354 
587 
7.297 
3,821 
9,775 
3.575 
7,850 

12.426 
6,124 
4,821 

12,638 
4,044 
4,035 
4,498 
5.345 
3,960 
2,699 
1,490 
4.099 

12, 575 
5.958 

. 6, 917 
8,875 
4,849 
3,929 
8,277 
4,099 
3,858 
9.742 
1.421 
1,952 

10,159 
4,787 
7,342 

10,038 
7,062 
3,190 

15. 112 
3,870 

11,099 

11.053 
5,296 
5,345 
9.789 
2,971 
4.990 



a, 

.a 



6,057 

10,379 

4,387 

11.477 

7,C09 

989 

5.180 

8,105 

6.542 

27.0i0 

10, 495 

1.363 

4,375 

27.7-28 

3,982 

11.320 

8,722 

1.015 

9.508 

7.986 

11.111 
5,217 
7,379 

15,822 
8,954 
7.089 

16, OPS 
6.231 
9,548 
0.054 

10.189 
4,606 
4,705 
1,602 
2,217 

10.2.M 
8,579 

11,962 

16»094 
8,401 
8,481 
8,456 
5. 609 
5,248 

19,345 
1,760 
2,472 

10,463 
7.696 
7,314 

13,973 
9.958 
5.044 

12,553 
7.798 

14.206 

14,741 
8,466 
8.456 

15.2iS 
3,8^ 
6.321 



STATE OF MISSOURI. 



89 



AGRICULTURE. 



LIVE STOCK. 



« 



16. 510 
32,713 
21,223 
18,966 
17, 7C7 

4.053 
13,906 
14,3rj 
17,2SM 
63,513 
39,346 

7,995 
14,707 
41.559 

9,753 
28,733 
27,181 

2, 72« 
31.298 
17,2a) 
42,675 
13, 510 
23,146 
40, 882 
23,036 
16,622 
49,186 
13.600 
12,589 
12,965 
23,889 
12,:i26 

6,029 

5,913 
19, 157 
;i8,336 
19.163 
18.119 

sa.or^i 

22,123 
23,464 
27.080 
10,361 
13,521 
42.100 
4,853 
6,134 
43.741 
14,208 
22,014 
38,001 
18. 145 
7,896 
52, 324 
15, 484 
27,267 
36,365 
21.459 
24,953 

8. 1G4 

12. fo: , 



o 

"a 






$321,564 
593,178 
312,360 
rJ8,228 
342,666 
75,980 
396,377 
526,558 
264,170 

J, 621, 297 
837,241 
135. 224 
465,706 

1. 306. 752 
195,530 
606,711 
521,059 
53,894 
673,391 
411.839 
698,934 
342,555 
575, 725 
893, 813 
409,375 
322,363 

3, 804, 223 
301, 576 
431, 179 
351,306 
490.053 
273,937 
182, 801 
111,252 
237,017 
743, 174 
332,410 
647,926 
879, 374 
368,260 
371,129 
717,059 
294,218 
267,448 

1, 179, 545 

98,571 

138,677 

1, 046, 802 
399,801 
418.818 

1, 062, 153 
245, 157 
197, 424 

1, 080, 3:a 
428, 766 
666,894 

1, 121, 062 
iJQ, 130 
380,007 
743, 3e'5 
1G1.310 
278.413 



PRODUCED. 



.9 

•s 



7,864 
51,515 
51.463 
11,519 
49. 943 

2.124 

1,779 
21.304 
50,035 
71,906 
64,3:i5 

3,583 

6,810 

60,693 

15, 878 

198, 475 

12,137 

2.604 
31,326 
30,234 
12, 816 
48, 015 
30,786 
39,398 
18,194 
42, 944 
70, 432 
24,498 
41, 402 
42,799 
15,564 
10,003 
19, 980 

9,182 

6,098 
96,510 
48,104 
41,037 
130, 795 
16.415 
15,300 

8,327 
18,556 
17,236 
87, 998 

6, 721 
15,477 
60,909 
38,644 
55,698 
35,601 

7,925 
30,909 
50, 672 
67,406 
36,587 
109, 152 

8,600 
10,430 

5.614 
30.047 
IH. 362 



V 

1 



» 
K 



1.648 
9,636 
2,250 

433 
7,382 

116 

100 
5,827 

593 

5, 769 

11,379 

75 

673 
6,994 

227 
1,377 

665 

175 

490 
3,062 
1,804 
3,547 
10,648 
2,694 
2,982 

685 
2,462 
1,865 
2,605 
1,392 
2,399 
2,326 
1,098 

411 

180 
4,402 
2,094 
9,961 
9,958 
3,265 
7,938 

514 

174 

2,388 

6,887 

65 

4,371 

778 
2,954 
1,958 
1,111 
1,736 
1,435 

810 
6,412 
3,972 
1,120 
3,540 
2, 635 
1,791 

827 

ytfO 



554.835 

1, 138, 714 
659.128 
804.555 
481,683 
89,740 
526,040 
550,275 
316,790 

1, 869, 922 

1, 3:36, 687 

89,581 

523,485 

1. 346, 777 

J^24, 447 

699, 973 

812,520 

68,176 

1, 183, 344 
431,495 
938,801 
353,646 
996,660 

1,341,405 
913, 865 
374,334 

1, 765, 220 
300,918 
558,155 
401, 495 
674,620 
453,490 
257, 240 
113, 945 
319,035 
800, 723 
328,562 

1, 034, 253 

1, 128, 396 
rJ8,368 
819, 610 

1,074.720 
285,587 
503,410 

1, 363, 750 
127, 705 
131, 485 

1, 599, 166 
525,550 
424, 724 

1, 502, 240 
674,423 
266,165 

1,971,641 
533,534 
930,105 
751, 894 
613,509 
559,079 

1,0131,933 
170. c:>5 



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11,942 
57,185 
30,853 
28,009 
80, e:i7 

3,666 
40, 710 
26, 490 

9,95:J 

64,713 

79, 571 

342 

8,410 
130.480 

9,248 
24,104 

9,872 

1,473 
25,258 
49, 759 
19,020 
29.407 
16, 411 
48,127 
58,888 
14,874 
53, 497 
19,030 
75, 880 
27,900 
12,059 
26,160 

5,943 

2,427 

270 

173, 064 

51, 740 

36,801 

194. 863 

18, 959 

15,808 

26,824 

28,548 

27,575 

53,646 

675 

4,937 
5^1,616 
60,479 
25.971 
34,886 
15,668 
20,436 
57, 171 
85, 081 
60,169 
98,968 
11, 845 
13, 27!) 
10, 113 

3.087 
34. WJl 



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a 
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a 

t 

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100 



100 



200 



50 

120 

95 



20 



30 



o 

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a 

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H 



84,353 

32,500 

1,925 

107,715 

38,479 

1,690 

2,350 

46, 119 

41,820 

489, 031 

6,500 

6.310 

10,556 

1, 433, 374 

13,050 

36,:)50 

553,000 

36,459 

4,501 

22,270 

4, 356, 024 

36,655 

10,275 

7,400 

6,555 

22,850 

82,755 

68,756 

14,205 

41, 481 

21,300 

6,750 

14,000 

3,915 

37,000 

791,680 

25,489 

34,140 

27,618 

153, 410 

23,250 

8,180 

10,640 

13,831 

2,871,584 

2,260 

1,390 

65,325 

4,356 

9,G05 

12,530 

136, 745 

19,730 

150,085 

1,600 

202, 086 

1, 356, 105 

482, 064 

357, 140 

1,396.673 

5.104 

13, 413 



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300 



355 
43 



150 



65 
50 



188 
201 



1,200 
15 



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972 



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15,162 


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296 


26, 


479 


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17 


157 


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649 


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347 


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20 


019 


1, 


788 


22 


327 


15 


956 


22 


949 


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926 


19 


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400 


22, 


657 


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991 


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476 


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425 


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374 


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381 


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580 


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751 


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615 


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657 

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1,729 

30 

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67 

1,480 
513 
960 
474 

1,282 
127 

1,961 
956 

1,179 
735 
36 
614 
46 
143 
141 
676 

1,628 

4,339 

4,981 

1,028 

842 

850 

72 

58 

3,903 
374 
371 

1,773 
221 
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1,382 

609 

27 

2.701 
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1,T29 

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1, 7:J6 

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17, 185 

27,205 

14,329 

19,254 

10,521 

2. 505 

7,442 

15, 114 

8,865 

25,056 

46, 179 

3,182 

8, 957 

29, 482 

4,719 

22,892 

13,640 

1,855 

10, 759 

9,603 

25.4i& 

8,786 

27,644 

33, 144 

16,112 

21,423 

36,459 

13, 726 

13, 743 

11,326 

9,011 

9,002 

7,002 

O OiU 

2,961 
37.080 
30.851 
40,703 
24.901 
14,302 
81,686 
15. 748 

7,295 
10,507 
31,500 

3,416 

7,110 
34,229 
11,712 
41,5:6 
18,025 
16,865 

5,781 
37,453 
12,835 
29,058 
21,7C6 
17,100 
11,882 
30,250 

5, 12C I 

e, 'J3D ' 



1 



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l^ 



S 
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431 
1,535 

407 
3,241 
5,292 

121 

138 
1,561 
7,005 
3,6:» 
5, 821 
1,977 

371 
7,521 

561 

11,746 

1,184 

545 

703 
2,158 

4, 426 
4,444 
2,503 
5, 592 
1,353 
2,803 

5, 125 
3, 055 
3,167 
2,022 

270 
630 
521 
344 
12,163 
3,163 
719 

^r8 

11,164 

622 

287 

3,105 

700 

077 

7,696 

2, 244 

796 

5,004 

1,500 

2, 823 

3,508 

593 

137 

7,L98 

4,048 

1,449 

4,545 

097 

1,511 

4, COP 

2,r.-l 

1, 1.'.4 



1 
2 
3 
4 

5 

G 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

23 

23 

24 



25 



26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
33 
33 
34 
35 
IVi 
37 

:« 

o9 
40 
41 
43 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
53 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 

:>s 

59 
<iO 
CI 
v2 



90 



STATE OF MISSOURI. 



AGRICULTURE. 



COUNTIES. 



1 
o 

3 
4 

5 
ti 

7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
1-1 
l.'i 
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17 
J8 

r.> 

20 
21 
2i 
23 
21 
25 

27 
2« 
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30 
31 

3:i 

34 

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37 

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39 

40 
41 
42 
43 
41 
45 
4(i 
47 
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4'» 

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511 



Adair 

Andrew 

AtcbiMon 

Andraia 

Harry 

Barton 

Bates 

Benton 

Bollinger 

Boono 

Buchanan 

Butlir 

Ciiltlwell 

Callaway 

Camden 

Cupe Giranleaa. 

Carroll 

•Carter 

Caj»s 

CVdar 



Chariton 
CbrUtlan 
Clark ... 
Clay .... 



Clinton 

C.'lu 

Cooper 

Crawford. . . 

DjmIc 

Dallas 

Davietig 

DuKalb 

Dent 

Douglas 

Dunklin 

Franklin ... 
( lOHConado . 

(jrentry 

OriH'UO 

(Jrundy 

Harrison .... 

lleury 

Hickory 

Holt , 

Howard 

Howell 

Iron 

J aekson 

Jasper 

Jeflr»r»son. .. 

Johnson 

Kuox 

Lat Icdo 

Lai ay et to ... 
Lawrence .. , 

Lewis 

Lincoln 

Linn 

Livingston .. 

Macon 

Ma<li nil . . 

M.iri* H 



PRODUCED. 



o 

m 



•S 



M 



571 

11,431 

172 

10 



91 

93 

211 

21 



17 
993 



4, 8545 



5,116 
4,049 
l,t89 
1,206 

152 
95 

257 
2.707 

270 
1,4'.>5 

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12 






20 

r.oi) 

289 

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4, 475 

1, 189 

215 

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1, :k;i 



103 



5J5 



17,719 

65. 813 

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10 

270 

1 

40 



4, 8,33 
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772 



150 

20 
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230 
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25vS 

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1, 94(5 



CI 

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9, 5«) 

450 

3,0!K) 

990 

74 

2,074 

692 

6,450 

25, 703 

30. 057 

2r^ 

2, 936 

28, 951 

9i:8 

25, 451 

6, 887 

9, 984 

8<,'8 

8, .v,:i 

9!)(; 

2, 701 

24, 770 

8. 73(5 

2, i:j2 

30, Oiui 
2,911 
2, 8."8 
1, 429 
G. 15^1 
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312 

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110 



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6,857 
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14, 152 
3, 404 
2,244 
8, 704 
2,355 
2.461 

35,219 



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3, 707 
6,315 

151 
631 



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4, 342 

21,499 
3,256 
9, 453 

19, 80-1 

1, 598 

143 

17, 567 
1, 598 
7, 789 

18, 489 
5, 129 
3. 181 
9. 791 
5, 113 
3,018 



8 



$431 

850 

6 

9,5(r7 

150 

101 

8, 789 

375 

50 

1, 240 

5, 625 



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373 

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9,214 



2,280 



305 

207 
215 

2, ;j:j5 

1,580 

1 , (>55 

4, 3<;2 

209 

1,491 

178 

201 

1,119 



2,211 
13, 910 


20 
9,639 

• 


93 

25 


816 
160 


9 


180 
100 


94 
28 


5,897 

4, 038 

5 




6C7 


362 


24, 150 
50 


5 


11, 179 
200 




100 


• 


35 


59 


8,950 
15 


15 

369 


2, 183 


O'lr 


26 

n oivi t 



S, 81X) 

9, :w) 

273 
1,224 




STATE OF MISSOURI 



91 



AGUICULTUllE. 









rRODL'CED. 













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1,537 

17,006 
1.591 
9.747 

12. 310 

5.C51 

9,330 

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1 

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1,380 

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58 

154 

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1.700 
260 

1,040 

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1,562 

1,151 
140 
784 
228 
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305 
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1,564 
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127 
155 
129 
420 

3,068 

1,941 

2,046 

1,600 

679 

41 

1,487 

278 

7 

136 

1, 276 
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120 

1,406 

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2,075 
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1, CG7 

1, 28G 
974 

2. 178 
2, 309 

23:1 
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£G,815 
35, 695 
12. ia^ 

23. 210 
7,049 

6i0 

6, 37i> 

7, 302 

3, 756 

14.514 

18, i)95 
221 

2G. 730 
13,000 
4,0:7 
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26,8i3 
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19, 423 
4.273 

17. 542 

7.328 

24.262 

• 16.265 

33,644 

1,140 

14. 748 
2,709 

10,554 

4.577 

20.891 

33,400 

1C8 

1,182 

5.925 

822 

4,247 

79, 099 

27,205 

a3,465 

41. 476 

22, 281 

2G0 

24, 797 
8,811 
2,0f»5 
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22, 2e 

8,617 

605 

32,507 

22, 006 

1,265 

15, 171 
6.744 

21.080 
19, 9:w 
30. 17u 
28. OJ-J 
44, G45 
1.714 
5,153 


$C0, 554 
20. 007 

7, 017 
20. 522 
20, 985 

1.83G 
10. 03(J 
10. ^^1} 
15,850 
33.817 
20,346 

4,631 
17, 493 
46. 876 

8, 125 
29. G. 9 
16, G90 

2,615 
25.5m 
20.619 
16, 563 
22.806 

6,898 
21,227 
16,519 

4,649 
17,6.2 

13. 296 
28,709 
22.898 
11.304 

9,486 
7,2M 
7,310 
6,47:1 
5.606 

16, 518 
26. 2^-) 
50, 721 
26.407 
15,080 
£4, 545 
11,255 

8,657 
43. 20:1 

9, aw 

4,895 
21,837 

19, 161 

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33. G90 

14, 902 
9,381 

13, GJ9 
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29. :mj9 

20. :i.->4 

17. I.V) 
37,411 

7, 544 
13, 979 


|58, 161 

115 :i:n 


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216 








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1, 479 






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5 

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4,261 

425 

1.177 

35 






540 

15 

8, 685 

5 

3,225 




602 




20,657 ' ^2 


1 




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171 

4 

21 

3 




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6.115 
1,408 
5,120 
1,201 


57.970 ' ^^ 




35 








786 


216 


192,8:i2 1 ^^ 








i::g, 231 

116, I8G 

8,064 

147, 174 

52, 244 
156, 930 

48, 4:i5 


15 


1 




10 

7 


691 




16 




612 4 




8,618 


17 












1,620 
10,893 
16,641 


18 




8 






20 

580 

130 

710 

365 

3,480 

480 

5 

315 

1,755 

1,123 

3,752 

1.075 

92 














19 








25 

6 

24 

18 

135 

5 












20 




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3, VC8 


21 






5,853 
436 

4,295 
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9, 299 
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22 


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30 


320 

312 

40 




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499 
43 






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211,521 
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79, 520 

59.076 
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54.:i95 
38.171 
16,275 


24 




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25 




1 




26 




31 






11 

5 

137 

109 

5 

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27 










4,518 




1.082 


2,365 


28 




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20.878 

15, 46:1 

12.230 

6.608 

8,709 

4.101 

1,798 

433 

2,620 

22,230 

20,209 

18, 3.13 

24, 23J) 

17, 817 

12,158 

2, C'.;0 

3, 52:1 

2, «JC9 
955 

3, 929 
14. 773 

20 

12, 644 

15,988 

4,235 

4, i:i9 

19, 124 

8, G42 
5,348 
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11,045 
8,858 
2, 984 
3, 9r,o 


29 








50 




329 

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30 




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31 




150 












32 


















33 








500 


9 




310 








34 


_ 














40, 708 35 








915 

2,821 
2,910 
4,013 
95J) 
2,708 
1,980 
50 


6 
32 

347 
GO 
72 

117 
64 




368 
6 




7 




162. 416 36 










71. 802 

100, :J87 

17:1. 924 

69. 872 

58,:r73 

105. :174 

36.178 

48,719 

2:J2. 402 

17,6.;6 

31.407 

215, 195 

61,624 

100, (V« 

118. 292 

8:1. :M7 

36,088 

2,-)0. 94:1 

00, 114 

142.048 

170,611 

80, 2G4 


:n 




15 


• 600 


200 


...•..«... 


38 




52 


15 
296 

1,150 








39 




14 


50 




35 


40 






41 












42 


1 

1 














43 




112 


I 








17 
2, 927 








44 




655 






2,278 
70 
50 

1, 620 
70 


74 

30 

5 

5 






67 




45 










46 










1,275 

25 




102 




47 




146 


16 




48 






49 




5 
32 








30 


180 




15 




50 




Q 




5,034 
2,360 

396 
1,190 
2, 175 

275 
1,000 

2C0 

295 
1, 472 
2, 2-J6 

698 


11 
69 
20 

3 
50 

5 
49 
52 
10 
37 
55 
26 




51 




1 






30 




15 




52 


1 






51 




3,547 


3 


8 






4G 






54 












55 




5 






8 


1,140 
14, 842 




66 
l,G02 




5G 










57 










:>8 






3 


515 








G;.7;.!) ''9 




600 










137,616 
40, :M7 
47, 272 


60 






10 

25 




4,901 
70 




106 




61 


1 

I 




62 



92 



STATE OF MISSOURI. 



AGRICULTURE. 



COUNTIES. 



63 

G4 

&) 

GG 

67 

68 

69 

70 

71 

72 

73 

74 

75 

76 

77 

78 

79 

80 

81 

82 

83 

64 

85 

86 

87 

88 

89 

90 

91 

92 

93 

94 

95 

96 

97 

98 

99 

100 

101 

102 

103 

104 

105 

106 

107 

108 

109 

110 

111 

112 

113 



Marlon 

McDonald 

Mercer 

Miller 

Miisissippl 

Moniteau 

Monroe 

Montgomery — 

Morgan 

New Madrid.... 

Kewton 

Nodaway 

Oregon 

Oiage 

Osark 

PemlBCOt 

Perry 

Pettla 

Phclpf 

Pike 

Platte 

Polk 

PulaDki 

Pntnam 

Rallfl 

Randolph 

JRay 

Reynolds 

Ripley 

St. Charles .... 

St. Clair 

St. Francis . . . 

Ste. Qenevieve 

St. Loois 

Saline 

Schnyler 

Scotland 

Scott 

Shannon 

Shelby 

Stoddard 

Stone 

Sullivan 

Taney 

Texas 

Vernon 

Warren 

Washington ... 

Wayne 

Webster 

Wright 



ACRES OP LAND. 



Total. 



a 



•a 
E 

a 



103,472 
14,102 
56,577 
29,118 
33,624 
74,942 
158,563 
7.'>. 114 
39,393 
40, 791 
33,346 
15,950 

9,540 
37,734 

8,143 

11, 910 

47,064 

96,862 

25,363 

144, 524 

121,667 

50,780 

12, .•S26 

52,724 

83,371 

123. 214 

102,365 

12,033 

10,930 

92,173 

27,723 

32,225 

36,043 

106,188 

139,527 

40, 743 

64,714 

21,999 

9.841 
62,829 
26,106 
10,109 
57,961 
12,583 
19,706 
27,976 
63,595 
32, 144 
24,045 
27,210 
17,187 



^ 



I 

J 

a 



6, 246, 871 



101, 501 
35,115 
161, 331 
146, 284 
80,911 
148,650 
191.966 
15.>, 869 
154,898 
86,962 
62,958 
45,730 
51,944 
197,135 
10,076 
50,153 
140, 813 
161, 774 
88,416 
926,515 
121, 480 
166, 951 
27,412 
120,621 
101.359 
15C, 721 
179,804 
63,927 
58,672 
120,769 
110, 137 
102,473 
139,335 
113,234 
196,267 
78,535 
107,496 
52,293 
52,234 
105,038 
170,798 
13,128 
232,098 
21,138 
118, 124 
122,333 
115, 131 
134.106 
122,529 
70,023 
52,689 



13,737,939 



e 
9 

1 



♦4,112,761 
416, 480 
1,581,530 
9.')2, 680 
1,381,300 
2,345,884 
2, 973, 424 
2,330.600 
1, 572, 007 
], 688, 142 
88.1, 612 
682,495 
856,350 
1,369,166 
84,370 
578, 915 
1, 482, 013 
4, 479, 867 
332,235 
4,974,715 
A, 584, 470 
1, 694, 126 
300,605 
1, 330, 615 
2, 813, 403 
3, 191, 090 
3,681,350 
330,110 
273,280 
4,457,541 
861,725 
1,132,682 
1, 055, 765 
15»987,064 
5,550,792 
936,425 
1,471,789 
626,323 
411,200 
2,892,020 
639,544 
157,822 
2,271,606 
209,879 
594,772 
1, 091, 776 
1, 909, 747 
1, 239, 070 
660,401 
764,390 
380,840 



230, 632, 126 



S *^ 

cs o 

■ V 

si 

a > 
^ p; 

Js a 
a o 



LIVE STOCK. 



f 114, 446 
33.538 
80,879 
41, 176 
47, 725 
97, 539 
135,656 
95,873 
62,694 
41,765 
52,746 
22,115 
15,766 
59,993 
5,127 
18,106 
71,666 
110, 506 
38,934 
169,335 
170,563 
77,638 
17,866 
66,722 
99,557 
126,005 
133,895 
16,214 
17,634 
151,718 
47,187 
52,202 
63,908 
245,238 
170,999 
55,452 
70,232 
42,353 
19,931 
116,223 
38,757 
10,499 
91, 915 
25,592 
37,385 
53,882 
86,952 
53,606 
55,033 
43, 494 
22,751 



8, 711, 506 



o 



4,720 
1,046 
3,383 
2,487 
1,413 
4,556 
7,124 
4.160 
2,920 
1,290 
2,267 
774 
821 
3,473 
939 
796 
3.520 
4,708 
3,692 
7,234 
6.378 
3,664 

2,505 
4,933 
5,660 
6,297 
1,199 

937 
5,061 
1,956 
2,346 
2,036 
6,193 
5,493 
2,143 
2,657 
1,247 

709 
3,475 
1,545 
'l,102 
3,596 
1,638 
1,692 
2,008 
3,631 
2,231 
1,874 
2,440 
1,125 



i 

•3 

S 

•o 

a 



1,162 
174 
161 
300 
608 
560 
1,783 
735 
639 
1,178 
549 
162 
68 
435 
83 
202 
251 
1,557 
502 
1,879 
1,551 
1,215 
106 
104 
979 
1,684 
1,255 
106 
104 
749 
365 
535 
239 
1,210 
2,852 
111 
173 
324 
49 
615 
233 
130 
350 
212 
248 
170 
392 
558 
162 
928 
194 



361,874 



80,941 



1^ 

I 



4,542 
972 
3,383 
2,6C8 
1,960 
3,949 
5,921 
3,8C6 
3,062 
1,977 
2,187 
1,116 
741 
3,454 
1,386 
1,531 
2,862 
4,050 
1,684 
6,280 
5,239 
2,955 
990 
2,440 
3,643 
4.493 
5,252 
1,357 
1,056 
4. 685 
2,361 
2,529 
2,004 
8,221 
6,023 
2,096 
2,611 
1,316 
1,000 
3,350 
1,935 
1,190 
3,531 
1,941 
2,075 
2,354 
3,565 
2,655 
2,090 
1,871 
1,190 



345,243 



a 

M 

O 



o 



965 
S91 
1,884 
1,434 
832 
1,927 
1,042 
1,251 
1,367 

808 
1,392 

710 

730 
1,075 

948 

426 
1,066 
2.004 
1,463 
1,912 
2,919 
2,103 

792 
1,650 
1,013 
1,109 
3,050 

902 

649 
1,182 
1,338 

903 
1,432 
1,357 
2,446 
1,002 
1,168 

586 

801 
1,271 
1,321 

907 
1.981 
1,273 
1,782 
1,254 

885 
1,230 

984 
1,620 
1,066 



166,588 






10.208 

1,842 

6,496 

3,902 

3.714 

7,772 

13,045 

7,025 

6.981 

3,143 

4,064 

3,191 

l,f84 

5,916 

2,169 

2,231 

4,405 

8.986 

3,638 

13,047 

9,251 

6,013 

1,971 

3,762 

7,C92 

11, 241 

10,694 

2,359 

2,481 

8,886 

4.341 

5,037 

4,309 

6,053 

12, 157 

3,785 

5.533 

2,334 

1,977 

9,199 

4,016 

1,801 

7.233 

2,391 

2,463 

3,966 

5,668 

5,629 

4, 193 

3.123 

2,117 



ft* 

CD 



13.314 I 

3.6j9| 

12,192 1 

7,0» ! 

1,354 I 

12,325 

20,781 

10,992 

7,ffi!4 

1.4.M 

6,200 

2,641 

2,C9o 

6,979 

2,350 

526 

6,469 

12,051 

4,622 

26,708 

13,C60 

10,488 

2,977 

7,KK 

11.018 

17,180 

15,871 

3,5GB 

2,350 

8,(30 

5.720 

8,6C8 

3,960 

4,972 

14,967 

7,8SJ 

9.354 

2.203 

2,904 

11, W4 

4.985 

2,^8 

13,110 

2.S66 

4,476 

4.0W 

6.191 

7,454 

5,734 

6,lf» 

3,849 



657.153 



937.415 



STATE OF MISSOURI. 



93 



AGRICULTURE. 



LIVE STOCK. 



r 





00 



37.423 
8, 2C1 
26, 7-21 
14.888 
32,i»C 
25, 781 
27, 7 1 a 
24,051 
14.894 
18,888 
H 571 
6,2-n 
8,204 
25,804 
6,656 
10, mi 
17, 162 
19,266 
11.704 
38,8:26 
44,390 
17,870 
7,428 
9,359 
25. 774 
32,958 
45,281 
8,267 
5,674 
33,673 
11,969 
14,286 
14,361 
25,391 
56.512 
13,738 
13,993 
13,074 
5,599 
27,786 
19, 916 
7,116 
24,294 
10, 170 
11,430 
13,653 
22,897 
15,069 
13,026 
10,971 
6,536 



2,354,425 



a 

-a 



9 
> 



PRODUCED. 



1865,530 
134.560 
414,000 
319. 995 
243,365 
560,a')8 
862,753 
566,422 
444, 147 
279,935 
340. 579 
136v200 
114, 681 
407,683 
109,164 
161, 043 
304,525 
833,644 
258.689 

1, 013, 863 
913,694 
593,028 
148, 475 
348,325 
704,006 
846,966 

1, 168, 130 
139,061 
130,517 
639,831 
203,160 
311,378 
282.102 
91.'), 866 

1, 199, 206 
321,769 
351.443 
171,033 
131,555 
674,545 
249,030 
140, 112 
481, 169 
218.086 
237,898 
316,303 
456,621 
332,549 
242, 623 
380,187 
156,063 



S3, 693, 673 



m 

JO 

.d 



71,213 
30,203 

8,638 
23,192 
30.074 
30,719 
18.094 
27,984 
12, 144 
20, 243 
52, 707 
14,608 

6,783 

9,174 

5.853 

148,322 

21, 781 

18,774 

142, 401 

91,273 

50.785 

7,396 

8.143 

65,975 

8,359 

34,507 

5.715 

6,047 

263,409 

12,857 

56,814 

112,732 

111,478 

56.294 

4,264 

10, 801 

49,811 

4,323 

7,675 

24,279 

14,013 

10,184 

20.360 

16.228 

2.786 

68,120 

35,963 

20,109 

42,332 

15,870 



4,227,586 



4» 

•9 





2,206 

1, 95> 

8,875 

1,089 

40 

554 

8,214 

636 

122 

280 

4,499 

402 

120 

1,373 

267 

175 

1,672 

500 

2, 246 

1,907 

10,226 

2,894 

610 

6,105 

447 

2,804 

2,853 

1,725 

54 

734 

457 

3,261 

949 

5,224 

4,051 

4,681 

4,099 

440 

778 

2,541 

695 

487 

4,095 

2,344 

1,461 

220 

5,119 

801 

3,992 

1,028 



293,263 



•s 





6 -s 

s 





1, 168, 140 
161,394 
715, 078 
341, 670 
543,095 
824, 170 
1, 277, 617 
645,035 
533. 570 
802,306 
393,637 
267,350 
159,190 
402. 571 
111,610 
197,500 
327,340 
1, 111, 840 
244, 260 
1, 079, 450 
1, 783. 297 
656,877 
205.205 
620.105 
766,940 
1, 152, 350 
1,670,414 
165, 740 
127,480 
876, 405 
367,220 
282,300 
273,549 
1, 022, 102 
1,859,090 
385,615 
671,484 
328,940 
134, 140 
890,835 
320,710 
160,310 
559,809 
211,405 
300,198 
389.013 
651,570 
265, 751 
273,674 
325,570 
239,690 



72, 892, 157 



« 


.a 



a 
O 



66,042 

23,345 

22,107 

18,279 

1.5»0 

2,700 

38,789 

51,690 

17,996 

1,123 

49.285 

10,094 

733 

37.711 

1,367 

95 

19, 798 

50,122 

27,205 

45, 195 

74.270 

64,634 

7,687 

6,188 

45,853 

10,705 

14.873 

800 

624 

119, 874 

33,933 

6.188 

12,263 

172, 646 

60.918 

7,159 

8,422 

2,028 

1.580 

25,583 

3,699 

6,299 

19,102 

2,559 

7,928 

26,696 

109,370 

14,640 

5,482 

54,294 

6,363 



3, 680, 870 



o 

m 
rs 



o 



50 



o 
§ 

o 
p. 

o 

(•» 

s 
.o 
o 

H 



453,253 

5,477 

19, 513 

60,100 



250 
8,610 



20 



100 



10 



9,767 



38,625 

1, 325. 384 

587,571 

3,888 

2,400 

670 

152 

4,955 

179. 454 

7,915 

3,320 

4.285 

30,020 

1,320 

1, 194, 715 

5,220 

18,320 

2,600 

49,021 

46,045 

1, 918, 715 

338,865 

3,714 

5,425 

362, 150 

19,963 

9,070 

37,250 

10,000 

479, 010 

118,820 

30,207 

16,600 

11, 495 

391,597 

179,920 

12,129 

203,549 

27,025 

6,590 

4.955 

eC8. 518 

1,460 

54,519 

97,360 

10,681 



25, 086, 196 



o 

g ^ 

-I 

<M 

O 



100 



9 



44 



25 
240 

16 

5 

100 

249 



30 
110 



10,877 
19,100 



41,188 





I 



35,680 

6,633 

26,271 

13,625 

2,GU6 

22,274 

45, 885 

24,404 

15,211 

40 

11,202 

6,144 

5,797 

12,389 

4,024 

811 

14.820 

35.129 

10,981 

58,805 

31,696 

21,932 

5,634 

18, 524 

30,613 

36,394 

36,655 

5,323 

4,721 

17,750 

12,054 

13, 918 

8,980 

7,643 

37,834 

17,267 

21,017 

4,499 

5,894 

27,270 

9,114 

5,186 

26,006 

6,049 

9,194 

9,484 

16,045 

14.323 

11,021 

15, 418 

9,496 



2,069,778 





.o 

If 

II 

•a «« 
§ 

a 

I? 



480 

627 

1,784 

90 

589 

5 

2,180 

536 

354 

320 

16 

10 

502 

666 

90 

550 

1,993 

81 

1,390 

531 

1,353 

61 

10 

677 

381 

878 

4,248 

120 

909 

1,750 

261 

480 

926 

1,012 

3,504 



1,038 
487 
865 

3,219 

2,787 
566 

1,014 
36 
255 
433 
439 
365 
706 
279 
558 



107,999 



1 



•g 



(9 J5 



26,544 

5,982 

22,938 

7.856 

7.155 

17,816 

19,232 

14,526 

9,888 

6,155 

8,056 

7,665 

2,260 

21, 162 

2,099 

3,248 

16,011 

6,534 

10,406 

12,345 

44,887 

12.914 

4,322 

14,649 

13.062 

18.644 

24,313 

&78d 

2,631 

37,301 

9,479 

12,170 

15,264 

269,343 

29,387 

10,643 

12,558 

10.342 

4,968 

27,949 

8,020 

4,695 

18,640 

2,647 

7,560 

6,167 

23,330 

13,086 

6,008 

7,140 

4,955 



Ji 



B I 

00 



63 

64 
65 
66 
67 
68 
69 
70 
71 
73 
73 
74 
75 
76 
77 
78 
79 
60 
81 
83 
83 



2,480 
2,407 
1,093 
2,280 
2.944 
2,519 
5.268 
3,896 
2,559 
1,617 
2,750 

164 
4,142 
. 638 
1,761 
3,481 
3,963 
1,760 
1,683 
3,205 
8,602 
3,972 1 84 

698 85 

309 
2,803 
6,271 
S,857 

728 
3,397 
4,001 
1,362 
3,746 
2,276 
22,172 
2,3C8 

160 

573 
4,576 
S^963 
2,319 
11,536 
1,762 

578 
1,491 
1,887 

500 
1,916 
1,260 
5,760 
2,752 

525 



86 

87 

88 

89 

90 

91 

93 

93 

94 

95 

96 

97 

98 

99 

100 

101 

102 

103 

104 

105 

106 

101 

108 

109 

110 

111 

113 

113 



1,990,850 



335,102 



94 



STATE OF MISSOURI 



AGRICULTURE. 



63 
Gi 
65 

60 
G7 
68 
69 
70 
71 
72 
73 
74 
75 
16 

n 

78 

79 

80 

8L 

82 

83 

84 

85 

86 

87 

88 

89 

90 

91 

92 

93 

94 

95 

96 

97 

98 

99 

100 

101 

102 

103 

104 

105 

106 

107 

106 

109 

110 

111 

112 

113 



COUNTIES. 



Morton 

McDonald .... 

Mercer 

Miller 

MiMKisalppi 

Monito